Gene Symbol: EDS16
Description: ADC synthase superfamily protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Wildermuth M, Dewdney J, Wu G, Ausubel F. Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence. Nature. 2001;414:562-5 pubmed
    ..Some bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesize SA using isochorismate synthase (ICS) and pyruvate lyase...
  2. Mishina T, Zeier J. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition rather than development of tissue necrosis contributes to bacterial induction of systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;50:500-13 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that PAMPs significantly contribute to SAR initiation in Arabidopsis and that tissue necroses at inoculation sites are dispensable for SAR activation. ..
  3. Genger R, Jurkowski G, McDowell J, Lu H, Jung H, Greenberg J, et al. Signaling pathways that regulate the enhanced disease resistance of Arabidopsis "defense, no death" mutants. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:1285-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the contributions of NPR1, SID2 (EDS16), NDR1, and EIN2 to dnd phenotypes...
  4. Chen H, Xue L, Chintamanani S, Germain H, Lin H, Cui H, et al. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 repress SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 expression to negatively regulate plant innate immunity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2527-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analyses indicated that SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 (SID2), which encodes isochorismate synthase required for pathogen-induced biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA), is a key target of EIN3 and EIL1...
  5. Gross J, Cho W, Lezhneva L, Falk J, Krupinska K, Shinozaki K, et al. A plant locus essential for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) biosynthesis originated from a fusion of four eubacterial genes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, gene fusion, duplication, and fission events adapted a eubacterial multienzymatic system to the metabolic requirements of plants...
  6. Garcion C, Lohmann A, Lamodière E, Catinot J, Buchala A, Doermann P, et al. Characterization and biological function of the ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE2 gene of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:1279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..derive mainly from isochorismate, itself produced from chorismate through the activity of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1)...
  7. Ichimura K, Casais C, Peck S, Shinozaki K, Shirasu K. MEKK1 is required for MPK4 activation and regulates tissue-specific and temperature-dependent cell death in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36969-76 pubmed
    ..cell death and H(2)O(2) accumulation that are partly dependent on both RAR1, a key component in resistance protein function, and SID2, an isochorismate synthase required for salicylic acid production upon pathogen infection.
  8. Wang X, Gao J, Zhu Z, Dong X, Wang X, Ren G, et al. TCP transcription factors are critical for the coordinated regulation of isochorismate synthase 1 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2015;82:151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism of SA synthesis and signaling, we used a yeast one-hybrid system to screen for regulators of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), a gene encoding the key enzyme in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  9. Abreu M, Munné Bosch S. Salicylic acid deficiency in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants increases seed yield in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:1261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that (i) the sid2 gene, which encodes for isochorismate synthase, plays a central role in salicylic acid biosynthesis during plant development in A...

More Information


  1. van Verk M, Bol J, Linthorst H. WRKY transcription factors involved in activation of SA biosynthesis genes. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:89 pubmed publisher
    ..in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate through the action of isochorismate synthase, encoded by the ICS1 gene...
  2. Adie B, Pérez Pérez J, Perez Perez M, Godoy M, Sanchez Serrano J, Schmelz E, et al. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of defenses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1665-81 pubmed
    ..The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. ..
  3. Lu H, Salimian S, Gamelin E, Wang G, Fedorowski J, LaCourse W, et al. Genetic analysis of acd6-1 reveals complex defense networks and leads to identification of novel defense genes in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;58:401-12 pubmed publisher
    ..to identify two genes disrupted in acd6-1 suppressor (sup) mutants: one encodes a known SA biosynthetic component (SID2) and the other encodes an uncharacterized putative metalloprotease (At5g20660)...
  4. Chaouch S, Queval G, Vanderauwera S, Mhamdi A, Vandorpe M, Langlois Meurinne M, et al. Peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide is coupled to biotic defense responses by ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 in a daylength-related manner. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1692-705 pubmed publisher
    ..H(2)O(2) was modified by introducing secondary mutations into the cat2 background and was completely absent in cat2 sid2 double mutants, in which ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1) activity is defective...
  5. Prithiviraj B, Bais H, Jha A, Vivanco J. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity on Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated either by a direct effect of salicylic acid on the pathogen or by SA-dependent, NPR1-independent host responses. Plant J. 2005;42:417-32 pubmed publisher
    ..SA) accumulation], and 35S-LOX2- (defective in jasmonic acid production and hyper-accumulator of SA), and mutants ics1 (depleted in SA accumulation), and npr1-1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related protein) we show that resistance ..
  6. Kim Y, Park S, Gilmour S, Thomashow M. Roles of CAMTA transcription factors and salicylic acid in configuring the low-temperature transcriptome and freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2013;75:364-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that this chilling-induced SA biosynthesis proceeds through the isochorismate synthase (ICS) pathway, with cold induction of ICS1 (which encodes ICS), and two genes encoding transcription ..
  7. Gawronski P, Górecka M, Bederska M, Rusaczonek A, Slesak I, Kruk J, et al. Isochorismate synthase 1 is required for thylakoid organization, optimal plastoquinone redox status, and state transitions in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:3669-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1) is a crucial enzyme in the salicylic acid (SA) synthesis pathway, and thus it is important for immune defences...
  8. Consonni C, Humphry M, Hartmann H, Livaja M, Durner J, Westphal L, et al. Conserved requirement for a plant host cell protein in powdery mildew pathogenesis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:716-20 pubmed
  9. Melotto M, Underwood W, Koczan J, Nomura K, He S. Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion. Cell. 2006;126:969-80 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that supports a model in which stomata, as part of an integral innate immune system, act as a barrier against bacterial infection. ..
  10. Macaulay K, Heath G, Ciulli A, Murphy A, Abell C, Carr J, et al. The biochemical properties of the two Arabidopsis thaliana isochorismate synthases. Biochem J. 2017;474:1579-1590 pubmed publisher
    ..A key enzyme for SA biosynthesis is isochorismate synthase (ICS), which converts chorismate into isochorismate, and for which there are two genes in Arabidopsis ..