Gene Symbol: ATR
Description: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and RAD3-like protein
Alias: ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA-MUTATED AND RAD3-RELATED, ATATR, ATRAD3, Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and RAD3-related, MHK7.5, MHK7_5, Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and RAD3-like protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Vespa L, Couvillion M, Spangler E, Shippen D. ATM and ATR make distinct contributions to chromosome end protection and the maintenance of telomeric DNA in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2111-5 pubmed
    Here we examine the function of ATM and ATR at telomeres in Arabidopsis. Although plants lacking ATM or ATR display wild-type telomere length homeostasis, chromosome end protection is compromised in atm atr mutants...
  2. Amiard S, Depeiges A, Allain E, White C, Gallego M. Arabidopsis ATM and ATR kinases prevent propagation of genome damage caused by telomere dysfunction. Plant Cell. 2011;23:4254-65 pubmed publisher
    ..of telomerase in Arabidopsis thaliana elicits an ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR)-dependent DDR at telomeres, principally through ATM...
  3. Fitzgerald M, Riha K, Gao F, Ren S, McKnight T, Shippen D. Disruption of the telomerase catalytic subunit gene from Arabidopsis inactivates telomerase and leads to a slow loss of telomeric DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14813-8 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, progressive telomere shortening in the mutants, however slow, ultimately should be lethal. ..
  4. Adachi S, Minamisawa K, Okushima Y, Inagaki S, Yoshiyama K, Kondou Y, et al. Programmed induction of endoreduplication by DNA double-strand breaks in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10004-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ATM and ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and -Rad3-related) are sensor kinases that relay the damage signal to transducer ..
  5. Culligan K, Robertson C, Foreman J, Doerner P, Britt A. ATR and ATM play both distinct and additive roles in response to ionizing radiation. Plant J. 2006;48:947-61 pubmed
    The ATR and ATM protein kinases are known to be involved in a wide variety of responses to DNA damage. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome includes both ATR and ATM orthologs, and plants with null alleles of these genes are viable...
  6. Park S, Vaghchhipawala Z, Vasudevan B, Lee L, Shen Y, Singer K, et al. Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome can occur without the activity of key non-homologous end-joining proteins. Plant J. 2015;81:934-46 pubmed publisher
    ..KU80, ARTEMIS, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV (LIG4), Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), play an important role in 'classical' (c)NHEJ...
  7. Rounds M, Larsen P. Aluminum-dependent root-growth inhibition in Arabidopsis results from AtATR-regulated cell-cycle arrest. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..tolerance were found to represent dominant-negative mutations in a factor required for monitoring DNA integrity, AtATR[14-17]...
  8. Sjogren C, Bolaris S, Larsen P. Aluminum-Dependent Terminal Differentiation of the Arabidopsis Root Tip Is Mediated through an ATR-, ALT2-, and SOG1-Regulated Transcriptional Response. Plant Cell. 2015;27:2501-15 pubmed publisher
    ..similar to the loss-of-function mutants for the cell cycle checkpoint genes ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA AND RAD3 RELATED (ATR) and ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2)...
  9. Amiard S, Charbonnel C, Allain E, Depeiges A, White C, Gallego M. Distinct roles of the ATR kinase and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex in the maintenance of chromosomal stability in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3020-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the absence of ?-ray-induced, ATM/ATR-dependent histone H2AX phosphorylation in Arabidopsis thaliana rad50 and mre11 mutants, confirming that the MRN ..

More Information


  1. Nezames C, Sjogren C, Barajas J, Larsen P. The Arabidopsis cell cycle checkpoint regulators TANMEI/ALT2 and ATR mediate the active process of aluminum-dependent root growth inhibition. Plant Cell. 2012;24:608-21 pubmed publisher
    ..alt2-1 and atr loss-of-function mutants, the latter of which affects the cell cycle checkpoint ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA-MUTATED AND ..
  2. Waterworth W, Footitt S, Bray C, Finch Savage W, West C. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:9647-52 pubmed publisher orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination...
  3. Curtis M, Hays J. Cooperative responses of DNA-damage-activated protein kinases ATR and ATM and DNA translesion polymerases to replication-blocking DNA damage in a stem-cell niche. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:1272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..among DNA translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases (Pol?, Pol?) and DNA-damage-activated protein kinases (ATR, ATM). Death was 100-fold higher in stem and progenitor (StPr) cells than in transiently amplifying cells...
  4. Boltz K, Leehy K, Song X, Nelson A, Shippen D. ATR cooperates with CTC1 and STN1 to maintain telomeres and genome integrity in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1558-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that CST and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] and Rad3-related) act synergistically to maintain telomere length and genome ..
  5. Kwok C, Ding Y, Shahid S, Assmann S, Bevilacqua P. A stable RNA G-quadruplex within the 5'-UTR of Arabidopsis thaliana ATR mRNA inhibits translation. Biochem J. 2015;467:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This GQS is located within the 5'-UTR of the ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA-MUTATED AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR) mRNA of Arabidopsis thaliana (mouse-ear cress)...
  6. González Besteiro M, Ulm R. ATR and MKP1 play distinct roles in response to UV-B stress in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2013;73:1034-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This is not due to a block in replication, as, in contrast to atr, the mkp1 mutant is not hypersensitive to the replication-inhibiting drug hydroxyurea, hydroxyurea does not ..
  7. Culligan K, Britt A. Both ATM and ATR promote the efficient and accurate processing of programmed meiotic double-strand breaks. Plant J. 2008;55:629-38 pubmed publisher
    The ATM and ATR protein kinases play central roles in the cellular response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) by regulating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis...
  8. Yan S, Wang W, Marques J, Mohan R, Saleh A, Durrant W, et al. Salicylic acid activates DNA damage responses to potentiate plant immunity. Mol Cell. 2013;52:602-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA damage sensor proteins RAD17 and ATR are required for effective immune responses...