Gene Symbol: AXR1
Description: NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein
Alias: AUXIN RESISTANT 1, AUXIN RESISTANT PROTEIN 1, YUP8H12.21, YUP8H12_21, NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Pozo J, Timpte C, Tan S, Callis J, Estelle M. The ubiquitin-related protein RUB1 and auxin response in Arabidopsis. Science. 1998;280:1760-3 pubmed
    The AXR1 (auxin-resistant) protein, which has features of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, is required for normal response to the plant hormone auxin in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  2. Dharmasiri N, Dharmasiri S, Weijers D, Karunarathna N, Jurgens G, Estelle M. AXL and AXR1 have redundant functions in RUB conjugation and growth and development in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;52:114-23 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis, the RUB-activating enzyme is a heterodimer consisting of AXR1 and ECR1...
  3. Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M. The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 2003;22:1762-70 pubmed
    ..A mutation in the RCE1 gene results in a phenotype like that of the axr1 mutant...
  4. Dohmann E, Levesque M, De Veylder L, Reichardt I, Jurgens G, Schmid M, et al. The Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome is essential for G2 phase progression and genomic stability. Development. 2008;135:2013-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that Arabidopsis csn mutants undergo DNA damage, which might be the cause of the delay in G2 cell cycle progression...
  5. Abel S, Nguyen M, Theologis A. The PS-IAA4/5-like family of early auxin-inducible mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Mol Biol. 1995;251:533-49 pubmed
    ..Expression of all genes is defective in the Arabidopsis auxin-resistant mutant lines axr1, axr2 and aux1...
  6. Lin R, Wang H. Two homologous ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1, regulate Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis and root development by mediating polar auxin transport. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:949-64 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that AtMDR1 and AtPGP1 regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) photomorphogenesis and multiple aspects of root development by mediating polar auxin transport...
  7. Li Y, Kurepa J, Smalle J. AXR1 promotes the Arabidopsis cytokinin response by facilitating ARR5 proteolysis. Plant J. 2013;74:13-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that mutations in AXR1, encoding a subunit of the E1 enzyme in the RUB (related to ubiquitin) modification pathway, lead to decreased ..
  8. Hay A, Barkoulas M, Tsiantis M. ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and auxin activities converge to repress BREVIPEDICELLUS expression and promote leaf development in Arabidopsis. Development. 2006;133:3955-61 pubmed
    ..We propose that regulatory interactions between auxin, AS1 and KNOX activities may both direct leaf initiation and sculpt leaf form. ..
  9. Mergner J, Kuster B, Schwechheimer C. DENEDDYLASE1 Protein Counters Automodification of Neddylating Enzymes to Maintain NEDD8 Protein Homeostasis in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3854-3865 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we identified AXR1 (AUXIN-RESISTANT1), a subunit of the heterodimeric NAE (E1 NEDD8-ACTIVATING ENZYME), as highly neddylated in ..

More Information


  1. Nakasone A, Fujiwara M, Fukao Y, Biswas K, Rahman A, Kawai Yamada M, et al. SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN1 acts with RUB modification components, the COP9 signalosome, and AXR1 to regulate growth and development of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:93-105 pubmed publisher
    ..growth and development and the root response to indole-3-acetic acid or methyl jasmonate in the auxin resistant1 (axr1) mutation background...
  2. Jahns M, Vezon D, Chambon A, Pereira L, Falque M, Martin O, et al. Crossover localisation is regulated by the neddylation posttranslational regulatory pathway. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001930 pubmed publisher
    ..In a screen for meiotic recombination-defective mutants, we identified several axr1 alleles, disrupting the gene encoding the E1 enzyme of the neddylation complex in Arabidopsis...
  3. Mergner J, Heinzlmeir S, Kuster B, Schwechheimer C. DENEDDYLASE1 deconjugates NEDD8 from non-cullin protein substrates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2015;27:741-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We further identify AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AXR1), a subunit of the heterodimeric NEDD8 E1 activating enzyme, as a NEDD8-modified protein in den1 mutants and wild ..
  4. Leymarie J, Damerval C, Marcotte L, Combes V, Vartanian N. Two-dimensional protein patterns of Arabidopsis wild-type and auxin insensitive mutants, axr1, axr2, reveal interactions between drought and hormonal responses. Plant Cell Physiol. 1996;37:966-75 pubmed
    ..involved in Arabidopsis drought adaptive strategy, 2D-PAGE protein patterns of two auxin-insensitive mutants, axr1, axr2, differentially affected in specific drought responses, were compared to the wild-type Columbia ecotype, in ..
  5. Cho M, Lee S, Cho H. P-glycoprotein4 displays auxin efflux transporter-like action in Arabidopsis root hair cells and tobacco cells. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3930-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PGP4 is an auxin efflux transporter in plants and that its trafficking to the plasma membrane involves both BFA-sensitive and -insensitive pathways...
  6. Hotton S, Eigenheer R, Castro M, Bostick M, Callis J. AXR1-ECR1 and AXL1-ECR1 heterodimeric RUB-activating enzymes diverge in function in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;75:515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of one such duplication event- the duplication of the genes encoding a subunit of the RUB E1 into AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AXR1) and AXR1-LIKE1 (AXL1)...
  7. Stirnberg P, Zhao S, Williamson L, Ward S, Leyser O. FHY3 promotes shoot branching and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis in an AXR1-dependent manner. Plant J. 2012;71:907-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with the recent discovery that FHY3 regulates many Arabidopsis promoters, our results suggest much wider roles for FHY3 in growth and development, either in concert with, or beyond, light signalling. ..