Gene Symbol: CRY2
Description: cryptochrome 2
Alias: AT-PHH1, ATCRY2, CRYPTOCHROME 2 APOPROTEIN, F19P19.14, F19P19_14, FHA, PHH1, cryptochrome 2, cryptochrome 2
Species: thale cress
Products:     CRY2

Top Publications

  1. Kleiner O, Kircher S, Harter K, Batschauer A. Nuclear localization of the Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2. Plant J. 1999;19:289-96 pubmed
    The cryptochrome blue light photoreceptor family of Arabidopsis thaliana consists of two members, CRY1 and CRY2 (PHH1). CRY2 contains a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) within its C-terminal region...
  2. Yu X, Klejnot J, Zhao X, Shalitin D, Maymon M, Yang H, et al. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 completes its posttranslational life cycle in the nucleus. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3146-56 pubmed
    b>CRY2 is a blue light receptor regulating light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  3. Toth R, Kevei E, Hall A, Millar A, Nagy F, Kozma Bognar L. Circadian clock-regulated expression of phytochrome and cryptochrome genes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2001;127:1607-16 pubmed
    ..light-regulated expression patterns of the Arabidopsis phytochrome (PHYA to PHYE) and cryptochrome (CRY1 and CRY2) promoters fused to the luciferase (LUC(+)) reporter gene...
  4. Li X, Wang Q, Yu X, Liu H, Yang H, Zhao C, et al. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) functions by the photoactivation mechanism distinct from the tryptophan (trp) triad-dependent photoreduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20844-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated this hypothesis by analyzing the photochemical and physiological activities of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) mutations altered in each of the three trp-triad residues...
  5. Liu H, Yu X, Li K, Klejnot J, Yang H, Lisiero D, et al. Photoexcited CRY2 interacts with CIB1 to regulate transcription and floral initiation in Arabidopsis. Science. 2008;322:1535-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CIB1 interacts with CRY2 (cryptochrome 2) in a blue light-specific manner in yeast and Arabidopsis cells, and it acts together with additional CIB1-..
  6. Sang Y, Li Q, Rubio V, Zhang Y, Mao J, Deng X, et al. N-terminal domain-mediated homodimerization is required for photoreceptor activity of Arabidopsis CRYPTOCHROME 1. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1569-84 pubmed
    ..Irradiation with blue light modifies the properties of the CNT1 dimer, resulting in a change in CCT1, activating CCT1, and eventually triggering the CRY1 signaling pathway. ..
  7. Millenaar F, van Zanten M, Cox M, Pierik R, Voesenek L, Peeters A. Differential petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana: photocontrol and hormonal regulation. New Phytol. 2009;184:141-52 pubmed publisher
  8. Wang H, Ma L, Li J, Zhao H, Deng X. Direct interaction of Arabidopsis cryptochromes with COP1 in light control development. Science. 2001;294:154-8 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis has two related cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) mediating various blue/ultraviolet-A light responses...
  9. Yu X, Sayegh R, Maymon M, Warpeha K, Klejnot J, Yang H, et al. Formation of nuclear bodies of Arabidopsis CRY2 in response to blue light is associated with its blue light-dependent degradation. Plant Cell. 2009;21:118-30 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) mediates photoperiodic promotion of floral initiation and blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation...

More Information


  1. Mazzella M, Cerdán P, Staneloni R, Casal J. Hierarchical coupling of phytochromes and cryptochromes reconciles stability and light modulation of Arabidopsis development. Development. 2001;128:2291-9 pubmed
    ..we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under intense white light, coupling of the photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 to developmental processes is broader than previously appreciated...
  2. Kennedy M, Hughes R, Peteya L, Schwartz J, Ehlers M, Tucker C. Rapid blue-light-mediated induction of protein interactions in living cells. Nat Methods. 2010;7:973-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe genetically encoded light-inducible protein-interaction modules based on Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 and CIB1 that require no exogenous ligands and dimerize on blue-light exposure with subsecond time resolution ..
  3. Yu X, Shalitin D, Liu X, Maymon M, Klejnot J, Yang H, et al. Derepression of the NC80 motif is critical for the photoactivation of Arabidopsis CRY2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7289-94 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) mediates blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation...
  4. Tessadori F, Schulkes R, van Driel R, Fransz P. Light-regulated large-scale reorganization of chromatin during the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;50:848-57 pubmed
    ..A mutant analysis indicated that the blue-light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME 2 is involved in triggering chromatin decondensation, suggesting a light-signaling pathway towards large-scale ..
  5. Mas P, Devlin P, Panda S, Kay S. Functional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2. Nature. 2000;408:207-11 pubmed
    ..Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been characterized in Arabidopsis...
  6. Ozkan Dagliyan I, Chiou Y, Ye R, Hassan B, Ozturk N, Sancar A. Formation of Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 photobodies in mammalian nuclei: application as an optogenetic DNA damage checkpoint switch. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have expressed Arabidopsis CRY2 (AtCRY2) in mammalian cells and analyzed its fate after blue light exposure to understand the requirements for PB ..
  7. Zuo Z, Liu H, Liu B, Liu X, Lin C. Blue light-dependent interaction of CRY2 with SPA1 regulates COP1 activity and floral initiation in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2011;21:841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that Arabidopsis CRY2 (cryptochrome 2) undergoes blue light-dependent interaction with the COP1-interacting protein SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A 1 (..
  8. Hughes R, Bolger S, Tapadia H, Tucker C. Light-mediated control of DNA transcription in yeast. Methods. 2012;58:385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Light is dose dependent, inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and does not interfere with cellular pathways, and thus has significant advantages over chemical systems. ..
  9. Yang Y, Zuo Z, Zhao X, Li X, Klejnot J, Li Y, et al. Blue-light-independent activity of Arabidopsis cryptochromes in the regulation of steady-state levels of protein and mRNA expression. Mol Plant. 2008;1:167-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a hypothesis that, in addition to their blue-light-specific functions, cryptochromes also play roles in the control of gene expression mediated by the red/far-red-light receptor phytochromes. ..
  10. Wang Q, Zuo Z, Wang X, Gu L, Yoshizumi T, Yang Z, et al. Photoactivation and inactivation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2. Science. 2016;354:343-347 pubmed
    ..We found that Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) undergoes blue light-dependent homodimerization to become physiologically active...
  11. Gould P, Ugarte N, Domijan M, Costa M, Foreman J, Macgregor D, et al. Network balance via CRY signalling controls the Arabidopsis circadian clock over ambient temperatures. Mol Syst Biol. 2013;9:650 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis provides a systems-level understanding of period control in the plant circadian oscillator. ..
  12. Wang Q, Barshop W, Bian M, Vashisht A, He R, Yu X, et al. The blue light-dependent phosphorylation of the CCE domain determines the photosensitivity of Arabidopsis CRY2. Mol Plant. 2015;8:631-43 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is a blue light receptor that mediates light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and long-day promotion of floral initiation...
  13. Zuo Z, Meng Y, Yu X, Zhang Z, Feng D, Sun S, et al. A study of the blue-light-dependent phosphorylation, degradation, and photobody formation of Arabidopsis CRY2. Mol Plant. 2012;5:726-33 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is a blue-light receptor mediating blue-light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic promotion of floral initiation...
  14. Zhou R, Zhu T, Han L, Liu M, Xu M, Liu Y, et al. The asparagine-rich protein NRP interacts with the Verticillium effector PevD1 and regulates the subcellular localization of cryptochrome 2. J Exp Bot. 2017;68:3427-3440 pubmed publisher
    ..effects, which include induction of early flowering in cotton and Arabidopsis, NRP was found to interact with cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), leading to increased cytoplasmic accumulation of CRY2 in a blue light-independent manner...
  15. Lopez Juez E, Dillon E, Magyar Z, Khan S, Hazeldine S, de Jager S, et al. Distinct light-initiated gene expression and cell cycle programs in the shoot apex and cotyledons of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2008;20:947-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide the basis for reconstruction of the regulatory networks for light-regulated meristem, leaf, and cotyledon development. ..
  16. Ong W, Okubo Kurihara E, Kurihara Y, Shimada S, Makita Y, Kawashima M, et al. Chemical-Induced Inhibition of Blue Light-Mediated Seedling Development Caused by Disruption of Upstream Signal Transduction Involving Cryptochromes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2017;58:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of 3B7N can be used on other plants to study further the blue light mechanism and the genetic control of cryptochromes in the growth and development of plant species. ..
  17. Kang M, Yoo S, Kwon H, Lee B, Cho J, Noh Y, et al. Negative regulatory roles of DE-ETIOLATED1 in flowering time in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9728 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that DET1 is a strong repressor of flowering and has a pivotal role in maintaining photoperiod sensitivity in the regulation of flowering time. ..
  18. Duan L, Hope J, Ong Q, Lou H, Kim N, McCarthy C, et al. Understanding CRY2 interactions for optical control of intracellular signaling. Nat Commun. 2017;8:547 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) can simultaneously undergo light-dependent CRY2-CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 hetero-dimerization, both of which have been widely used to optically control intracellular processes...
  19. Jia K, Luo Q, He S, Lu X, Yang H. Strigolactone-regulated hypocotyl elongation is dependent on cryptochrome and phytochrome signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. 2014;7:528-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The photoreceptor mutants cry1 cry2, phyA, and phyB are hyposensitive to strigolactone analog GR24 under the respective monochromatic light conditions, ..
  20. Canamero R, Bakrim N, Bouly J, Garay A, Dudkin E, Habricot Y, et al. Cryptochrome photoreceptors cry1 and cry2 antagonistically regulate primary root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 2006;224:995-1003 pubmed
    ..Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both ..
  21. Liu H, Wang Q, Liu Y, Zhao X, Imaizumi T, Somers D, et al. Arabidopsis CRY2 and ZTL mediate blue-light regulation of the transcription factor CIB1 by distinct mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17582-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, the photoexcited cryptochrome 2 interacts with the transcription factor CRYPTOCHROME-INTERACTING basic helix-loop-helix 1 (CIB1) to activate ..
  22. Nefissi R, Natsui Y, Miyata K, Oda A, Hase Y, Nakagawa M, et al. Double loss-of-function mutation in EARLY FLOWERING 3 and CRYPTOCHROME 2 genes delays flowering under continuous light but accelerates it under long days and short days: an important role for Arabidopsis CRY2 to accelerate flowering time in continuou. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:2731-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis indicated that sel20 was a new deletion allele of a mutation in the blue light receptor, CRY2. A late-flowering phenotype and decrease of FT expression in the elf3;sel20 double mutant was obvious under LL but ..
  23. Liu Q, Wang Q, Liu B, Wang W, Wang X, Park J, et al. The Blue Light-Dependent Polyubiquitination and Degradation of Arabidopsis Cryptochrome2 Requires Multiple E3 Ubiquitin Ligases. Plant Cell Physiol. 2016;57:2175-2186 pubmed
    ..The Arabidopsis genome encodes two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, of which CRY2 undergoes blue light-dependent ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation...
  24. Whippo C, Hangarter R. Second positive phototropism results from coordinated co-action of the phototropins and cryptochromes. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:1499-507 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, we hypothesize that phototropins and cryptochromes regulate phototropism by coordinating the balance between stimulation and inhibition of growth of the hypocotyl depending on the fluence rate of blue light. ..
  25. Jourdan N, Martino C, El Esawi M, Witczak J, Bouchet P, d Harlingue A, et al. Blue-light dependent ROS formation by Arabidopsis cryptochrome-2 may contribute toward its signaling role. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e1042647 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we extend these observations to show that Atcry2 is translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus in response to blue light illumination, resulting in nuclear ..
  26. Nakagawa M, Komeda Y. Flowering of Arabidopsis cop1 mutants in darkness. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:398-406 pubmed
    ..Double mutants of cop1-6 and each of the late-flowering mutations cry2-1, gi-2, co-1, and ld-1 flowered in darkness...
  27. Pedmale U, Huang S, Zander M, Cole B, Hetzel J, Ljung K, et al. Cryptochromes Interact Directly with PIFs to Control Plant Growth in Limiting Blue Light. Cell. 2016;164:233-245 pubmed publisher
    ..For growth under a canopy, where blue light is diminished, CRY1 and CRY2 perceive this change and respond by directly contacting two bHLH transcription factors, PIF4 and PIF5...
  28. Liu Y, Liu Q, Yan Q, Shi L, Fang Y. Nucleolus-tethering system (NoTS) reveals that assembly of photobodies follows a self-organization model. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1366-73 pubmed publisher
  29. Herbel V, Orth C, Wenzel R, Ahmad M, Bittl R, Batschauer A. Lifetimes of Arabidopsis cryptochrome signaling states in vivo. Plant J. 2013;74:583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the loss of degradation of cry2 after prolonged dark incubation and loss of reversibility of photoactivated cry1 by a pulse of green light, we ..
  30. Holtkotte X, Ponnu J, Ahmad M, Hoecker U. The blue light-induced interaction of cryptochrome 1 with COP1 requires SPA proteins during Arabidopsis light signaling. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007044 pubmed publisher
    ..Blue light is sensed by the Arabidopsis photoreceptors CRY1 and CRY2 which subsequently initiate light signal transduction by repressing the COP1/SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  31. Mao J, Zhang Y, Sang Y, Li Q, Yang H. From The Cover: A role for Arabidopsis cryptochromes and COP1 in the regulation of stomatal opening. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12270-5 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis CRY (CRY1 and CRY2) functions through negatively regulating constitutive photomorphogenic (COP) 1, a repressor of photomorphogenesis...
  32. Cui Y, Choudhury S, Irudayaraj J. Quantitative real-time kinetics of optogenetic proteins CRY2 and CIB1/N using single-molecule tools. Anal Biochem. 2014;458:58-60 pubmed publisher we evaluate the interaction of two optogenetic protein variants (CIB1, CIBN) with their complementary protein CRY2 by single-molecule tools in cell-free extracts...
  33. Kang X, Zhou Y, Sun X, Ni M. HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1 and its C-terminal regulatory function control FLOWERING LOCUS T expression. Plant J. 2007;52:937-48 pubmed
    ..The double mutant of hrb1/cry2 showed a flowering phenotype and an FT expression pattern similar to hrb1 under long-day conditions, suggesting ..
  34. Liu Q, Wang Q, Deng W, Wang X, Piao M, Cai D, et al. Molecular basis for blue light-dependent phosphorylation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15234 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that photoexcited Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is phosphorylated in vivo on as many as 24 different residues, including 7 major phosphoserines...
  35. Ozgur S, Sancar A. Analysis of autophosphorylating kinase activities of Arabidopsis and human cryptochromes. Biochemistry. 2006;45:13369-74 pubmed
    ..To test the generality of light stimulated kinase function of cryptochromes, we purified AtCry1, AtCry2, HsCry1, and HsCry2 and probed them for kinase activity under a variety of conditions...
  36. Liu Y, Li X, Li K, Liu H, Lin C. Multiple bHLH proteins form heterodimers to mediate CRY2-dependent regulation of flowering-time in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003861 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) mediates light control of flowering time. CIB1 (CRY2-interacting bHLH 1) specifically interacts with CRY2 in response to blue light to activate the transcription of FT (Flowering Locus T)...
  37. Taslimi A, Zoltowski B, Miranda J, Pathak G, Hughes R, Tucker C. Optimized second-generation CRY2-CIB dimerizers and photoactivatable Cre recombinase. Nat Chem Biol. 2016;12:425-30 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (AtCRY2), a light-sensitive photosensory protein, was previously adapted for use in controlling protein-protein interactions through light-dependent binding to a partner protein, CIB1...
  38. Engelhard C, Wang X, Robles D, Moldt J, Essen L, Batschauer A, et al. Cellular metabolites enhance the light sensitivity of Arabidopsis cryptochrome through alternate electron transfer pathways. Plant Cell. 2014;26:4519-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Plant cryptochrome (cry1 and cry2) biological activity has been linked to flavin photoreduction via an electron transport chain comprising three ..
  39. Wang Y, Maruhnich S, Mageroy M, Justice J, Folta K. Phototropin 1 and cryptochrome action in response to green light in combination with other wavelengths. Planta. 2013;237:225-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate how enriched green environments may adjust RL and BL photomorphogenic responses through both the crys and phot1 receptors, and define a new role for phot1 in stem growth promotion. ..
  40. van Zanten M, Tessadori F, McLoughlin F, Smith R, Millenaar F, van Driel R, et al. Photoreceptors CRYTOCHROME2 and phytochrome B control chromatin compaction in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a model in which chromatin compaction is regulated by the light environment via CRYPTOCHROME2 protein abundance, which is controlled by phytochrome B action. ..
  41. Jeong R, Chandra Shekara A, Barman S, Navarre D, Klessig D, Kachroo A, et al. Cryptochrome 2 and phototropin 2 regulate resistance protein-mediated viral defense by negatively regulating an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to darkness or blue-light induces degradation of CRY2, and in turn HRT, resulting in susceptibility...
  42. Taslimi A, Vrana J, Chen D, Borinskaya S, Mayer B, Kennedy M, et al. An optimized optogenetic clustering tool for probing protein interaction and function. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4925 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) was previously used as an optogenetic module, allowing spatiotemporal control of cellular processes with light...
  43. Weidler G, Zur Oven Krockhaus S, Heunemann M, Orth C, Schleifenbaum F, Harter K, et al. Degradation of Arabidopsis CRY2 is regulated by SPA proteins and phytochrome A. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2610-23 pubmed publisher
    The UV-A/blue light photoreceptor crytochrome2 (cry2) plays a fundamental role in the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in the facultative long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
  44. Ahmad M, Jarillo J, Smirnova O, Cashmore A. Cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptors of Arabidopsis implicated in phototropism. Nature. 1998;392:720-3 pubmed
    ..HY4 (the gene encoding CRY1) is a member of a small gene family that also encodes a related photoreceptor, CRY2, which shares considerable functional overlap with CRY1...
  45. Lian H, He S, Zhang Y, Zhu D, Zhang J, Jia K, et al. Blue-light-dependent interaction of cryptochrome 1 with SPA1 defines a dynamic signaling mechanism. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction and consequent dissociation define a dynamic photosensory signaling mechanism. ..
  46. Endo M, Mochizuki N, Suzuki T, Nagatani A. CRYPTOCHROME2 in vascular bundles regulates flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:84-93 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, a blue/UV-A photoreceptor, CRYPTOCHROME 2 (cry2), and a red/far-red photoreceptor, PHYTOCHROME B (phyB), are two major photoreceptors that control ..
  47. Xu X, Hotta C, Dodd A, Love J, Sharrock R, Lee Y, et al. Distinct light and clock modulation of cytosolic free Ca2+ oscillations and rhythmic CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN2 promoter activity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3474-90 pubmed
    ..Blue light signaling occurs through the redundant action of CRYPTOCHROME1 (CRY1) and CRY2. Blue light also increases the basal level of [Ca(2+)](cyt), and this response requires PHYB, CRY1, and CRY2...
  48. Boccalandro H, Giordano C, Ploschuk E, Piccoli P, Bottini R, Casal J. Phototropins but not cryptochromes mediate the blue light-specific promotion of stomatal conductance, while both enhance photosynthesis and transpiration under full sunlight. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana) mutants lacking either phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) or cryptochromes 1 and 2 (cry1 and cry2) exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light...
  49. Tan S, Dai C, Liu H, Xue H. Arabidopsis casein kinase1 proteins CK1.3 and CK1.4 phosphorylate cryptochrome2 to regulate blue light signaling. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2618-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Blue light is crucial for normal growth of both plants and animals, and blue light receptor cryptochrome2 (CRY2) undergoes blue light-dependent phosphorylation and degradation in planta...