Gene Symbol: CTR1
Description: Protein kinase superfamily protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Clark K, Larsen P, Wang X, Chang C. Association of the Arabidopsis CTR1 Raf-like kinase with the ETR1 and ERS ethylene receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5401-6 pubmed
    ..The pathway also contains a negative regulator of ethylene responses, CTR1, which closely resembles members of the Raf protein kinase family...
  2. Huang Y, Li H, Hutchison C, Laskey J, Kieber J. Biochemical and functional analysis of CTR1, a protein kinase that negatively regulates ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2003;33:221-33 pubmed
    b>CTR1 encodes a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. The C-terminal domain of CTR1 is similar to the Raf family of protein kinases, but its first two-thirds encodes a novel protein domain...
  3. Qiu L, Xie F, Yu J, Wen C. Arabidopsis RTE1 is essential to ethylene receptor ETR1 amino-terminal signaling independent of CTR1. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:1263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..signal output via its carboxyl terminus interacting with the amino (N) terminus of Constitutive Triple Response1 (CTR1) or via its N terminus (etr1¹?³?? or the dominant ethylene-insensitive etr1-1¹?³??) by an unknown mechanism...
  4. Leon P, Sheen J. Sugar and hormone connections. Trends Plant Sci. 2003;8:110-6 pubmed
    ..The effects of sugar and osmotic stress on morphogenesis and gene expression are distinct. The plasticity of plant growth and development are exemplified by the complex interplay of sugar and hormone signalling. ..
  5. Gao Z, Chen Y, Randlett M, Zhao X, Findell J, Kieber J, et al. Localization of the Raf-like kinase CTR1 to the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis through participation in ethylene receptor signaling complexes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34725-32 pubmed
    ..The Raf-like kinase CTR1 functions downstream of the ethylene receptors as a negative regulator of ethylene signal transduction...
  6. Xie F, Qiu L, Wen C. Possible modulation of Arabidopsis ETR1 N-terminal signaling by CTR1. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:1243-5 pubmed publisher
    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) Constitutive Triple-Response1 (CTR1) plays a key role in mediating ethylene receptor signaling via its N-terminal interaction with the ethylene receptor C-terminal histidine ..
  7. Gibson S, Laby R, Kim D. The sugar-insensitive1 (sis1) mutant of Arabidopsis is allelic to ctr1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:196-203 pubmed
    ..The sugar-insensitive1 (sis1) mutant of Arabidopsis was isolated by screening for plants that are insensitive to the inhibitory effects of high ..
  8. Kieber J, Rothenberg M, Roman G, Feldmann K, Ecker J. CTR1, a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis, encodes a member of the raf family of protein kinases. Cell. 1993;72:427-41 pubmed
    We isolated a recessive Arabidopsis mutant, ctr1, that constitutively exhibits seedling and adult phenotypes observed in plants treated with the plant hormone ethylene...
  9. Xie L, Chen Q, Chen M, Yu L, Huang L, Chen L, et al. Unsaturation of very-long-chain ceramides protects plant from hypoxia-induced damages by modulating ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005143 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and ..

More Information


  1. Shakeel S, Gao Z, Amir M, Chen Y, Rai M, Haq N, et al. Ethylene Regulates Levels of Ethylene Receptor/CTR1 Signaling Complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:12415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The receptors function in conjunction with the Raf-like kinase CTR1 to negatively regulate ethylene signal transduction...
  2. Testerink C, Larsen P, van der Does D, van Himbergen J, Munnik T. Phosphatidic acid binds to and inhibits the activity of Arabidopsis CTR1. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:3905-14 pubmed
    ..One of the best characterized is Raf-1, a mammalian MAPKKK. Arabidopsis thaliana CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) is one of the plant homologues of Raf-1 and functions as a negative regulator of the ethylene ..
  3. Wang Q, Zhang W, Yin Z, Wen C. Rice CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE-RESPONSE2 is involved in the ethylene-receptor signalling and regulation of various aspects of rice growth and development. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:4863-75 pubmed publisher
    ..output occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum and is mediated by the Raf-like protein CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) but is prevented by overexpression of the CTR1 N terminus...
  4. Xie L, Yu L, Chen Q, Wang F, Huang L, Xia F, et al. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism. Plant J. 2015;81:53-67 pubmed publisher
    ..By analyses of double combinations of OE-1 with npr1-5, coi1-2, ein3-1 as well as ctr1-1 mutants, we observed that the attenuated hypoxic tolerance in ACBP3-OEs was dependent on NPR1- and CTR1-mediated ..
  5. Shin K, Lee R, Lee I, Lee S, Park S, Soh M. Genetic identification of a second site modifier of ctr1-1 that controls ethylene-responsive and gravitropic root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Cells. 2013;36:88-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Heynh. The CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) encodes a Raf-related protein, functioning as an upstream negative regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis ..
  6. Mayerhofer H, Mueller Dieckmann C, Mueller Dieckmann J. Cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the protein kinase domain of constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2011;67:117-20 pubmed publisher
    Ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, is perceived by a group of membrane-bound receptors. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) from Arabidopsis thaliana directly interacts with ethylene receptors and thus links signal reception to the ..
  7. Mayerhofer H, Panneerselvam S, Mueller Dieckmann J. Protein kinase domain of CTR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana promotes ethylene receptor cross talk. J Mol Biol. 2012;415:768-79 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana, the TCS-like ethylene receptors interact with the cytosolic serine/threonine kinase constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1), a proposed mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase...
  8. Achard P, Baghour M, Chapple A, Hedden P, Van Der Straeten D, Genschik P, et al. The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6484-9 pubmed
    ..Next, we show that ethylene acts on DELLAs via the CTR1-dependent ethylene response pathway, most likely downstream of the transcriptional regulator EIN3...
  9. Lapik Y, Kaufman L. The Arabidopsis cupin domain protein AtPirin1 interacts with the G protein alpha-subunit GPA1 and regulates seed germination and early seedling development. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1578-90 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that AtPirin1 likely functions immediately downstream of GPA1 in regulating seed germination and early seedling development. ..
  10. Ikeda Y, Men S, Fischer U, Stepanova A, Alonso J, Ljung K, et al. Local auxin biosynthesis modulates gradient-directed planar polarity in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:731-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the Raf-like kinase CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1; Refs 8, 9) acts as a concentration-dependent repressor of a biosynthesis-dependent auxin gradient that modulates ..
  11. Yasumura Y, Pierik R, Kelly S, Sakuta M, Voesenek L, Harberd N. An Ancestral Role for CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 Proteins in Both Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:283-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that, like angiosperm CTR1 proteins (e.g. AtCTR1 of Arabidopsis), PpCTR1L modulates downstream ethylene signaling via direct interaction with ethylene receptors...
  12. Ju C, Yoon G, Shemansky J, Lin D, Ying Z, Chang J, et al. CTR1 phosphorylates the central regulator EIN2 to control ethylene hormone signaling from the ER membrane to the nucleus in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..the ethylene signaling pathway, the challenge has been to identify the target of the CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) Raf-like protein kinase, as well as the molecular events surrounding ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), an ER membrane-..
  13. Ortega Martínez O, Pernas M, Carol R, Dolan L. Ethylene modulates stem cell division in the Arabidopsis thaliana root. Science. 2007;317:507-10 pubmed
    ..We propose that ethylene is part of a signaling pathway that modulates cell division in the quiescent center in the stem cell niche during the postembryonic development of the root system. ..
  14. Larsen P, Cancel J. Enhanced ethylene responsiveness in the Arabidopsis eer1 mutant results from a loss-of-function mutation in the protein phosphatase 2A A regulatory subunit, RCN1. Plant J. 2003;34:709-18 pubmed
    ..in Arabidopsis begins with a family of five ethylene receptors that regulate the activity of the Raf-like kinase, CTR1. Recent work to identify novel factors required for modulating ethylene signaling resulted in the isolation of ..
  15. Cho Y, Yoo S. Signaling role of fructose mediated by FINS1/FBP in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001263 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings revealed that multiple layers of controls by fructose, glucose, and abscisic acid finely tune the plant autotrophic transition and modulate early seedling establishment after seed germination. ..
  16. Yang Z, Guo G, Zhang M, Liu C, Hu Q, Lam H, et al. Stable isotope metabolic labeling-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants reveals ethylene-regulated time-dependent phosphoproteins and putative substrates of constitutive triple response 1 kinase. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:3559-82 pubmed publisher
    ..plays a key role in ethylene signaling, which is mediated by the activities of ethylene receptors, constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) kinase, and phosphatase...
  17. Contreras Cornejo H, López Bucio J, Méndez Bravo A, Macías Rodríguez L, Ramos Vega M, Guevara García Ã, et al. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6 and Ethylene and Auxin Signaling Pathways Are Involved in Arabidopsis Root-System Architecture Alterations by Trichoderma atroviride. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2015;28:701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..atroviride. Increased MPK6 activity was evidenced in roots of ctr1 mutants, which correlated with repression of primary root growth, thus connecting MPK6 signaling with an ET ..
  18. Cancel J, Larsen P. Loss-of-function mutations in the ethylene receptor ETR1 cause enhanced sensitivity and exaggerated response to ethylene in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:1557-67 pubmed
    ..of five ethylene receptors that regulate activity of a downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, CTR1. Triple and quadruple loss-of-function ethylene receptor mutants display a constitutive ethylene response phenotype,..