Gene Symbol: CYT1
Description: Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase family protein
Alias: CYTOKINESIS DEFECTIVE 1, EMB101, EMBRYO DEFECTIVE 101, GDP-MANNOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE 1, GMP1, SENSITIVE TO OZONE 1, SOZ1, T5I7.7, T5I7_7, VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE 1, VTC1, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Pavet V, Olmos E, Kiddle G, Mowla S, Kumar S, Antoniw J, et al. Ascorbic acid deficiency activates cell death and disease resistance responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1291-303 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low vitamin C mutants, vtc1 and vtc2, which have between 10% and 25% of wild-type ascorbic acid, exhibit microlesions, express pathogenesis-..
  2. Huang C, He W, Guo J, Chang X, Su P, Zhang L. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in an ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:3041-9 pubmed
  3. Qin C, Qian W, Wang W, Wu Y, Yu C, Jiang X, et al. GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase is a genetic determinant of ammonium sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis showed that defective N-glycosylation of proteins, unfolded protein response, and cell death in the roots are likely important downstream molecular events involved in the growth inhibition of Arabidopsis by NH(4)(+). ..
  4. Conklin P, Norris S, Wheeler G, Williams E, Smirnoff N, Last R. Genetic evidence for the role of GDP-mannose in plant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4198-203 pubmed
    ..The best-characterized of these mutants (vtc1) contains approximately 25% of wild-type AsA and is defective in AsA biosynthesis...
  5. Lukowitz W, Nickle T, Meinke D, Last R, Conklin P, Somerville C. Arabidopsis cyt1 mutants are deficient in a mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase and point to a requirement of N-linked glycosylation for cellulose biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:2262-7 pubmed
    Arabidopsis cyt1 mutants have a complex phenotype indicative of a severe defect in cell wall biogenesis...
  6. Larkindale J, Hall J, Knight M, Vierling E. Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:882-97 pubmed
    ..Ethylene signaling mutants (ein2 and etr1) and reactive oxygen metabolism mutants (vtc1, vtc2, npq1, and cad2) were more defective in basal than acquired thermotolerance, especially under high light...
  7. Botanga C, Bethke G, Chen Z, Gallie D, Fiehn O, Glazebrook J. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola reveals that ascorbate reduces disease severity. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2012;25:1628-38 pubmed publisher
    ..GABA promoted, and ascorbate strongly inhibited, fungal growth in culture. Arabidopsis vtc1 and vtc2 mutants, that have low levels of ascorbate, were more susceptible to A. brassicicola...
  8. Wang J, Yu Y, Zhang Z, Quan R, Zhang H, Ma L, et al. Arabidopsis CSN5B interacts with VTC1 and modulates ascorbic acid synthesis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:625-36 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana and find that alterations in the protein levels of the AsA biosynthetic enzyme GDP-Man pyrophosphorylase (VTC1) are associated with changes in AsA contents in light and darkness...
  9. Olmos E, Kiddle G, Pellny T, Kumar S, Foyer C. Modulation of plant morphology, root architecture, and cell structure by low vitamin C in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:1645-55 pubmed
    ..and leaf ultrastructure were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, which have constitutively moderately low (vtc1) or very low (vtc2) leaf AA contents compared with the wild type...

More Information


  1. Barth C, Gouzd Z, Steele H, Imperio R. A mutation in GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase causes conditional hypersensitivity to ammonium, resulting in Arabidopsis root growth inhibition, altered ammonium metabolism, and hormone homeostasis. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:379-94 pubmed publisher the quiescent centre of the root, it was hypothesized that the AA-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants vtc1-1, vtc2-1, vtc3-1, and vtc4-1 have altered root growth...
  2. Li S, Wang J, Yu Y, Wang F, Dong J, Huang R. D27E mutation of VTC1 impairs the interaction with CSN5B and enhances ascorbic acid biosynthesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2016;92:473-482 pubmed
    Our previous investigation revealed that GDP-Man pyrophosphorylase (VTC1), a vital ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis enzyme, could be degraded through interaction with the photomorphogenic factor COP9 signalosome subunit 5B (CSN5B) in the ..
  3. Sasaki Sekimoto Y, Taki N, Obayashi T, Aono M, Matsumoto F, Sakurai N, et al. Coordinated activation of metabolic pathways for antioxidants and defence compounds by jasmonates and their roles in stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2005;44:653-68 pubmed
    ..Compared with the wild type, opr3 mutants were more sensitive to O3 exposure. These results suggest that the coordinated activation of the metabolic pathways mediated by jasmonates provides resistance to environmental stresses. ..
  4. Zhao S, Liu L. Expression and crystallographic studies of the Arabidopsis thaliana GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase VTC1. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2016;72:795-798 pubmed
    ..This enzyme is a key regulatory target in AsA biosynthesis and is encoded by VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE 1 (VTC1) in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Here, recombinant VTC1 was expressed, purified and crystallized...