Gene Symbol: CDC2
Description: cell division control 2
Alias: CDC2A, CDC2AAT, CDK2, CDKA1, CDKA;1, CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE A;1, P34CDC2, cell division control 2, cell division control 2
Species: thale cress
Products:     CDC2

Top Publications

  1. Iwakawa H, Shinmyo A, Sekine M. Arabidopsis CDKA;1, a cdc2 homologue, controls proliferation of generative cells in male gametogenesis. Plant J. 2006;45:819-31 pubmed
    The protein kinase cdc2 is conserved throughout eukaryotes and acts as a key regulator of the cell cycle. In plants, A-type cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a homologue of cdc2, has a role throughout the cell cycle...
  2. Dissmeyer N, Nowack M, Pusch S, Stals H, Inze D, Grini P, et al. T-loop phosphorylation of Arabidopsis CDKA;1 is required for its function and can be partially substituted by an aspartate residue. Plant Cell. 2007;19:972-85 pubmed
    ..We show that the Arabidopsis thaliana Cdc2(+)/Cdc28 homolog CDKA;1 is also phosphorylated in the T-loop and that phosphorylation at the conserved Thr-161 ..
  3. Healy J, Menges M, Doonan J, Murray J. The Arabidopsis D-type cyclins CycD2 and CycD3 both interact in vivo with the PSTAIRE cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2a but are differentially controlled. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7041-7 pubmed CycD2 and CycD3, we demonstrate that the CDK partner of these Arabidopsis cyclins is the PSTAIRE-containing CDK Cdc2a. Previous analysis has shown that transcript levels of CycD2 and CycD3 are regulated in response to sucrose levels ..
  4. Hemerly A, Engler J, Bergounioux C, Van Montagu M, Engler G, Inze D, et al. Dominant negative mutants of the Cdc2 kinase uncouple cell division from iterative plant development. EMBO J. 1995;14:3925-36 pubmed
    ..plants were constructed expressing dominant mutations in a key regulator of the Arabidopsis cell cycle, the Cdc2a kinase...
  5. Weimer A, Nowack M, Bouyer D, Zhao X, Harashima H, Naseer S, et al. Retinoblastoma related1 regulates asymmetric cell divisions in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4083-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism allows the implementation of spatial information, in the form of high kinase activity, with intracellular gating of developmental decisions. ..
  6. Imai K, Ohashi Y, Tsuge T, Yoshizumi T, Matsui M, Oka A, et al. The A-type cyclin CYCA2;3 is a key regulator of ploidy levels in Arabidopsis endoreduplication. Plant Cell. 2006;18:382-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CYCA2;3 negatively regulates endocycles and acts as a key regulator of ploidy levels in Arabidopsis endoreduplication. ..
  7. Nowack M, Harashima H, Dissmeyer N, Zhao X, Bouyer D, Weimer A, et al. Genetic framework of cyclin-dependent kinase function in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2012;22:1030-40 pubmed publisher
    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are at the heart of eukaryotic cell-cycle control. The yeast Cdc2/CDC28 PSTAIRE kinase and its orthologs such as the mammalian Cdk1 have been found to be indispensable for cell-cycle progression in all ..
  8. Dissmeyer N, Weimer A, Pusch S, De Schutter K, Alvim Kamei C, Nowack M, et al. Control of cell proliferation, organ growth, and DNA damage response operate independently of dephosphorylation of the Arabidopsis Cdk1 homolog CDKA;1. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3641-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on biomathematical simulations, we propose a plant-specific model of how progression through the cell cycle could be wired in Arabidopsis. ..
  9. Gaamouche T, Manes C, Kwiatkowska D, Berckmans B, Koumproglou R, Maes S, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase activity maintains the shoot apical meristem cells in an undifferentiated state. Plant J. 2010;64:26-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose a threshold model in which the effect of the cell-cycle machinery on meristem organization is determined by the level of CDK activity. ..

More Information


  1. Kono A, Umeda Hara C, Lee J, Ito M, Uchimiya H, Umeda M. Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD4;1 is a novel cyclin partner of B2-type cyclin-dependent kinase. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:1315-21 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that CDKB2;1 and CYCD4;1 may form an active kinase complex during G2/M phase and control the development of particular tissues. ..
  2. Bush M, Pierrat O, Nibau C, Mikitová V, Zheng T, Corke F, et al. eIF4A RNA Helicase Associates with Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase A in Proliferating Cells and Is Modulated by Phosphorylation. Plant Physiol. 2016;172:128-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest a mechanism whereby CDK phosphorylation has the potential to down-regulate eIF4A activity and thereby affect translation. ..
  3. De Veylder L, de Almeida Engler J, Burssens S, Manevski A, Lescure B, Van Montagu M, et al. A new D-type cyclin of Arabidopsis thaliana expressed during lateral root primordia formation. Planta. 1999;208:453-62 pubmed
    ..Heynh. during a two-hybrid screen using the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2aAt as bait. Transcription of CYCD4;1 can be induced by sucrose...
  4. Lui H, Wang H, Delong C, Fowke L, Crosby W, Fobert P. The Arabidopsis Cdc2a-interacting protein ICK2 is structurally related to ICK1 and is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase activity in vitro. Plant J. 2000;21:379-85 pubmed
    ..To study protein-protein interactions involving plant CDKs, the Arabidopsis thaliana Cdc2aAt was used as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system...
  5. De Veylder L, Beeckman T, Beemster G, Krols L, Terras F, Landrieu I, et al. Functional analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2001;13:1653-68 pubmed
    ..We conclude that KRP2 exerts a plant growth inhibitory activity by reducing cell proliferation in leaves, but, in contrast to its mammalian counterparts, it may not control the timing of cell cycle exit and differentiation. ..
  6. Peng L, Skylar A, Chang P, Bisova K, Wu X. CYCP2;1 integrates genetic and nutritional information to promote meristem cell division in Arabidopsis. Dev Biol. 2014;393:160-70 pubmed publisher
  7. Nowack M, Grini P, Jakoby M, Lafos M, Koncz C, Schnittger A. A positive signal from the fertilization of the egg cell sets off endosperm proliferation in angiosperm embryogenesis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:63-7 pubmed
    ..We characterized a mutation of the Arabidopsis thaliana Cdc2 homolog CDC2A (also called CDKA;1), which has a paternal effect...
  8. Boudolf V, Rombauts S, Naudts M, Inze D, De Veylder L. Identification of novel cyclin-dependent kinases interacting with the CKS1 protein of Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2001;52:1381-2 pubmed
    ..Differences in the expression patterns in roots, leaves and stems suggest unique roles for each CDK. ..
  9. Zhou Y, Wang H, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke L. Effects of co-expressing the plant CDK inhibitor ICK1 and D-type cyclin genes on plant growth, cell size and ploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 2003;216:604-13 pubmed
    ..first plant CDK inhibitor identified in Arabidopsis plants, interacts with Arath;CycD3;1 (CycD3) and Arath;CDKA;1 (Cdc2a). Overexpression of ICK1 has major effects on cell division, plant growth, and morphology...
  10. Torres Acosta J, de Almeida Engler J, Raes J, Magyar Z, De Groodt R, Inze D, et al. Molecular characterization of Arabidopsis PHO80-like proteins, a novel class of CDKA;1-interacting cyclins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:1485-97 pubmed
    ..The possible role of CYCPs in linking cell division, cell differentiation, and the nutritional status of the cell is discussed. ..
  11. Guérinier T, Millan L, Crozet P, Oury C, Rey F, Valot B, et al. Phosphorylation of p27(KIP1) homologs KRP6 and 7 by SNF1-related protein kinase-1 links plant energy homeostasis and cell proliferation. Plant J. 2013;75:515-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results establish that the energy sensor AtSnRK1 plays a cardinal role in the control of cell proliferation in A. thaliana plants through inhibition of AtKRP6 biological function by phosphorylation. ..
  12. Castellano M, Boniotti M, Caro E, Schnittger A, Gutierrez C. DNA replication licensing affects cell proliferation or endoreplication in a cell type-specific manner. Plant Cell. 2004;16:2380-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that DNA replication licensing control is critical for the proper maintenance of proliferative potential, developmental programs, and morphogenetic patterns. ..
  13. Reindl A, Schöffl F, Schell J, Koncz C, Bako L. Phosphorylation by a cyclin-dependent kinase modulates DNA binding of the Arabidopsis heat-shock transcription factor HSF1 in vitro. Plant Physiol. 1997;115:93-100 pubmed
    ..control protein Suc1p and is immunoprecipitated by an antibody specific for the Arabidopsis cyclin-dependent CDC2a kinase...
  14. Pusch S, Harashima H, Schnittger A. Identification of kinase substrates by bimolecular complementation assays. Plant J. 2012;70:348-56 pubmed publisher
    ..As a proof of functionality, we present the identification and in vivo confirmation of substrates of the major cell-cycle kinase in Arabidopsis, revealing a direct link between cell proliferation and the control of the redox state. ..
  15. Boruc J, Mylle E, Duda M, De Clercq R, Rombauts S, Geelen D, et al. Systematic localization of the Arabidopsis core cell cycle proteins reveals novel cell division complexes. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:553-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identified unknown spatiotemporal territories where functional cell cycle protein interactions are most likely to occur...
  16. del Pozo J, Boniotti M, Gutierrez C. Arabidopsis E2Fc functions in cell division and is degraded by the ubiquitin-SCF(AtSKP2) pathway in response to light. Plant Cell. 2002;14:3057-71 pubmed
    ..We propose that AtE2Fc might play a role in cell division and during the transition from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. ..
  17. Mizoguchi T, Irie K, Hirayama T, Hayashida N, Yamaguchi Shinozaki K, Matsumoto K, et al. A gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase is induced simultaneously with genes for a mitogen-activated protein kinase and an S6 ribosomal protein kinase by touch, cold, and water stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:765-9 pubmed
  18. Pignocchi C, Doonan J. Interaction of a 14-3-3 protein with the plant microtubule-associated protein EDE1. Ann Bot. 2011;107:1103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may play a role in cytoskeletal organization of plant cells. The potential role of this interaction in the dynamics of EDE1 during the cell cycle is discussed...
  19. Verkest A, Manes C, Vercruysse S, Maes S, Van Der Schueren E, Beeckman T, et al. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor KRP2 controls the onset of the endoreduplication cycle during Arabidopsis leaf development through inhibition of mitotic CDKA;1 kinase complexes. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1723-36 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the proposed model allowed a dynamical simulation of the in vivo observations, validating the sufficiency of the regulatory interactions between CDKA;1, KRP2, and CDKB1;1 in fine-tuning the mitosis-to-endocycle transition. ..
  20. Hutchins A, Roberts G, Lloyd C, Doonan J. In vivo interaction between CDKA and eIF4A: a possible mechanism linking translation and cell proliferation. FEBS Lett. 2004;556:91-4 pubmed
    ..The CDKA-eIF4A complex contains kinase activity that is sensitive to the CDK-specific inhibitor roscovitine. This interaction points to a possible molecular mechanism linking cell proliferation with translational control. ..
  21. da Costa M, Bach L, Landrieu I, Bellec Y, Catrice O, Brown S, et al. Arabidopsis PASTICCINO2 is an antiphosphatase involved in regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase A. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1426-37 pubmed
  22. Yang K, Wang H, Xue S, Qü X, Zou J, Le J. Requirement for A-type cyclin-dependent kinase and cyclins for the terminal division in the stomatal lineage of Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:2449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, timely down-regulation of CDKA;1-CYCD3 activity is required for restriction of GC proliferation. ..
  23. Stals H, Bauwens S, Traas J, Van Montagu M, Engler G, Inze D. Plant CDC2 is not only targeted to the pre-prophase band, but also co-localizes with the spindle, phragmoplast, and chromosomes. FEBS Lett. 1997;418:229-34 pubmed
    A polyclonal antiserum against the p34cdc2 homologue of Arabidopsis thaliana, CDC2aAt, was used in parallel with a polyclonal antiserum against the PSTAIRE motif to study the subcellular localization of CDC2 during the cell cycle of ..
  24. Wang H, Qi Q, Schorr P, Cutler A, Crosby W, Fowke L. ICK1, a cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor from Arabidopsis thaliana interacts with both Cdc2a and CycD3, and its expression is induced by abscisic acid. Plant J. 1998;15:501-10 pubmed
    ..In the present study we characterized ICK1 in terms of its gene structure, its interaction with both A. thaliana Cdc2a and CycD3, and its induction by the plant growth regulator, abscisic acid (ABA)...
  25. De Veylder L, Segers G, Glab N, Casteels P, Van Montagu M, Inze D. The Arabidopsis Cks1At protein binds the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdc2aAt and Cdc2bAt. FEBS Lett. 1997;412:446-52 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis, two cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), Cdc2aAt and Cdc2bAt, have been described. Here, we have used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify Arabidopsis proteins interacting with Cdc2aAt...
  26. Craddock C, Adams N, Kroon J, Bryant F, Hussey P, Kurup S, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase activity enhances phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by repressing phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase activity. Plant J. 2017;89:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings reveal a physiologically important mechanism that couples the rate of phospholipid biosynthesis and endomembrane biogenesis to cell cycle progression in Arabidopsis. ..
  27. Fulop K, Tarayre S, Kelemen Z, Horvath G, Kevei Z, Nikovics K, et al. Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complexes: multiple activators and wide range of substrates might keep APC perpetually busy. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1084-92 pubmed
    ..These data indicate the existence of numerous APC(Cdc20/Ccs52/Cdc27) forms in Arabidopsis, which in conjunction with different E2 enzymes might have distinct or complementary functions at distinct stages of the cell cycle. ..
  28. Jakoby M, Weinl C, Pusch S, Kuijt S, Merkle T, Dissmeyer N, et al. Analysis of the subcellular localization, function, and proteolytic control of the Arabidopsis cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1/KRP1. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:1293-305 pubmed
    ..This degradation is mediated by at least two domains indicating the presence of at least two different pathways impinging on ICK1/KRP1 protein stability. ..
  29. Vanstraelen M, Torres Acosta J, De Veylder L, Inze D, Geelen D. A plant-specific subclass of C-terminal kinesins contains a conserved a-type cyclin-dependent kinase site implicated in folding and dimerization. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:1417-29 pubmed
    ..The data show that phosphorylation of the CDKA;1 site provokes a conformational change in the structure of KCA with implications in folding and dimerization. ..
  30. Ren H, Santner A, del Pozo J, Murray J, Estelle M. Degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor KRP1 is regulated by two different ubiquitin E3 ligases. Plant J. 2008;53:705-16 pubmed
    ..Two different ubiquitin protein ligases, SCF(SKP2) and the RING protein RKP, contribute to its degradation. These results suggest that SCF(SKP2b) and RPK play an important role in the cell cycle through regulating KRP1 protein turnover. ..
  31. Harashima H, Shinmyo A, Sekine M. Phosphorylation of threonine 161 in plant cyclin-dependent kinase A is required for cell division by activation of its associated kinase. Plant J. 2007;52:435-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of T161 in Arabidopsis CDKA;1 is essential for cell division during male gametogenesis. ..
  32. Van Leene J, Eeckhout D, Cannoot B, De Winne N, Persiau G, Van De Slijke E, et al. An improved toolbox to unravel the plant cellular machinery by tandem affinity purification of Arabidopsis protein complexes. Nat Protoc. 2015;10:169-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The value of the provided protocols is illustrated through numerous applications described in recent literature. ..
  33. Aw S, Hamamura Y, Chen Z, Schnittger A, Berger F. Sperm entry is sufficient to trigger division of the central cell but the paternal genome is required for endosperm development in Arabidopsis. Development. 2010;137:2683-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, sperm entry was sufficient to trigger central cell mitotic division, suggesting the existence of signaling events associated with sperm cell fusion with female gametes. ..
  34. Hirayama T, Imajuku Y, Anai T, Matsui M, Oka A. Identification of two cell-cycle-controlling cdc2 gene homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene. 1991;105:159-65 pubmed
    The cdc2 gene product (p34cdc2) has been thought to play a central role in control of the mitotic cell cycle of yeasts and animals...
  35. del Pozo J, Diaz Trivino S, Cisneros N, Gutierrez C. The balance between cell division and endoreplication depends on E2FC-DPB, transcription factors regulated by the ubiquitin-SCFSKP2A pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2224-35 pubmed
    ..Our results show that E2FC/DPB is a key factor in controlling the balance between cell proliferation and the switch to the endocycle program. ..
  36. Menges M, Samland A, Planchais S, Murray J. The D-type cyclin CYCD3;1 is limiting for the G1-to-S-phase transition in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:893-906 pubmed
    ..Ser-343 is likely a key residue in modulating CYCD3;1 activity in response to sucrose depletion. ..
  37. Kono A, Ohno R, Umeda Hara C, Uchimiya H, Umeda M. A distinct type of cyclin D, CYCD4;2, involved in the activation of cell division in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Rep. 2006;25:540-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CYCD4;2 has a promotive function in cell division by interacting with CDKA;1 regardless of the unusual primary sequence. ..
  38. Kobayashi K, Suzuki T, Iwata E, Nakamichi N, Suzuki T, Chen P, et al. Transcriptional repression by MYB3R proteins regulates plant organ growth. EMBO J. 2015;34:1992-2007 pubmed publisher
    ..In plants, these repressor complexes are important for periodic expression during cell cycle and to establish a post-mitotic quiescent state determining organ size. ..