Gene Symbol: BES1
Description: Brassinosteroid signaling positive regulator (BZR1) family protein
Alias: 107 PROTEIN, BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 2, BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR 1, BZR2, F18O14.7, F18O14_7, Brassinosteroid signaling positive regulator (BZR1) family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Wang Z, Nakano T, Gendron J, He J, Chen M, Vafeados D, et al. Nuclear-localized BZR1 mediates brassinosteroid-induced growth and feedback suppression of brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Dev Cell. 2002;2:505-13 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that BZR1 is a positive regulator of the BR signaling pathway that mediates both downstream BR responses and feedback regulation of BR biosynthesis. ..
  2. Ryu H, Kim K, Cho H, Hwang I. Predominant actions of cytosolic BSU1 and nuclear BIN2 regulate subcellular localization of BES1 in brassinosteroid signaling. Mol Cells. 2010;29:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..intensity by determining the phosphorylation status of the transcription factors BZR1 (BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1) and BES1 (bri1 EMS SUPPRESSOR1)...
  3. Yin Y, Wang Z, Mora Garcia S, Li J, Yoshida S, Asami T, et al. BES1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to brassinosteroids to regulate gene expression and promote stem elongation. Cell. 2002;109:181-91 pubmed
    ..We identified bes1, a semidominant suppressor of bri1, which exhibits constitutive BR response phenotypes including long and bending ..
  4. Gampala S, Kim T, He J, Tang W, Deng Z, Bai M, et al. An essential role for 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2007;13:177-89 pubmed
    ..BRs regulate gene expression by inducing dephosphorylation of two key transcription factors, BZR1 and BZR2/BES1, through a signal transduction pathway that involves cell-surface receptors (BRI1 and BAK1) and a GSK3 kinase (..
  5. Nolan T, Brennan B, Yang M, Chen J, Zhang M, Li Z, et al. Selective Autophagy of BES1 Mediated by DSK2 Balances Plant Growth and Survival. Dev Cell. 2017;41:33-46.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>BES1 functions as a master regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway that promotes plant growth...
  6. Jiang J, Zhang C, Wang X. A recently evolved isoform of the transcription factor BES1 promotes brassinosteroid signaling and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2015;27:361-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1) regulates the expression of thousands of target genes in response to BRs...
  7. Kondo Y, Ito T, Nakagami H, Hirakawa Y, Saito M, Tamaki T, et al. Plant GSK3 proteins regulate xylem cell differentiation downstream of TDIF-TDR signalling. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3504 pubmed publisher
    ..a specific inhibitor of plant GSK3s strongly induces xylem cell differentiation through BRI1-EMS SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1), a well-known target transcription factor of GSK3s...
  8. Ryu H, Cho H, Kim K, Hwang I. Phosphorylation dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of BES1 is a key regulatory event in brassinosteroid signaling. Mol Cells. 2010;29:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs modulate the phosphorylation status of two crucial transcription factors, BRI1 EMS SUPPRESSOR1 BES1)and BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1)...
  9. Tang W, Yuan M, Wang R, Yang Y, Wang C, Oses Prieto J, et al. PP2A activates brassinosteroid-responsive gene expression and plant growth by dephosphorylating BZR1. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:124-31 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Wang X, Chen J, Xie Z, Liu S, Nolan T, Ye H, et al. Histone lysine methyltransferase SDG8 is involved in brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant. 2014;7:1303-1315 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs signal through receptors localized to the plasma membrane and other signaling components to regulate the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which modulates the expression of thousands of genes...
  2. Ye Q, Zhu W, Li L, Zhang S, Yin Y, Ma H, et al. Brassinosteroids control male fertility by regulating the expression of key genes involved in Arabidopsis anther and pollen development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP analysis demonstrated that BES1, an important transcription factor for brassinosteroid signaling, could directly bind to the promoter regions of ..
  3. Yang M, Li C, Cai Z, Hu Y, Nolan T, Yu F, et al. SINAT E3 Ligases Control the Light-Mediated Stability of the Brassinosteroid-Activated Transcription Factor BES1 in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2017;41:47-58.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the function of the core transcription factor in the BR signaling pathway, BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1), largely depends on its phosphorylation status and its protein stability, but the regulation of BES1 is not well ..
  4. Wang Y, Sun S, Zhu W, Jia K, Yang H, Wang X. Strigolactone/MAX2-induced degradation of brassinosteroid transcriptional effector BES1 regulates shoot branching. Dev Cell. 2013;27:681-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence to demonstrate that BES1 interacts with MAX2 and acts as its substrate to regulate SL-responsive gene expression...
  5. Shigeta T, Zaizen Y, Asami T, Yoshida S, Nakamura Y, Okamoto S, et al. Molecular evidence of the involvement of heat shock protein 90 in brassinosteroid signaling in Arabidopsis T87 cultured cells. Plant Cell Rep. 2014;33:499-510 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and BES1. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that is reportedly involved in the proper ..
  6. Li L, Ye H, Guo H, Yin Y. Arabidopsis IWS1 interacts with transcription factor BES1 and is involved in plant steroid hormone brassinosteroid regulated gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs signal through membrane-localized receptor BRI1 and several other signaling components to regulate the BES1 and BZR1 family transcription factors, which in turn control the expression of hundreds of target genes...
  7. Trupkin S, Mora Garcia S, Casal J. The cyclophilin ROC1 links phytochrome and cryptochrome to brassinosteroid sensitivity. Plant J. 2012;71:712-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The roc1 and roc1-D mutants show altered patterns of phosphorylation of the transcription factor BES1, a known point of control of sensitivity to brassinosteroids, which correlate with the expression levels of genes ..
  8. Shigeta T, Zaizen Y, Sugimoto Y, Nakamura Y, Matsuo T, Okamoto S. Heat shock protein 90 acts in brassinosteroid signaling through interaction with BES1/BZR1 transcription factor. J Plant Physiol. 2015;178:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Two highly homologous transcription factors, brassinosteroid insensitive 1-EMS-SUPRESSOR 1 (BES1) and brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1), act downstream of BR signaling to control several thousands of putative ..
  9. Yu X, Li L, Li L, Guo M, Chory J, Yin Y. Modulation of brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression by Jumonji domain-containing proteins ELF6 and REF6 in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs signal through a cell surface receptor kinase, BRI1, and a GSK3-like kinase, BIN2, to regulate the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which directly bind to target gene promoters to activate or repress gene ..
  10. Kang S, Yang F, Li L, Chen H, Chen S, Zhang J. The Arabidopsis transcription factor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1 is a direct substrate of MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 and regulates immunity. Plant Physiol. 2015;167:1076-86 pubmed publisher
    ..that PAMP perception enhances phosphorylation of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1), a transcription factor involved in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway, through pathogen-induced MAPKs in ..
  11. Yin Y, Vafeados D, Tao Y, Yoshida S, Asami T, Chory J. A new class of transcription factors mediates brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis. Cell. 2005;120:249-59 pubmed
    ..We showed previously that a novel protein, BES1, accumulates in the nucleus in response to BRs, where it plays a role in BR-regulated gene expression; however, the ..
  12. Li L, Yu X, Thompson A, Guo M, Yoshida S, Asami T, et al. Arabidopsis MYB30 is a direct target of BES1 and cooperates with BES1 to regulate brassinosteroid-induced gene expression. Plant J. 2009;58:275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs signal through the BES1/BZR1 (bri1-Ethylmethane Sulphonate suppressor 1/brassinazole-resistant 1) family of transcription factors, which ..
  13. Zhang D, Ye H, Guo H, Johnson A, Zhang M, Lin H, et al. Transcription factor HAT1 is phosphorylated by BIN2 kinase and mediates brassinosteroid repressed gene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2014;77:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs signal through plasma membrane-localized receptor and other components to modulate the BES1/BZR1 (BRI1-EMS SUPPRESSOR 1/BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1) family of transcription factors that modulate thousands of ..
  14. Salazar Henao J, Lehner R, Betegón Putze I, Vilarrasa Blasi J, Caño Delgado A. BES1 regulates the localization of the brassinosteroid receptor BRL3 within the provascular tissue of the Arabidopsis primary root. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:4951-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, BRL3 expression requires active BES1, a central transcriptional effector within the BRI1 pathway...
  15. Zhang D, Ye H, Guo H, Johnson A, Lin H, Yin Y. Transcription factors involved in brassinosteroid repressed gene expression and their regulation by BIN2 kinase. Plant Signal Behav. 2014;9:e27849 pubmed
    ..BRs signal through plasma membrane-localized receptors to control BES1/BZR1 family transcription factors, which mediate the expression of thousands of genes...
  16. Cai Z, Liu J, Wang H, Yang C, Chen Y, Li Y, et al. GSK3-like kinases positively modulate abscisic acid signaling through phosphorylating subgroup III SnRK2s in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:9651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2 and SnRK2.3. These findings provide significant insight into the modulation of ABA signaling by Arabidopsis GSK3-like kinases. ..
  17. Ryu H, Cho H, Bae W, Hwang I. Control of early seedling development by BES1/TPL/HDA19-mediated epigenetic regulation of ABI3. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4138 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we reveal that a BES1/TPL/HDA19 repressor complex mediates the inhibitory action of brassinosteroids on ABA responses during early ..
  18. Singh A, Fridman Y, Friedlander Shani L, Tarkowska D, Strnad M, Savaldi Goldstein S. Activity of the brassinosteroid transcription factors BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1/BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT2 blocks developmental reprogramming in response to low phosphate availability. Plant Physiol. 2014;166:678-88 pubmed publisher
    ..BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1) and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1)/BZR2, blocks these responses, consequently maintaining normal root development under low phosphate conditions without ..
  19. Guo R, Qian H, Shen W, Liu L, Zhang M, Cai C, et al. BZR1 and BES1 participate in regulation of glucosinolate biosynthesis by brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:2401-12 pubmed publisher
    ..content of glucosinolates and lower expression levels of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes in 35S-BZR1/bzr1-1D and bes1-D plants compared with the corresponding wild-types suggested that BZR1 and BES1, two important components in BR ..
  20. Vilarrasa Blasi J, González García M, Frigola D, Fàbregas N, Alexiou K, Lopez Bigas N, et al. Regulation of plant stem cell quiescence by a brassinosteroid signaling module. Dev Cell. 2014;30:36-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, BR-regulated transcription factor BES1 (BRI1-EMS SUPRESSOR 1) directly represses and physically interacts with BRAVO in vivo, creating a switch that ..
  21. Lachowiec J, Lemus T, Thomas J, Murphy P, Nemhauser J, Queitsch C. The protein chaperone HSP90 can facilitate the divergence of gene duplicates. Genetics. 2013;193:1269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify a new HSP90 client in the plant steroid hormone pathway: the transcription factor BES1. Its closest paralog, BZR1, is not an HSP90 client...
  22. Nolan T, Liu S, Guo H, Li L, Schnable P, Yin Y. Identification of Brassinosteroid Target Genes by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Followed by High-Throughput Sequencing (ChIP-seq) and RNA-Sequencing. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1564:63-79 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs signal to regulate BR-INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1) and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) transcription factors (TFs), which, in turn, regulate several hundreds of ..
  23. Yu X, Li L, Zola J, Aluru M, Ye H, Foudree A, et al. A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2011;65:634-46 pubmed publisher
    ..BRs signal to control the activities of the BES1 and BZR1 family transcription factors...
  24. Ye H, Li L, Guo H, Yin Y. MYBL2 is a substrate of GSK3-like kinase BIN2 and acts as a corepressor of BES1 in brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..intermediates to regulate the protein levels, cellular localizations, and/or DNA binding of BRI1-EMS suppressor 1 (BES1)/brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors...
  25. Zhao J, Peng P, Schmitz R, Decker A, Tax F, Li J. Two putative BIN2 substrates are nuclear components of brassinosteroid signaling. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:1221-9 pubmed
    ..approach, we discovered a potential BIN2 substrate that is identical to a recently identified BR-signaling protein, BES1. BES1 and its closest homolog, BZR1, which was also uncovered as a potential BR-signaling protein, display specific ..