DCL1

Summary

Gene Symbol: DCL1
Description: dicer-like 1
Alias: ABNORMAL SUSPENSOR 1, ASU1, ATDCL1, CAF, CARPEL FACTORY, DICER-LIKE 1, EMB60, EMB76, EMBRYO DEFECTIVE 60, EMBRYO DEFECTIVE 76, SHORT INTEGUMENTS 1, SIN1, SUS1, SUSPENSOR 1, T25K16.4, T25K16_4, dicer-like 1, dicer-like 1
Species: thale cress
Products:     DCL1

Top Publications

  1. Ronemus M, Vaughn M, Martienssen R. MicroRNA-targeted and small interfering RNA-mediated mRNA degradation is regulated by argonaute, dicer, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1559-74 pubmed
    ..wild-type plants but not in ago1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutants rdr2 and rdr6, or the Dicer-like mutants dcl1 and dcl3...
  2. Schmitz R, Hong L, Fitzpatrick K, Amasino R. DICER-LIKE 1 and DICER-LIKE 3 redundantly act to promote flowering via repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2007;176:1359-62 pubmed
    ..This delayed-flowering phenotype is similar to that of autonomous-pathway mutants, and the flowering delay can be overcome by vernalization. ..
  3. Qu F, Ye X, Morris T. Arabidopsis DRB4, AGO1, AGO7, and RDR6 participate in a DCL4-initiated antiviral RNA silencing pathway negatively regulated by DCL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, we found that DCL1 represses antiviral RNA silencing through negatively regulating the expression of DCL4 and DCL3...
  4. Wang L, Song X, Gu L, Li X, Cao S, Chu C, et al. NOT2 proteins promote polymerase II-dependent transcription and interact with multiple MicroRNA biogenesis factors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:715-27 pubmed publisher
    ..NOT2 was identified by its interaction with the Piwi/Ago/Zwille domain of DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1), an interaction that is conserved between rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana...
  5. Hiraguri A, Itoh R, Kondo N, Nomura Y, Aizawa D, Murai Y, et al. Specific interactions between Dicer-like proteins and HYL1/DRB-family dsRNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;57:173-88 pubmed
    ..properties of nine such gene products, each containing one or two dsRBMs: four Arabidopsis Dicer-like proteins (DCL1-4), Arabidopsis HYL1 and four of its homologs (DRB2, DRB4, DRB5 and OsDRB1)...
  6. Liu C, Axtell M, Fedoroff N. The helicase and RNaseIIIa domains of Arabidopsis Dicer-Like1 modulate catalytic parameters during microRNA biogenesis. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:748-58 pubmed publisher
    Dicer-Like1 (DCL1), an RNaseIII endonuclease, and Hyponastic Leaves1 (HYL1), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, are core components of the plant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis machinery...
  7. Yu B, Bi L, Zheng B, Ji L, Chevalier D, Agarwal M, et al. The FHA domain proteins DAWDLE in Arabidopsis and SNIP1 in humans act in small RNA biogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10073-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike mutants of genes known to participate in the processing of miRNA precursors, such as dcl1, hyponastic leaves1, and serrate, ddl mutants show reduced levels of pri-miRNAs as well as mature miRNAs...
  8. Qin H, Chen F, Huan X, Machida S, Song J, Yuan Y. Structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana DCL4 DUF283 domain reveals a noncanonical double-stranded RNA-binding fold for protein-protein interaction. RNA. 2010;16:474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..binds to double-stranded RNA-binding domain 1 (dsRBD1) of Arabidopsis DRB4, whereas the DUF283 domain of DCL1 specifically binds to dsRBD2 of Arabidopsis HYL1...
  9. Zhang S, Xie M, Ren G, Yu B. CDC5, a DNA binding protein, positively regulates posttranscriptional processing and/or transcription of primary microRNA transcripts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CDC5 may have dual roles in miRNA biogenesis: functioning as a positive transcription factor of MIR and/or acting as a component of the DICER-LIKE1 complex to enhance primary miRNA processing. ..
  10. Bouche N, Lauressergues D, Gasciolli V, Vaucheret H. An antagonistic function for Arabidopsis DCL2 in development and a new function for DCL4 in generating viral siRNAs. EMBO J. 2006;25:3347-56 pubmed
    ..Analyses of single, double, triple and quadruple dcl mutants exposed DCL1 as a sophisticated enzyme capable of producing both microRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs, unlike the three other DCLs, ..

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. Ronemus M, Vaughn M, Martienssen R. MicroRNA-targeted and small interfering RNA-mediated mRNA degradation is regulated by argonaute, dicer, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1559-74 pubmed
    ..wild-type plants but not in ago1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutants rdr2 and rdr6, or the Dicer-like mutants dcl1 and dcl3...
  2. Schmitz R, Hong L, Fitzpatrick K, Amasino R. DICER-LIKE 1 and DICER-LIKE 3 redundantly act to promote flowering via repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2007;176:1359-62 pubmed
    ..This delayed-flowering phenotype is similar to that of autonomous-pathway mutants, and the flowering delay can be overcome by vernalization. ..
  3. Qu F, Ye X, Morris T. Arabidopsis DRB4, AGO1, AGO7, and RDR6 participate in a DCL4-initiated antiviral RNA silencing pathway negatively regulated by DCL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, we found that DCL1 represses antiviral RNA silencing through negatively regulating the expression of DCL4 and DCL3...
  4. Wang L, Song X, Gu L, Li X, Cao S, Chu C, et al. NOT2 proteins promote polymerase II-dependent transcription and interact with multiple MicroRNA biogenesis factors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:715-27 pubmed publisher
    ..NOT2 was identified by its interaction with the Piwi/Ago/Zwille domain of DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1), an interaction that is conserved between rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana...
  5. Hiraguri A, Itoh R, Kondo N, Nomura Y, Aizawa D, Murai Y, et al. Specific interactions between Dicer-like proteins and HYL1/DRB-family dsRNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;57:173-88 pubmed
    ..properties of nine such gene products, each containing one or two dsRBMs: four Arabidopsis Dicer-like proteins (DCL1-4), Arabidopsis HYL1 and four of its homologs (DRB2, DRB4, DRB5 and OsDRB1)...
  6. Liu C, Axtell M, Fedoroff N. The helicase and RNaseIIIa domains of Arabidopsis Dicer-Like1 modulate catalytic parameters during microRNA biogenesis. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:748-58 pubmed publisher
    Dicer-Like1 (DCL1), an RNaseIII endonuclease, and Hyponastic Leaves1 (HYL1), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, are core components of the plant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis machinery...
  7. Yu B, Bi L, Zheng B, Ji L, Chevalier D, Agarwal M, et al. The FHA domain proteins DAWDLE in Arabidopsis and SNIP1 in humans act in small RNA biogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10073-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike mutants of genes known to participate in the processing of miRNA precursors, such as dcl1, hyponastic leaves1, and serrate, ddl mutants show reduced levels of pri-miRNAs as well as mature miRNAs...
  8. Qin H, Chen F, Huan X, Machida S, Song J, Yuan Y. Structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana DCL4 DUF283 domain reveals a noncanonical double-stranded RNA-binding fold for protein-protein interaction. RNA. 2010;16:474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..binds to double-stranded RNA-binding domain 1 (dsRBD1) of Arabidopsis DRB4, whereas the DUF283 domain of DCL1 specifically binds to dsRBD2 of Arabidopsis HYL1...
  9. Zhang S, Xie M, Ren G, Yu B. CDC5, a DNA binding protein, positively regulates posttranscriptional processing and/or transcription of primary microRNA transcripts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CDC5 may have dual roles in miRNA biogenesis: functioning as a positive transcription factor of MIR and/or acting as a component of the DICER-LIKE1 complex to enhance primary miRNA processing. ..
  10. Bouche N, Lauressergues D, Gasciolli V, Vaucheret H. An antagonistic function for Arabidopsis DCL2 in development and a new function for DCL4 in generating viral siRNAs. EMBO J. 2006;25:3347-56 pubmed
    ..Analyses of single, double, triple and quadruple dcl mutants exposed DCL1 as a sophisticated enzyme capable of producing both microRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs, unlike the three other DCLs, ..
  11. Zhu H, Zhou Y, Castillo González C, Lu A, Ge C, Zhao Y, et al. Bidirectional processing of pri-miRNAs with branched terminal loops by Arabidopsis Dicer-like1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:1106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike canonical processing of pri-miRNAs, terminal loop-branched pri-miRNAs can be processed by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1) complexes bidirectionally from base to loop and from loop to base, resulting in productive and abortive processing ..
  12. Laubinger S, Zeller G, Henz S, Buechel S, Sachsenberg T, Wang J, et al. Global effects of the small RNA biogenesis machinery on the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis revealed a surprising number of common targets in dcl1 and dcl2 dcl3 dcl4 triple mutants...
  13. Allen E, Xie Z, Gustafson A, Carrington J. microRNA-directed phasing during trans-acting siRNA biogenesis in plants. Cell. 2005;121:207-21 pubmed
  14. Kurihara Y, Takashi Y, Watanabe Y. The interaction between DCL1 and HYL1 is important for efficient and precise processing of pri-miRNA in plant microRNA biogenesis. RNA. 2006;12:206-12 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the relationship between the Arabidopsis microRNA- (miRNA) producing enzyme DCL1 and the dsRNA binding protein HYL1...
  15. Liu Q, Yan Q, Liu Y, Hong F, Sun Z, Shi L, et al. Complementation of HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 by double-strand RNA-binding domains of DICER-LIKE1 in nuclear dicing bodies. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..miRNAs are processed from primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs), mainly by the ribonuclease III-like enzyme DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) and its specific partner, HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1), a double-strand RNA-binding protein, both of which contain ..
  16. Song L, Han M, Lesicka J, Fedoroff N. Arabidopsis primary microRNA processing proteins HYL1 and DCL1 define a nuclear body distinct from the Cajal body. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5437-42 pubmed
    ..work we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis nuclear RNA-binding protein HYL1 and the nuclear RNase III enzyme DCL1 in processing of primary miRNA (pri-miR171a)...
  17. Henderson I, Zhang X, Lu C, Johnson L, Meyers B, Green P, et al. Dissecting Arabidopsis thaliana DICER function in small RNA processing, gene silencing and DNA methylation patterning. Nat Genet. 2006;38:721-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we study the role of the four Arabidopsis thaliana DICER-LIKE genes (DCL1-DCL4) in these processes...
  18. Chen X. MicroRNA biogenesis and function in plants. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5923-31 pubmed
    ..A large category of miRNA targets consists of genes encoding transcription factors that play important roles in patterning the plant form. ..
  19. Fang Y, Spector D. Identification of nuclear dicing bodies containing proteins for microRNA biogenesis in living Arabidopsis plants. Curr Biol. 2007;17:818-23 pubmed
    ..the second step cytoplasmic, whereas in plant cells, both steps occur in the nucleus via the enzyme Dicer-like1 (DCL1) and other proteins including the zinc-finger-domain protein Serrate (SE) and a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding-..
  20. Park W, Li J, Song R, Messing J, Chen X. CARPEL FACTORY, a Dicer homolog, and HEN1, a novel protein, act in microRNA metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1484-95 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in CARPEL FACTORY (CAF), a Dicer homolog, and those in a novel gene, HEN1, result in similar, multifaceted developmental defects,..
  21. Nodine M, Bartel D. MicroRNAs prevent precocious gene expression and enable pattern formation during plant embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2678-92 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis embryos lacking DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1), which is required for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, arrest early in development...
  22. Fujioka Y, Utsumi M, Ohba Y, Watanabe Y. Location of a possible miRNA processing site in SmD3/SmB nuclear bodies in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:1243-53 pubmed
    ..In plants, it has been reported that Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1) and SERRATE (SE) are involved in the production of miRNAs...
  23. Drusin S, Suarez I, Gauto D, Rasia R, Moreno D. dsRNA-protein interactions studied by molecular dynamics techniques. Unravelling dsRNA recognition by DCL1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016;596:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-terminal dsRBD of DCL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (DCL1-1), in contrast to other studied dsRBDs, lacks a stable structure, behaving as an ..
  24. Suarez I, Burdisso P, Benoit M, Boisbouvier J, Rasia R. Induced folding in RNA recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana DCL1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:6607-19 pubmed publisher
    b>DCL1 is the ribonuclease that carries out miRNA biogenesis in plants. The enzyme has two tandem double stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) in its C-terminus...
  25. Zhang S, Liu Y, Yu B. PRL1, an RNA-binding protein, positively regulates the accumulation of miRNAs and siRNAs in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004841 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PRL1 interacts with the pri-miRNA processor, DCL1, and the dsRNA processors (DCL3 and DCL4)...
  26. BaranauskÄ— S, MickutÄ— M, Plotnikova A, Finke A, Venclovas Ä, KlimaÅ¡auskas S, et al. Functional mapping of the plant small RNA methyltransferase: HEN1 physically interacts with HYL1 and DICER-LIKE 1 proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:2802-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we find that HEN1 forms a complex with DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1) ribonuclease, another key protein involved in miRNA biogenesis machinery...
  27. Lackey E, Ng D, Chen Z. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of DCL1 and AGO1 induces developmental changes in resynthesized Arabidopsis allotetraploids. New Phytol. 2010;186:207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..in Arabidopsis using RNA interference (RNAi) that downregulates the expression of miRNA biogenesis genes, including DCL1 and AGO1...
  28. Pouch Pélissier M, Pélissier T, Elmayan T, Vaucheret H, Boko D, Jantsch M, et al. SINE RNA induces severe developmental defects in Arabidopsis thaliana and interacts with HYL1 (DRB1), a key member of the DCL1 complex. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000096 pubmed publisher
    ..interacts with HYL1 (DRB1), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein (dsRBP) that associates with the Dicer homologue DCL1 to produce microRNAs...
  29. Blevins T, Rajeswaran R, Shivaprasad P, Beknazariants D, Si Ammour A, Park H, et al. Four plant Dicers mediate viral small RNA biogenesis and DNA virus induced silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:6233-46 pubmed
    ..interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of specific size classes (21, 22 and 24 nt) are produced by all four DCLs, including DCL1, known to process microRNA precursors. Specifically, DCL1 generates 21 nt siRNAs from the CaMV leader region...
  30. Seefried W, Willmann M, Clausen R, Jenik P. Global Regulation of Embryonic Patterning in Arabidopsis by MicroRNAs. Plant Physiol. 2014;165:670-687 pubmed
    ..extend those analyses by characterizing embryos mutant for a strong hypomorphic allele of DICER-LIKE1 (dcl1-15)...
  31. Mlotshwa S, Schauer S, Smith T, Mallory A, Herr J, Roth B, et al. Ectopic DICER-LIKE1 expression in P1/HC-Pro Arabidopsis rescues phenotypic anomalies but not defects in microRNA and silencing pathways. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2873-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate the effects of overexpressing DCL1, one of four Dicers in Arabidopsis thaliana, on P1/HC-Pro-induced defects in development and small RNA metabolism...
  32. Yang X, Ren W, Zhao Q, Zhang P, Wu F, He Y. Homodimerization of HYL1 ensures the correct selection of cleavage sites in primary miRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:12224-36 pubmed publisher
    ..HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1) is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that forms a complex with DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) and SERRATE (SE) to process primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) into mature miRNA...
  33. Katiyar Agarwal S, Gao S, Vivian Smith A, Jin H. A novel class of bacteria-induced small RNAs in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2007;21:3123-34 pubmed
    ..piRNAs/rasiRNAs, which is dicer independent and requires PIWI subfamily proteins, generation of AtlsiRNA-1 requires DCL1, DCL4, and the ARGONAUTE subfamily protein AGO7. It also depends on HYL1, HEN1, HST1, RDR6, and Pol IV...
  34. Wu L, Mao L, Qi Y. Roles of dicer-like and argonaute proteins in TAS-derived small interfering RNA-triggered DNA methylation. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:990-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More important, we found that DCL1 is the only DCL protein that is required for TAS3 loci DNA methylation, and all four DCLs exert combinatory ..
  35. Sun Z, Guo T, Liu Y, Liu Q, Fang Y. The Roles of Arabidopsis CDF2 in Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Primary MicroRNAs. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005598 pubmed publisher
    ..primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) by RNA polymerase II,then cleaved in the nucleus into mature miRNAs by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1)...
  36. Burdisso P, Suarez I, Bologna N, Palatnik J, Bersch B, Rasia R. Second double-stranded RNA binding domain of dicer-like ribonuclease 1: structural and biochemical characterization. Biochemistry. 2012;51:10159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a structural characterization of the second double-stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD) of DCL1, which is presumed to participate in pri-micro-RNA recognition and subcellular localization of this protein...
  37. Li Z, Wang S, Cheng J, Su C, Zhong S, Liu Q, et al. Intron Lariat RNA Inhibits MicroRNA Biogenesis by Sequestering the Dicing Complex in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006422 pubmed publisher
    ..on expression of miRNA biogenesis genes or primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs), but the association of pri-miRNAs with the DCL1/HYL1 dicing complex was impaired...
  38. Ray A, Lang J, Golden T, Ray S. SHORT INTEGUMENT (SIN1), a gene required for ovule development in Arabidopsis, also controls flowering time. Development. 1996;122:2631-8 pubmed
    The short integument (sin1) mutation causes a female-specific infertility, and a defect in the control of time to flowering in Arabidopsis...
  39. Yan J, Wang P, Wang B, Hsu C, Tang K, Zhang H, et al. The SnRK2 kinases modulate miRNA accumulation in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006753 pubmed publisher
    ..miRNA biogenesis in plants requires a processing complex that consists of the core components DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1), SERRATE (SE) and HYPONASTIC LEAVES (HYL1)...
  40. Dunoyer P, Himber C, Ruiz Ferrer V, Alioua A, Voinnet O. Intra- and intercellular RNA interference in Arabidopsis thaliana requires components of the microRNA and heterochromatic silencing pathways. Nat Genet. 2007;39:848-56 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the genetics of RNAi is distinct from that of antiviral silencing and propose that this experimental silencing pathway has a direct endogenous plant counterpart. ..
  41. Iwata Y, Takahashi M, Fedoroff N, Hamdan S. Dissecting the interactions of SERRATE with RNA and DICER-LIKE 1 in Arabidopsis microRNA precursor processing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:9129-40 pubmed publisher
    ..and precise microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in Arabidopsis is mediated by the RNaseIII-family enzyme DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1), double-stranded RNA-binding protein HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1 and the zinc-finger (ZnF) domain-containing protein ..
  42. Tagami Y, Motose H, Watanabe Y. A dominant mutation in DCL1 suppresses the hyl1 mutant phenotype by promoting the processing of miRNA. RNA. 2009;15:450-8 pubmed publisher
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are sequence-specific negative regulators of gene expression generated by DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) with the assistance of a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1), in Arabidopsis...
  43. Liu Y, Liu Q, Yan Q, Shi L, Fang Y. Nucleolus-tethering system (NoTS) reveals that assembly of photobodies follows a self-organization model. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1366-73 pubmed publisher
  44. Machida S, Yuan Y. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana Dawdle forkhead-associated domain reveals a conserved phospho-threonine recognition cleft for dicer-like 1 binding. Mol Plant. 2013;6:1290-300 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments performed in Nicotiana benthamiana show that the DDL FHA domain co-immuno-precipitates with DCL1 fragments containing the predicted pThr+3(Ile/Val/Leu/Asp) motif...
  45. Willmann M, Mehalick A, Packer R, Jenik P. MicroRNAs regulate the timing of embryo maturation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:1871-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data point to a common negative regulatory module of maturation during early embryogenesis and seedling development. ..
  46. Fang X, Shi Y, Lu X, Chen Z, Qi Y. CMA33/XCT Regulates Small RNA Production through Modulating the Transcription of Dicer-Like Genes in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. 2015;8:1227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..There are three major classes of sRNAs in Arabidopsis: DCL1-dependent microRNA (miRNA), DCL3-dependent heterochromatic siRNA (hc-siRNA), and DCL4-dependent trans-acting siRNA (..
  47. Jacobsen S, Running M, Meyerowitz E. Disruption of an RNA helicase/RNAse III gene in Arabidopsis causes unregulated cell division in floral meristems. Development. 1999;126:5231-43 pubmed
    ..A new recessive mutant, carpel factory (caf), converts the floral meristems to an indeterminate state...