Gene Symbol: CUL1
Description: cullin 1
Alias: ATCUL1, AUXIN RESISTANT 6, AXR6, T10P11.26, T10P11_26, cullin 1, cullin 1
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Shen W, Parmentier Y, Hellmann H, Lechner E, Dong A, Masson J, et al. Null mutation of AtCUL1 causes arrest in early embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:1916-28 pubmed
    ..The Arabidopsis genome contains 11 cullin-related genes. Complementation assays revealed that AtCUL1 but not AtCUL4 can functionally complement the yeast cdc53 mutant...
  2. Gray W, Hellmann H, Dharmasiri S, Estelle M. Role of the Arabidopsis RING-H2 protein RBX1 in RUB modification and SCF function. Plant Cell. 2002;14:2137-44 pubmed
    ..The cullin CUL1 is a subunit in SCF-type ubiquitin protein ligases (E3s), including the SCF(TIR1) complex, which is required for ..
  3. Ren C, Pan J, Peng W, Genschik P, Hobbie L, Hellmann H, et al. Point mutations in Arabidopsis Cullin1 reveal its essential role in jasmonate response. Plant J. 2005;42:514-24 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis there are 11 Cullin members (AtCUL). AtCUL1 was demonstrated to assemble into SCF complexes containing COI1, an F-box protein required for response to ..
  4. Fu X, Richards D, Fleck B, Xie D, Burton N, Harberd N. The Arabidopsis mutant sleepy1gar2-1 protein promotes plant growth by increasing the affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for DELLA protein substrates. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1406-18 pubmed
    ..Growth-promoting DELLA destruction is dependent on SLY1 availability, on the strength of the interaction between SLY1 and the DELLA target, and on promotion of the SCFSLY1-DELLA interaction by DELLA phosphorylation. ..
  5. Moon J, Zhao Y, Dai X, Zhang W, Gray W, Huq E, et al. A new CULLIN 1 mutant has altered responses to hormones and light in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:684-96 pubmed
    ..However, the extent of SCF participation in signaling networks is unclear. SCFs are composed of four subunits: CULLIN 1 (CUL1), ASK, RBX1, and an F-box protein...
  6. Esteve Bruna D, Perez Perez J, Ponce M, Micol J. incurvata13, a novel allele of AUXIN RESISTANT6, reveals a specific role for auxin and the SCF complex in Arabidopsis embryogenesis, vascular specification, and leaf flatness. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:1303-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that icu13 is a novel recessive allele of AUXIN RESISTANT6 (AXR6), which encodes CULLIN1, an invariable component of the SCF complex...
  7. Gingerich D, Gagne J, Salter D, Hellmann H, Estelle M, Ma L, et al. Cullins 3a and 3b assemble with members of the broad complex/tramtrack/bric-a-brac (BTB) protein family to form essential ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18810-21 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis defective in both CUL3a and CUL3b are embryo-lethal, indicating that BTB E3s are essential for plant development. ..
  8. Quint M, Ito H, Zhang W, Gray W. Characterization of a novel temperature-sensitive allele of the CUL1/AXR6 subunit of SCF ubiquitin-ligases. Plant J. 2005;43:371-83 pubmed
    ..the tir1-1 auxin response defect, we identified eta1/axr6-3, a recessive and temperature-sensitive mutation in the CUL1 core component of the SCF(TIR1) complex...
  9. Xu L, Liu F, Lechner E, Genschik P, Crosby W, Ma H, et al. The SCF(COI1) ubiquitin-ligase complexes are required for jasmonate response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1919-35 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that COI1 associates physically with AtCUL1, AtRbx1, and either of the Arabidopsis Skp1-like proteins ASK1 or ASK2 to assemble ubiquitin-ligase complexes, ..

More Information


  1. Hobbie L, McGovern M, Hurwitz L, Pierro A, Liu N, Bandyopadhyay A, et al. The axr6 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana define a gene involved in auxin response and early development. Development. 2000;127:23-32 pubmed
    ..We describe two mutants of Arabidopsis that define a novel gene called AUXIN-RESISTANT6 (AXR6) which maps to chromosome 4...
  2. Wang F, Zhu D, Huang X, Li S, Gong Y, Yao Q, et al. Biochemical insights on degradation of Arabidopsis DELLA proteins gained from a cell-free assay system. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro assay system could be widely adapted for dissecting cellular signaling pathways in which regulated proteolysis is a key recurrent theme. ..
  3. Gray W, del Pozo J, Walker L, Hobbie L, Risseeuw E, Banks T, et al. Identification of an SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex required for auxin response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1678-91 pubmed
    ..The complex consists of proteins related to yeast Skp1p and Cdc53p called ASK and AtCUL1, respectively, as well as the F-box protein TIR1...
  4. Gilkerson J, Hu J, Brown J, Jones A, Sun T, Callis J. Isolation and characterization of cul1-7, a recessive allele of CULLIN1 that disrupts SCF function at the C terminus of CUL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2009;181:945-63 pubmed publisher
    ..SCF ligases have four subunits: SKP1, CUL1, RBX1, and an F-box protein for substrate recognition...
  5. Zhang Y, Xu W, Li Z, Deng X, Wu W, Xue Y. F-box protein DOR functions as a novel inhibitory factor for abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure under drought stress in Arabidopsis,. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:2121-33 pubmed publisher
    ..a member of the S-locus F-box-like family related to AhSLF-S(2) and specifically interacting with ASK14 and CUL1. A null mutation in DOR resulted in a hypersensitive ABA response of stomatal closing and a substantial increase of ..
  6. Gray W, Muskett P, Chuang H, Parker J. Arabidopsis SGT1b is required for SCF(TIR1)-mediated auxin response. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1310-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ETA3/SGT1b is required for the SCF(TIR1)-mediated degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. ..
  7. Chuang H, Zhang W, Gray W. Arabidopsis ETA2, an apparent ortholog of the human cullin-interacting protein CAND1, is required for auxin responses mediated by the SCF(TIR1) ubiquitin ligase. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1883-97 pubmed
    ..Previous biochemical studies of CAND1 have suggested that it specifically binds to unmodified CUL1 to negatively regulate SCF assembly...
  8. Kim H, Chiang Y, Kieber J, Schaller G. SCF(KMD) controls cytokinin signaling by regulating the degradation of type-B response regulators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10028-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which an SCF(KMD) complex negatively regulates cytokinin responses by controlling levels of a key family of transcription factors. ..
  9. Hotton S, Castro M, Eigenheer R, Callis J. Recovery of DDB1a (damaged DNA binding protein1a) in a screen to identify novel RUB-modified proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant. 2012;5:1163-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Zhang W, Ito H, Quint M, Huang H, Noël L, Gray W. Genetic analysis of CAND1-CUL1 interactions in Arabidopsis supports a role for CAND1-mediated cycling of the SCFTIR1 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Cullin-Associated and Neddylation-Dissociated (CAND1) modulates SCF function through its interactions with the CUL1 subunit...
  11. Lechner E, Xie D, Grava S, Pigaglio E, Planchais S, Murray J, et al. The AtRbx1 protein is part of plant SCF complexes, and its down-regulation causes severe growth and developmental defects. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50069-80 pubmed
    ..and showed that AtRbx1 protein interacts physically with at least two members of the Arabidopsis cullin family (AtCul1 and AtCul4)...
  12. Harmon F, Imaizumi T, Gray W. CUL1 regulates TOC1 protein stability in the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Plant J. 2008;55:568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..within the plant oscillator, circadian rhythms were examined in the recessive, temperature-sensitive CUL1 allele axr6-3...
  13. Stirnberg P, Furner I, Ottoline Leyser H. MAX2 participates in an SCF complex which acts locally at the node to suppress shoot branching. Plant J. 2007;50:80-94 pubmed
    ..Myc-epitope-tagged MAX2 interacts with the core SCF subunits ASK1 and AtCUL1 in planta...
  14. Farras R, Ferrando A, Jasik J, Kleinow T, Okrész L, Tiburcio A, et al. SKP1-SnRK protein kinase interactions mediate proteasomal binding of a plant SCF ubiquitin ligase. EMBO J. 2001;20:2742-56 pubmed
    ..SKP1/ASK1 is co-immunoprecipitated with a cullin SCF subunit (AtCUL1) and an SnRK kinase, but not with PRL1 from Arabidopsis cell extracts...
  15. Wang X, Li W, Piqueras R, Cao K, Deng X, Wei N. Regulation of COP1 nuclear localization by the COP9 signalosome via direct interaction with CSN1. Plant J. 2009;58:655-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study advances our understanding of COP1 localization, and the molecular interactions between COP1 and CSN. ..
  16. Bostick M, Lochhead S, Honda A, Palmer S, Callis J. Related to ubiquitin 1 and 2 are redundant and essential and regulate vegetative growth, auxin signaling, and ethylene production in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004;16:2418-32 pubmed
    ..RUB)/Nedd8 is a ubiquitin-like protein that covalently attaches to cullins, a subunit of the SCF (for Skp, Cdc53p/Cul1, and F-box protein) complex, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and has been shown to be required for robust function of the ..
  17. Franciosini A, Lombardi B, Iafrate S, Pecce V, Mele G, Lupacchini L, et al. The Arabidopsis COP9 SIGNALOSOME INTERACTING F-BOX KELCH 1 protein forms an SCF ubiquitin ligase and regulates hypocotyl elongation. Mol Plant. 2013;6:1616-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that CFK1 (and its regulation by CSN) is a novel component of the cellular mechanisms controlling hypocotyl elongation. ..
  18. Gray W, Kepinski S, Rouse D, Leyser O, Estelle M. Auxin regulates SCF(TIR1)-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA proteins. Nature. 2001;414:271-6 pubmed
    ..Because domain II is conserved in nearly all AUX/IAA proteins in Arabidopsis, we propose that auxin promotes the degradation of this large family of transcriptional regulators, leading to diverse downstream effects. ..
  19. Han L, Mason M, Risseeuw E, Crosby W, Somers D. Formation of an SCF(ZTL) complex is required for proper regulation of circadian timing. Plant J. 2004;40:291-301 pubmed
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation of full-length (FL) ZTL with the three known core components of SCF complexes (ASK1, AtCUL1 and AtRBX1) demonstrates that ZTL can assemble into an SCF complex in vivo...
  20. Mori Y, Hayashi M, Nishimura M, Yamamoto K. A new temperature-insensitive allele of the Arabidopsis AXR6/CUL1 locus derived from a missense mutation in the C-terminal RBX1 binding region. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e1078956 pubmed publisher
    We isolated a new recessive allele at the AUXIN RESISTANT6/CULLIN1 (AXR6/CUL1) locus, axr6-101, from an EMS-mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana, the Landsberg erecta ecotype...
  21. del Pozo J, Boniotti M, Gutierrez C. Arabidopsis E2Fc functions in cell division and is degraded by the ubiquitin-SCF(AtSKP2) pathway in response to light. Plant Cell. 2002;14:3057-71 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the auxin response mutant axr1-12, in which RUB1 modification of the SCF component CUL1 is impaired, shows increased AtE2Fc protein levels, suggesting a dysfunction in the control of AtE2Fc stability...
  22. Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M. The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 2003;22:1762-70 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis, RUB modification of CUL1 is required for normal function of SCF(TIR1), an E3 required for response to the plant hormone auxin...
  23. Wang X, Feng S, Nakayama N, Crosby W, Irish V, Deng X, et al. The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1071-82 pubmed
    ..reported csn5 antisense and csn1 null mutants, partial deficiency of CSN1 causes a reduction in the level of CUL1 in the mutant flowers without an obvious defect in CUL1 deneddylation...
  24. Schwechheimer C, Serino G, Callis J, Crosby W, Lyapina S, Deshaies R, et al. Interactions of the COP9 signalosome with the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFTIRI in mediating auxin response. Science. 2001;292:1379-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, the COP9 signalosome may play an important role in mediating E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated responses. ..
  25. Feng S, Shen Y, Sullivan J, Rubio V, Xiong Y, Sun T, et al. Arabidopsis CAND1, an unmodified CUL1-interacting protein, is involved in multiple developmental pathways controlled by ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein Degradation. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1870-82 pubmed
    ..cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated) and demonstrate that it can preferentially interact with unmodified CUL1. The Arabidopsis cand1-1 null mutant displays distinct phenotypes, including late flowering, aerial rosettes, ..
  26. Jurado S, Diaz Trivino S, Abraham Z, Manzano C, Gutierrez C, Del Pozo C. SKP2A, an F-box protein that regulates cell division, is degraded via the ubiquitin pathway. Plant J. 2008;53:828-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that SKP2A is a positive regulator of cell division, and its stability is controlled by auxin-dependent degradation. ..
  27. Serino G, Su H, Peng Z, Tsuge T, Wei N, Gu H, et al. Characterization of the last subunit of the Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome: implications for the overall structure and origin of the complex. Plant Cell. 2003;15:719-31 pubmed
    ..AtCSN2 is not only able to interact with the SCF(TIR1) subunit AtCUL1, which is partially responsible for the regulatory interaction between CSN and SCF(TIR1), but also interacts with ..
  28. Pacurar D, Pacurar M, Pacurar A, Gutierrez L, Bellini C. A novel viable allele of Arabidopsis CULLIN1 identified in a screen for superroot2 suppressors by next generation sequencing-assisted mapping. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e100846 pubmed publisher
    ..To exemplify the useful marriage of the two approaches we discuss the strategy used to identify a new viable recessive allele of the Arabidopsis CULLIN1 gene in the non-reference Wassilewskija (Ws-4) accession. ..
  29. Pauwels L, Ritter A, Goossens J, Durand A, Liu H, Gu Y, et al. The RING E3 Ligase KEEP ON GOING Modulates JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN12 Stability. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:1405-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide additional evidence for KEG as an important factor in plant hormone signaling and a positive regulator of JAZ12 stability. ..
  30. Figueroa P, Gusmaroli G, Serino G, Habashi J, Ma L, Shen Y, et al. Arabidopsis has two redundant Cullin3 proteins that are essential for embryo development and that interact with RBX1 and BTB proteins to form multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes in vivo. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1180-95 pubmed
    ..Similar to the AtCUL1 subunit of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein-type E3 ligases, the AtCUL3 subunit of the BTB-containing E3 ligase ..
  31. Feng S, Ma L, Wang X, Xie D, Dinesh Kumar S, Wei N, et al. The COP9 signalosome interacts physically with SCF COI1 and modulates jasmonate responses. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1083-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we showed that both COI1 and CSN are essential for modulating the expression of genes in most cellular pathways responsive to JA. Thus, CSN and SCF(COI1) work together to control genome expression and promote JA responses. ..
  32. Jeong C, Roh H, Dang T, Choi Y, Fischer R, Lee J, et al. An E3 ligase complex regulates SET-domain polycomb group protein activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8036-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate the posttranslational regulation of the CLF SET-domain PcG activity by the UCL1 F-box protein in the E3 ligase complex. ..
  33. Hellmann H, Hobbie L, Chapman A, Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Del Pozo C, et al. Arabidopsis AXR6 encodes CUL1 implicating SCF E3 ligases in auxin regulation of embryogenesis. EMBO J. 2003;22:3314-25 pubmed
    ..Here we show that AXR6 encodes the SCF subunit CUL1. The axr6 mutations affect the ability of mutant CUL1 to assemble into stable SCF complexes resulting in reduced ..
  34. Devoto A, Nieto Rostro M, Xie D, Ellis C, Harmston R, Patrick E, et al. COI1 links jasmonate signalling and fertility to the SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2002;32:457-66 pubmed
    ..COI1 is therefore expected to form a functional E3-type ubiquitin ligase in plants and to regulate expression of jasmonate responsive genes, possibly by targeted ubiquitination of a histone deacetylase. ..
  35. Wang Z, Li N, Jiang S, Gonzalez N, Huang X, Wang Y, et al. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11192 pubmed publisher
    ..Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size. ..
  36. Marrocco K, Zhou Y, Bury E, Dieterle M, Funk M, Genschik P, et al. Functional analysis of EID1, an F-box protein involved in phytochrome A-dependent light signal transduction. Plant J. 2006;45:423-38 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data indicate that the EID1 target interaction domain is composed of two independent modules. ..
  37. Song Y, Estrada D, Johnson R, Kim S, Lee S, MacCoss M, et al. Distinct roles of FKF1, Gigantea, and Zeitlupe proteins in the regulation of Constans stability in Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17672-7 pubmed publisher
    ..protein 1 (Skp1)/Cullin(CUL)/F-box complex through interactions with Arabidopsis Skp1-like 1 (ASK1), ASK2, and CUL1 proteins and mainly interacts with GI protein in vivo. GI interacts with CO directly and indirectly through FKF1...
  38. Ariizumi T, Lawrence P, Steber C. The role of two f-box proteins, SLEEPY1 and SNEEZY, in Arabidopsis gibberellin signaling. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The FLAG-SLY1 fusion protein was found to coimmunoprecipitate with the GA receptor HA-GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1b (GID1b), supporting the model that SLY1 regulates DELLA through interaction with the DELLA-GA-GID1 complex. ..
  39. Kim H, Oh S, Brownfield L, Hong S, Ryu H, Hwang I, et al. Control of plant germline proliferation by SCF(FBL17) degradation of cell cycle inhibitors. Nature. 2008;455:1134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify SCF(FBL17) as an essential male germ cell proliferation complex that promotes twin sperm cell production and double fertilization in flowering plants. ..
  40. Dieterle M, Thomann A, Renou J, Parmentier Y, Cognat V, Lemonnier G, et al. Molecular and functional characterization of Arabidopsis Cullin 3A. Plant J. 2005;41:386-99 pubmed
    ..The viability of the mutant plants suggests functional redundancy between the two CUL3 genes in Arabidopsis. ..
  41. Potuschak T, Lechner E, Parmentier Y, Yanagisawa S, Grava S, Koncz C, et al. EIN3-dependent regulation of plant ethylene hormone signaling by two arabidopsis F box proteins: EBF1 and EBF2. Cell. 2003;115:679-89 pubmed
    ..Our work places EBF1 and EBF2 within the genetic framework of the ethylene-response pathway and supports a model in which ethylene action depends on EIN3 protein stabilization. ..