Gene Symbol: BAK1
Description: BRI1-associated receptor kinase
Alias: ATBAK1, ATSERK3, BRI1-associated receptor kinase, ELG, ELONGATED, F17M5.190, F17M5_190, RECEPTOR KINASES LIKE SERK 10, RKS10, SERK3, SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 3, BRI1-associated receptor kinase
Species: thale cress
Products:     BAK1

Top Publications

  1. Shan L, He P, Li J, Heese A, Peck S, Nürnberger T, et al. Bacterial effectors target the common signaling partner BAK1 to disrupt multiple MAMP receptor-signaling complexes and impede plant immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that AvrPto and AvrPtoB bind the Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase BAK1, a shared signaling partner of both the flagellin receptor FLS2 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1...
  2. Wang X, Kota U, He K, Blackburn K, Li J, Goshe M, et al. Sequential transphosphorylation of the BRI1/BAK1 receptor kinase complex impacts early events in brassinosteroid signaling. Dev Cell. 2008;15:220-35 pubmed publisher
    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant development through a signal transduction pathway involving the BRI1 and BAK1 transmembrane receptor kinases...
  3. Wang X, Chory J. Brassinosteroids regulate dissociation of BKI1, a negative regulator of BRI1 signaling, from the plasma membrane. Science. 2006;313:1118-22 pubmed
    ..BKI1 is a substrate of BRI1 kinase and limits the interaction of BRI1 with its proposed coreceptor, BAK1, suggesting that BKI1 prevents the activation of BRI1.
  4. Li J, Wen J, Lease K, Doke J, Tax F, Walker J. BAK1, an Arabidopsis LRR receptor-like protein kinase, interacts with BRI1 and modulates brassinosteroid signaling. Cell. 2002;110:213-22 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of BAK1 results in elongated organ phenotypes, while a null allele of BAK1 displays a semidwarfed phenotype and has reduced sensitivity to ..
  5. Albert M, Jehle A, Fürst U, Chinchilla D, Boller T, Felix G. A two-hybrid-receptor assay demonstrates heteromer formation as switch-on for plant immune receptors. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:1504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with rapid complex formation with a second receptor kinase termed brassinosteroid receptor1 associated kinase1 (BAK1)...
  6. Albrecht C, Russinova E, Kemmerling B, Kwaaitaal M, de Vries S. Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE proteins serve brassinosteroid-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One member of this family, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1)-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1), also known as SERK3, is the coreceptor of the brassinolide (BR)-perceiving receptor BRI1, a function that is BR dependent and ..
  7. Kemmerling B, Schwedt A, Rodriguez P, Mazzotta S, Frank M, Qamar S, et al. The BRI1-associated kinase 1, BAK1, has a brassinolide-independent role in plant cell-death control. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1116-22 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1), which operates as a coreceptor of BRI1 in brassinolide (BL)-dependent plant development, also regulates the ..
  8. Roux M, Schwessinger B, Albrecht C, Chinchilla D, Jones A, Holton N, et al. The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases BAK1/SERK3 and BKK1/SERK4 are required for innate immunity to hemibiotrophic and biotrophic pathogens. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2440-55 pubmed publisher
  9. Nam K, Li J. BRI1/BAK1, a receptor kinase pair mediating brassinosteroid signaling. Cell. 2002;110:203-12 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis BAK1 (BRI1 Associated receptor Kinase 1) was identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen as a specific interactor for BRI1, a critical component of a membrane brassinosteroid (BR) receptor...

More Information


  1. Lu D, Lin W, Gao X, Wu S, Cheng C, Avila J, et al. Direct ubiquitination of pattern recognition receptor FLS2 attenuates plant innate immunity. Science. 2011;332:1439-42 pubmed publisher
    ..PRR FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) senses bacterial flagellin and initiates immune signaling through association with BAK1. The molecular mechanisms underlying the attenuation of FLS2 activation are largely unknown...
  2. Heese A, Hann D, Gimenez Ibanez S, Jones A, He K, Li J, et al. The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is a central regulator of innate immunity in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12217-22 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSERK3/BAK1 rapidly enters an elicitor-dependent complex with FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2), the receptor for the bacterial ..
  3. Gou X, Yin H, He K, Du J, Yi J, Xu S, et al. Genetic evidence for an indispensable role of somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases in brassinosteroid signaling. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002452 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SERK3 was named BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) due to its direct interaction with the brassinosteroid (BR) ..
  4. Lu D, Wu S, Gao X, Zhang Y, Shan L, He P. A receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, BIK1, associates with a flagellin receptor complex to initiate plant innate immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:496-501 pubmed publisher
    ..flagellin and initiates immune signaling by association with another leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinase, BAK1. It remains unknown how the FLS2/BAK1 receptor complex activates intracellular signaling cascades...
  5. Chinchilla D, Zipfel C, Robatzek S, Kemmerling B, Nürnberger T, Jones J, et al. A flagellin-induced complex of the receptor FLS2 and BAK1 initiates plant defence. Nature. 2007;448:497-500 pubmed
    ..Here we show that BAK1 (BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase that has been reported to regulate ..
  6. Sun Y, Li L, Macho A, Han Z, Hu Z, Zipfel C, et al. Structural basis for flg22-induced activation of the Arabidopsis FLS2-BAK1 immune complex. Science. 2013;342:624-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Flg22 binding induces FLS2 heteromerization with BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) and their reciprocal activation followed by plant immunity...
  7. Oh M, Wang X, Clouse S, Huber S. Deactivation of the Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor kinase by autophosphorylation within the glycine-rich loop. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Many arginine-aspartate (RD)-type leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases have a phosphorylatable residue within the ATP-binding domain, suggesting that this mechanism may play a broad role in receptor kinase deactivation. ..
  8. Karlova R, Boeren S, Russinova E, Aker J, Vervoort J, de Vries S. The Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 protein complex includes BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1. Plant Cell. 2006;18:626-38 pubmed
    ..approach identified two other LRR-RLKs, the BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) receptor and its coreceptor, the SERK3 or BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 protein...
  9. Schwessinger B, Roux M, Kadota Y, Ntoukakis V, Sklenar J, Jones A, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent differential regulation of plant growth, cell death, and innate immunity by the regulatory receptor-like kinase BAK1. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002046 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control...
  10. Bücherl C, van Esse G, Kruis A, Luchtenberg J, Westphal A, Aker J, et al. Visualization of BRI1 and BAK1(SERK3) membrane receptor heterooligomers during brassinosteroid signaling. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1911-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the resolved structure of the BRI1 ectodomain suggested that BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 [BAK1](SERK3) may constitute a component of the ligand-perceiving receptor complex...
  11. Russinova E, Borst J, Kwaaitaal M, Caño Delgado A, Yin Y, Chory J, et al. Heterodimerization and endocytosis of Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptors BRI1 and AtSERK3 (BAK1). Plant Cell. 2004;16:3216-29 pubmed
  12. Gao M, Wang X, Wang D, Xu F, Ding X, Zhang Z, et al. Regulation of cell death and innate immunity by two receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..flagellin, the plant receptor FLS2 heterodimerizes with brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) and activates plant defense responses...
  13. Wang X, Goshe M, Soderblom E, Phinney B, Kuchar J, Li J, et al. Identification and functional analysis of in vivo phosphorylation sites of the Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 receptor kinase. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1685-703 pubmed
    ..and development and require an active BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1) for hormone perception and signal transduction...
  14. Cao Y, Aceti D, Sabat G, Song J, Makino S, Fox B, et al. Mutations in FLS2 Ser-938 dissect signaling activation in FLS2-mediated Arabidopsis immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003313 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has shown that after flg22 binding, FLS2 releases BIK1 kinase and homologs and associates with BAK1 kinase, and that FLS2 kinase activity is critical for FLS2 function...
  15. Jaillais Y, Belkhadir Y, Balsemão Pires E, Dangl J, Chory J. Extracellular leucine-rich repeats as a platform for receptor/coreceptor complex formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8503-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the extracellular LRR domain of BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1), a coreceptor involved in the disparate processes of cell surface steroid signaling and immunity in plants, is ..
  16. Schulze B, Mentzel T, Jehle A, Mueller K, Beeler S, Boller T, et al. Rapid heteromerization and phosphorylation of ligand-activated plant transmembrane receptors and their associated kinase BAK1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the flagellin receptor FLS2, interaction with the LRR receptor-like kinase BAK1 (BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1) was shown to be required for signal transduction. Here we report that FLS2...
  17. Postel S, Küfner I, Beuter C, Mazzotta S, Schwedt A, Borlotti A, et al. The multifunctional leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase BAK1 is implicated in Arabidopsis development and immunity. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We further document the role of the Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) in seemingly unrelated biological processes, such as plant development and immunity, and propose a role of this ..
  18. Oh M, Wang X, Kota U, Goshe M, Clouse S, Huber S. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the BRI1 receptor kinase emerges as a component of brassinosteroid signaling in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:658-63 pubmed publisher
    ..brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), which is the BR receptor, and its coreceptor BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1)...
  19. Xu W, Huang J, Li B, Li J, Wang Y. Is kinase activity essential for biological functions of BRI1?. Cell Res. 2008;18:472-8 pubmed publisher
    ..has no detectable autophosphorylation activity or phosphorylation activity towards the BRI1 substrates TTL and BAK1. Furthermore, our results suggest that bri1-301, even with extremely impaired kinase activity, still retains ..
  20. He K, Gou X, Yuan T, Lin H, Asami T, Yoshida S, et al. BAK1 and BKK1 regulate brassinosteroid-dependent growth and brassinosteroid-independent cell-death pathways. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1109-15 pubmed
    ..two transmembrane receptor kinases, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) and BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (BAK1) [1-3]...
  21. Tunc Ozdemir M, Urano D, Jaiswal D, Clouse S, Jones A. Direct Modulation of Heterotrimeric G Protein-coupled Signaling by a Receptor Kinase Complex. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:13918-25 pubmed publisher
    ..G protein signaling is directly activated by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide 22 through its LRR RLK, FLS2, and co-receptor BAK1.
  22. Zhang W, Fraiture M, Kolb D, Löffelhardt B, Desaki Y, Boutrot F, et al. Arabidopsis receptor-like protein30 and receptor-like kinase suppressor of BIR1-1/EVERSHED mediate innate immunity to necrotrophic fungi. Plant Cell. 2013;25:4227-41 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway dependent on the regulatory receptor-like kinases brassinosteroid insensitive1-associated receptor kinase1 (BAK1) and Suppressor of BIR1-1/evershed (SOBIR1/EVR). Mutants of RLP30, BAK1, and SOBIR1 are more susceptible to S...
  23. Chung Y, Choe V, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Han M, Jeon J, et al. Constitutive activation of brassinosteroid signaling in the Arabidopsis elongated-D/bak1 mutant. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;80:489-501 pubmed publisher
    ..An Arabidopsis elongated-D (elg-D) mutant shares phenotypic similarities with BR overexpression lines, suggesting its implication in BR ..
  24. Blaum B, Mazzotta S, Nöldeke E, Halter T, Madlung J, Kemmerling B, et al. Structure of the pseudokinase domain of BIR2, a regulator of BAK1-mediated immune signaling in Arabidopsis. J Struct Biol. 2014;186:112-21 pubmed publisher
    The BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase 2 (BIR2) belongs to the large family of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) that mediate development and innate immunity in plants and form a monophyletic gene family with the ..
  25. Liu Y, Huang X, Li M, He P, Zhang Y. Loss-of-function of Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase BIR1 activates cell death and defense responses mediated by BAK1 and SOBIR1. New Phytol. 2016;212:637-645 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase (RLK) BIR1 (BAK1-INTERACTING RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 1) functions as a negative regulator of plant immunity...
  26. Gravino M, Locci F, Tundo S, Cervone F, Savatin D, De Lorenzo G. Immune responses induced by oligogalacturonides are differentially affected by AvrPto and loss of BAK1/BKK1 and PEPR1/PEPR2. Mol Plant Pathol. 2017;18:582-595 pubmed publisher inhibiting the kinase function of the corresponding receptors FLS2 and EFR, as well as their co-receptors BAK1 and BKK1...
  27. Zhou J, Lu D, Xu G, Finlayson S, He P, Shan L. The dominant negative ARM domain uncovers multiple functions of PUB13 in Arabidopsis immunity, flowering, and senescence. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:3353-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis FLS2, the receptor for bacterial flagellin, activates immune signalling by association with its partner BAK1. Upon flagellin (flg22) perception, the plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases PUB12 and PUB13 complex with FLS2 in a ..
  28. Kadota Y, Sklenar J, Derbyshire P, Stransfeld L, Asai S, Ntoukakis V, et al. Direct regulation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by the PRR-associated kinase BIK1 during plant immunity. Mol Cell. 2014;54:43-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a rapid regulatory mechanism of a plant RBOH, which occurs in parallel with and is essential for its paradigmatic calcium-based regulation. ..
  29. Singh P, Kuo Y, Mishra S, Tsai C, Chien C, Chen C, et al. The lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 is required for priming and positively regulates Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity. Plant Cell. 2012;24:1256-70 pubmed publisher
    ..LecRK-VI.2 is also required for full BABA-induced resistance and priming of PTI. Our work identifies LecRK-VI.2 as a novel mediator of the Arabidopsis PTI response and provides insight into molecular mechanisms governing priming. ..
  30. Tang W, Deng Z, Oses Prieto J, Suzuki N, Zhu S, Zhang X, et al. Proteomics studies of brassinosteroid signal transduction using prefractionation and two-dimensional DIGE. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:728-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These include the BAK1 receptor kinase and BZR1 transcription factor of the BR signaling pathway...
  31. Wang Z, Meng P, Zhang X, Ren D, Yang S. BON1 interacts with the protein kinases BIR1 and BAK1 in modulation of temperature-dependent plant growth and cell death in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2011;67:1081-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that BON1 interacts physically with the leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinases BIR1 (BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase 1) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptor regulator BAK1 in ..
  32. Yeh Y, Panzeri D, Kadota Y, Huang Y, Huang P, Tao C, et al. The Arabidopsis Malectin-Like/LRR-RLK IOS1 Is Critical for BAK1-Dependent and BAK1-Independent Pattern-Triggered Immunity. Plant Cell. 2016;28:1701-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the existence of complexes between the membrane-localized IOS1 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1)-dependent PRRs FLS2 and EFR, as well as with the BAK1-independent PRR CERK1...
  33. Lu D, Wu S, He P, Shan L. Phosphorylation of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases by bacterial flagellin. Plant Signal Behav. 2010;5:598-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon flagellin perception, FLS2 forms a complex with another LRR-RLK BAK1. The intracellular signaling events downstream of FLS2/BAK1 receptor complex are still poorly understood...
  34. Lee H, Chah O, Sheen J. Stem-cell-triggered immunity through CLV3p-FLS2 signalling. Nature. 2011;473:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhanced immunity in SAM or germ lines may represent a common strategy towards immortal fate in plants and animals. ..
  35. Fàbregas N, Li N, Boeren S, Nash T, Goshe M, Clouse S, et al. The brassinosteroid insensitive1-like3 signalosome complex regulates Arabidopsis root development. Plant Cell. 2013;25:3377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas BRI1 associated kinase1 (BAK1) and several other known BRI1 interactors coimmunoprecipitated with BRL3, no evidence was found of a direct ..
  36. Liu J, Chen S, Chen L, Zhou Q, Wang M, Feng D, et al. BIK1 cooperates with BAK1 to regulate constitutive immunity and cell death in Arabidopsis. J Integr Plant Biol. 2017;59:234-239 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis, both the membrane-anchored receptor-like kinase (RLK) BAK1 and the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK) BIK1 are important mediators of transmembrane signal transduction that regulate plant development and immunity...
  37. Domínguez Ferreras A, Kiss Papp M, Jehle A, Felix G, Chinchilla D. An Overdose of the Arabidopsis Coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 or Its Ectodomain Causes Autoimmunity in a SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1-Dependent Manner. Plant Physiol. 2015;168:1106-21 pubmed publisher
    The membrane-bound Brassinosteroid insensitive1-associated receptor kinase1 (BAK1) is a common coreceptor in plants and regulates distinct cellular programs ranging from growth and development to defense against pathogens...
  38. Yamada K, Yamashita Yamada M, Hirase T, Fujiwara T, Tsuda K, Hiruma K, et al. Danger peptide receptor signaling in plants ensures basal immunity upon pathogen-induced depletion of BAK1. EMBO J. 2016;35:46-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase BAK1 associates and functions with different cell surface LRR receptors for a wide range of ligands, including MAMPs...
  39. Halliday K, Devlin P, Whitelam G, Hanhart C, Koornneef M. The ELONGATED gene of Arabidopsis acts independently of light and gibberellins in the control of elongation growth. Plant J. 1996;9:305-12 pubmed
    A novel elongated mutant has been isolated from EMS-mutagenized populations of the Arabidopsis thaliana ga4 mutant...
  40. Prince D, Drurey C, Zipfel C, Hogenhout S. The leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 and the cytochrome P450 PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT3 contribute to innate immunity to aphids in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2014;164:2207-19 pubmed publisher
    ..that is dependent on the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1)/SOMATIC-EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3, which is a key regulator of several leucine-rich repeat-containing ..
  41. Kim S, Shang Y, Joo S, Kim S, Nam K. Overexpression of BAK1 causes salicylic acid accumulation and deregulation of cell death control genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;484:781-786 pubmed publisher
    Since the BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) was firstly identified as a co-receptor of BRI1 that mediates brassinosteroids (BR) signaling, the functional roles of BAK1, as a versatile co-receptor for various ligand-binding leucine-..
  42. Halter T, Imkampe J, Mazzotta S, Wierzba M, Postel S, Bücherl C, et al. The leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase BIR2 is a negative regulator of BAK1 in plant immunity. Curr Biol. 2014;24:134-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>BAK1 is a plant LRR-receptor-like kinase (RLK) that interacts with several ligand-binding LRR-RLKs to positively ..
  43. Wang L, Xu Y, Li J, Powell R, Xu Z, Chong K. Transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing AtBAK1 are semi-dwarfed and hypersensitive to 24-epibrassinolide. J Plant Physiol. 2007;164:655-64 pubmed
    ..This article provides the first piece of evidence that AtBAK1 can greatly affect growth and development of rice plants when ectopically expressed, suggesting that rice may ..
  44. Kim M, Kim Y, Kim J, Lee H, Lee W, Kim S, et al. Identification of Arabidopsis BAK1-associating receptor-like kinase 1 (BARK1) and characterization of its gene expression and brassinosteroid-regulated root phenotypes. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:1620-34 pubmed publisher
    Brassinosteroids (BRs) activate the BRI1 and BAK1/SERK3 membrane receptor complex, which leads to a wide range of changes in gene expression, plant growth and development...
  45. aan den Toorn M, Albrecht C, de Vries S. On the Origin of SERKs: Bioinformatics Analysis of the Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinases. Mol Plant. 2015;8:762-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Further sequence analysis indicates that SERK3/BAK1 and SERK4/BKK1 have diverged from the original SERK protein in both their extracellular and cytoplasmic ..
  46. Albrecht C, Boutrot F, Segonzac C, Schwessinger B, Gimenez Ibanez S, Chinchilla D, et al. Brassinosteroids inhibit pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune signaling independent of the receptor kinase BAK1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, the regulatory leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) BAK1 combines with the LRR-RLKs FLS2 and EFR in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) ..
  47. Whippo C, Hangarter R. A brassinosteroid-hypersensitive mutant of BAK1 indicates that a convergence of photomorphogenic and hormonal signaling modulates phototropism. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:448-57 pubmed
    ..We found that elongated, a previously identified photomorphogenesis mutant, enhances high-light phototropism and represents a unique ..
  48. Vincent T, Avramova M, Canham J, Higgins P, Bilkey N, Mugford S, et al. Interplay of Plasma Membrane and Vacuolar Ion Channels, Together with BAK1, Elicits Rapid Cytosolic Calcium Elevations in Arabidopsis during Aphid Feeding. Plant Cell. 2017;29:1460-1479 pubmed publisher
    ..showing that interplay between the plant defense coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1), the plasma membrane ion channels GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE 3.3 and 3.6 (GLR3.3 and GLR3...
  49. Koller T, Bent A. FLS2-BAK1 extracellular domain interaction sites required for defense signaling activation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111185 pubmed publisher
    ..examined how the microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor FLS2 builds signaling complexes with BAK1 (SERK3)...
  50. Shinya T, Yamaguchi K, Desaki Y, Yamada K, Narisawa T, Kobayashi Y, et al. Selective regulation of the chitin-induced defense response by the Arabidopsis receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase PBL27. Plant J. 2014;79:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that CERK1 preferentially phosphorylated PBL27 in comparison to BIK1, whereas phosphorylation of PBL27 by BAK1 was very low compared with that of BIK1...
  51. Yun H, Bae Y, Lee Y, Chang S, Kim S, Li J, et al. Analysis of phosphorylation of the BRI1/BAK1 complex in arabidopsis reveals amino acid residues critical for receptor formation and activation of BR signaling. Mol Cells. 2009;27:183-90 pubmed publisher
    The plasma membrane-localized BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) are a well-known receptor pair involved in brassinosteroids (BR) signaling in Arabidposis...
  52. van Esse G, Ten Hove C, Guzzonato F, van Esse H, Boekschoten M, Ridder L, et al. Transcriptional Analysis of serk1 and serk3 Coreceptor Mutants. Plant Physiol. 2016;172:2516-2529 pubmed
    ..The results also show that the gene expression pattern in serk3-2 mutant roots is similar to that of the serk1-3serk3-2 double mutant roots...
  53. Gao J, Ma Y, Sun Y, Zhao H, Hong D, Yan L, et al. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) cytoplasmic domain. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2012;68:340-2 pubmed publisher
    BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) is a member of the plant receptor-like kinase (RLK) superfamily...
  54. Tateda C, Zhang Z, Shrestha J, Jelenska J, Chinchilla D, Greenberg J. Salicylic acid regulates Arabidopsis microbial pattern receptor kinase levels and signaling. Plant Cell. 2014;26:4171-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate multiple modes of signaling for PRRs in response to PAMPs and SA. ..
  55. Segonzac C, Macho A, Sanmartin M, Ntoukakis V, Sánchez Serrano J, Zipfel C. Negative control of BAK1 by protein phosphatase 2A during plant innate immunity. EMBO J. 2014;33:2069-79 pubmed publisher
    ..controls the activation of PRR complexes by modulating the phosphostatus of the co-receptor and positive regulator BAK1. A potential PP2A holoenzyme composed of the subunits A1, C4, and B'?/? inhibits immune responses triggered by ..
  56. Bojar D, Martinez J, Santiago J, Rybin V, Bayliss R, Hothorn M. Crystal structures of the phosphorylated BRI1 kinase domain and implications for brassinosteroid signal initiation. Plant J. 2014;78:31-43 pubmed publisher
    ..protein interaction surface on the C-terminal lobe of the kinase and demonstrate that the isolated BRI1, SERK2 and SERK3 cytoplasmic segments form homodimers in solution and have a weak tendency to heteromerise...
  57. Meng X, Zhou J, Tang J, Li B, de Oliveira M, Chai J, et al. Ligand-Induced Receptor-like Kinase Complex Regulates Floral Organ Abscission in Arabidopsis. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1330-1338 pubmed publisher
    ..IDA induces heterodimerization of HAE/HSL2 and SERKs, which transphosphorylate each other. The SERK3 residues mediating its interaction with the immune receptor FLS2 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 are also ..
  58. Lozano Dur n R, Bourdais G, He S, Robatzek S. The bacterial effector HopM1 suppresses PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. New Phytol. 2014;202:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results unveil the impact of HopM1 on the PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity in an AtMIN7-independent manner, most likely acting at the function of (a) 14-3-3 protein(s)...
  59. Meng X, Chen X, Mang H, Liu C, Yu X, Gao X, et al. Differential Function of Arabidopsis SERK Family Receptor-like Kinases in Stomatal Patterning. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2361-72 pubmed publisher
    ..essential but have unequal genetic contributions to stomatal patterning, with descending order of importance from SERK3/BAK1 to SERK2 to SERK1 to SERK4...
  60. Teixeira M, Wei L, Kaloshian I. Root-knot nematodes induce pattern-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. New Phytol. 2016;211:276-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that PTI-compromised plants have enhanced susceptibility to RKNs, including the bak1-5 mutant. BAK1 is a common partner of distinct receptors of microbe- and damage-associated molecular patterns...
  61. Dressano K, Ceciliato P, Silva A, Guerrero Abad J, Bergonci T, Ortiz Morea F, et al. BAK1 is involved in AtRALF1-induced inhibition of root cell expansion. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007053 pubmed publisher
    ..An evaluation of the response of BR signaling mutants to AtRALF1 revealed that BRI1-associated receptor kinase1 (bak1) mutants are insensitive to AtRALF1 root growth inhibition activity...
  62. van Esse W, van Mourik S, Albrecht C, van Leeuwen J, de Vries S. A mathematical model for the coreceptors SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 and SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 in BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-mediated signaling. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:1472-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This points to residual BRI1 signaling or to a different coreceptor requirement in shoots. ..
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    ..Such MAMP-specific differences are, in part, controlled by BAK1, a kinase associated with several receptors...
  64. Wang J, Li H, Han Z, Zhang H, Wang T, Lin G, et al. Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine. Nature. 2015;525:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal the structural basis for PSKR recognition of PSK and allosteric activation of PSKR by PSK, opening up new avenues for the design of PSKR-specific small molecules. ..
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    ..Arabidopsis thaliana BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 4 (SERK4) redundantly and negatively regulate cell death through elusive ..
  66. Huang P, Yeh Y, Liu A, Cheng C, Zimmerli L. The Arabidopsis LecRK-VI.2 associates with the pattern-recognition receptor FLS2 and primes Nicotiana benthamiana pattern-triggered immunity. Plant J. 2014;79:243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identified LecRK-VI.2 as a member of the FLS2 receptor complex and suggest that heterologous expression of components of PRR complexes can be used as tools to engineer plant disease resistance to bacteria. ..
  67. Kørner C, Klauser D, Niehl A, Domínguez Ferreras A, Chinchilla D, Boller T, et al. The immunity regulator BAK1 contributes to resistance against diverse RNA viruses. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:1271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..A central regulator of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is the BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1), which undergoes complex formation with PRR upon ligand binding...
  68. Bender K, Wang X, Cheng G, Kim H, Zielinski R, Huber S. Glutaredoxin AtGRXC2 catalyses inhibitory glutathionylation of Arabidopsis BRI1-associated receptor-like kinase 1 (BAK1) in vitro. Biochem J. 2015;467:399-413 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified a number of novel putative brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BR1)-associated receptor-like kinase 1 (BAK1) interacting proteins including several proteins related to redox regulation...