Gene Symbol: APETALA2
Description: Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
Alias: AP22.49, AP22_49, APETALA 2, AtAP2, FL1, FLO2, FLORAL HOMEOTIC PROTEIN APETALA 2, FLORAL MUTANT 2, FLOWER 1, Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     APETALA2

Top Publications

  1. Wollmann H, Mica E, Todesco M, Long J, Weigel D. On reconciling the interactions between APETALA2, miR172 and AGAMOUS with the ABC model of flower development. Development. 2010;137:3633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, APETALA2 (AP2) and AGAMOUS (AG) represent A- and C-class genes that act in an antagonistic fashion to specify perianth and ..
  2. Kunst L, Klenz J, Martinez Zapater J, Haughn G. AP2 Gene Determines the Identity of Perianth Organs in Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 1989;1:1195-1208 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results support one of the two conflicting hypotheses concerning the structures of the calyx and the gynoecium in the Brassicaceae. ..
  3. Jofuku K, Omidyar P, Gee Z, Okamuro J. Control of seed mass and seed yield by the floral homeotic gene APETALA2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3117-22 pubmed
    b>APETALA2 (AP2) is best known for its role in the regulation of flower meristem and flower organ identity and development in Arabidopsis...
  4. Ohto M, Fischer R, Goldberg R, Nakamura K, Harada J. Control of seed mass by APETALA2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3123-8 pubmed
    Arabidopsis APETALA2 (AP2) encodes a member of the AP2/EREBP (ethylene responsive element binding protein) class of transcription factors and is involved in the specification of floral organ identity, establishment of floral meristem ..
  5. Jofuku K, den Boer B, Van Montagu M, Okamuro J. Control of Arabidopsis flower and seed development by the homeotic gene APETALA2. Plant Cell. 1994;6:1211-25 pubmed
    b>APETALA2 (AP2) plays a central role in the establishment of the floral meristem, the specification of floral organ identity, and the regulation of floral homeotic gene expression in Arabidopsis...
  6. Vogel M, Moore M, K nig K, Pecher P, Alsharafa K, Lee J, et al. Fast retrograde signaling in response to high light involves metabolite export, MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6, and AP2/ERF transcription factors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:1151-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcripts of several APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors (AP2/ERF-TFs) were found to respond within 10 min after transfer ..
  7. Würschum T, Gross Hardt R, Laux T. APETALA2 regulates the stem cell niche in the Arabidopsis shoot meristem. Plant Cell. 2006;18:295-307 pubmed
    ..Allele competition experiments suggest that l28 is a dominant-negative allele of the APETALA2 (AP2) gene, which previously has been implicated in floral patterning and seed development...
  8. Kihira M, Taniguchi K, Kaneko C, Ishii Y, Aoki H, Koyanagi A, et al. Arabidopsis thaliana FLO2 is Involved in Efficiency of Photoassimilate Translocation, Which is Associated with Leaf Growth and Aging, Yield of Seeds and Seed Quality. Plant Cell Physiol. 2017;58:440-450 pubmed publisher
    b>FLO2, FLOURY ENDOSPERM 2, is highly conserved in higher plants, and rice FLO2 has been predicted to be involved in regulation of accumulation of storage compounds. We analyzed the function of Arabidopsis thaliana FLO2 (AtFLO2) because A...
  9. Dinh T, Girke T, Liu X, Yant L, Schmid M, Chen X. The floral homeotic protein APETALA2 recognizes and acts through an AT-rich sequence element. Development. 2012;139:1978-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The A-class gene APETALA2 (AP2) promotes sepal and petal identities in whorls 1 and 2 and restricts the expression of the C-class gene ..

More Information


  1. Ohto M, Floyd S, Fischer R, Goldberg R, Harada J. Effects of APETALA2 on embryo, endosperm, and seed coat development determine seed size in Arabidopsis. Sex Plant Reprod. 2009;22:277-89 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis APETALA2 (AP2) controls seed mass maternally, with ap2 mutants producing larger seeds than wild type. Here, we show that AP2 influences development of the three major seed compartments: embryo, endosperm, and seed coat...
  2. Bowman J, Smyth D, Meyerowitz E. Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1989;1:37-52 pubmed
    ..Homeotic transformations observed are as follows. In agamous-1, stamens to petals; in apetala2-1, sepals to leaves and petals to staminoid petals; in apetala3-1, petals to sepals and stamens to carpels; in ..
  3. Mlotshwa S, Yang Z, Kim Y, Chen X. Floral patterning defects induced by Arabidopsis APETALA2 and microRNA172 expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Plant Mol Biol. 2006;61:781-93 pubmed
    ..The regulation of the floral homeotic gene APETALA2 (AP2) by miR172 is crucial for normal Arabidopsis flower development and is likely to be conserved across plant ..
  4. Okamuro J, Caster B, Villarroel R, Van Montagu M, Jofuku K. The AP2 domain of APETALA2 defines a large new family of DNA binding proteins in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7076-81 pubmed
    b>APETALA2 (AP2) plays an important role in the control of Arabidopsis flower and seed development and encodes a putative transcription factor that is distinguished by a novel DNA binding motif referred to as the AP2 domain...
  5. Huang H, Jiang W, Hu Y, Wu P, Zhu J, Liang W, et al. BR signal influences Arabidopsis ovule and seed number through regulating related genes expression by BZR1. Mol Plant. 2013;6:456-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular and genetic experiments confirm that BZR1 and AP2 probably affect Arabidopsis ovule number determination antagonistically. ..
  6. Prunet N, Morel P, Champelovier P, Thierry A, Negrutiu I, Jack T, et al. SQUINT promotes stem cell homeostasis and floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis through APETALA2 and CLAVATA signalling. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:6905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the targets of miR172, APETALA2 (AP2), antagonizes CLV signalling...
  7. Wang X, Gingrich D, Deng Y, Hong Z. A nucleostemin-like GTPase required for normal apical and floral meristem development in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1446-56 pubmed publisher
    ..defect of nsn1 was suppressed by the ag mutation in the nsn1 ag double mutant, whereas double mutants of nsn1 apetala2 (ap2) displayed enhanced defective floral phenotypes...
  8. Liu X, Dinh T, Li D, Shi B, Li Y, Cao X, et al. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 3 integrates the functions of AGAMOUS and APETALA2 in floral meristem determinacy. Plant J. 2014;80:629-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Central players in FM determinacy include WUSCHEL (WUS), a gene critical for FM maintenance, and AG and APETALA2 (AP2), which regulate FM determinacy by repression and promotion of WUS expression, respectively...
  9. Ogawa T, Uchimiya H, Kawai Yamada M. Mutual regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene-responsive element binding protein and a plant floral homeotic gene, APETALA2. Ann Bot. 2007;99:239-44 pubmed
    ..that expression of ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes including AtEBP were regulated by the activity of APETALA2 (AP2), a floral homeotic factor...
  10. Gao R, Liu P, Irwanto N, Loh D, Wong S. Upregulation of LINC-AP2 is negatively correlated with AP2 gene expression with Turnip crinkle virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Rep. 2016;35:2257-2267 pubmed
    ..From our high-throughput RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis, a floral structure-related APETALA2 (AP2) gene was found to be downregulated and its neighboring long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNA), ..
  11. Huang Z, Shi T, Zheng B, Yumul R, Liu X, You C, et al. APETALA2 antagonizes the transcriptional activity of AGAMOUS in regulating floral stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2017;215:1197-1209 pubmed publisher
    b>APETALA2 (AP2) is best known for its function in the outer two floral whorls, where it specifies the identities of sepals and petals by restricting the expression of AGAMOUS (AG) to the inner two whorls in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  12. Balanzà V, Martínez Fernández I, Sato S, Yanofsky M, Kaufmann K, Angenent G, et al. Genetic control of meristem arrest and life span in Arabidopsis by a FRUITFULL-APETALA2 pathway. Nat Commun. 2018;9:565 pubmed publisher
    ..FUL directly and negatively regulates APETALA2 expression in the shoot apical meristem and maintains the temporal expression of WUSCHEL which is an essential ..
  13. Krogan N, Hogan K, Long J. APETALA2 negatively regulates multiple floral organ identity genes in Arabidopsis by recruiting the co-repressor TOPLESS and the histone deacetylase HDA19. Development. 2012;139:4180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the A-class organ identity gene APETALA2 (AP2), which is known to repress the C-class gene AGAMOUS, also regulates the expression borders of the B-class ..
  14. Ripoll J, Roeder A, Ditta G, Yanofsky M. A novel role for the floral homeotic gene APETALA2 during Arabidopsis fruit development. Development. 2011;138:5167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We also determined that AP2 acts to prevent overgrowth of the valve margin by repressing valve margin identity gene expression. We have incorporated AP2 into the current genetic network controlling fruit development in Arabidopsis. ..
  15. Zhao L, Kim Y, Dinh T, Chen X. miR172 regulates stem cell fate and defines the inner boundary of APETALA3 and PISTILLATA expression domain in Arabidopsis floral meristems. Plant J. 2007;51:840-9 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis, two floral homeotic genes APETALA2 (AP2) and AGAMOUS (AG) specify the identities of perianth and reproductive organs, respectively, in flower development...
  16. Sharma P, Kumar V, Singh S, Thakur S, Siwach P, Sreenivasulu Y, et al. Promoter Trapping and Deletion Analysis Show Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA2 Gene Promoter Is Bidirectional and Functions as a Pollen- and Ovule-Specific Promoter in the Reverse Orientation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2017;182:1591-1604 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (GFP) gene in the ovules was found to carry transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion at -309 position of the APETALA2 (AP2) gene...
  17. Weber H, Hellmann H. Arabidopsis thaliana BTB/ POZ-MATH proteins interact with members of the ERF/AP2 transcription factor family. FEBS J. 2009;276:6624-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we show that BPMs can also assemble with members of the ethylene response factor/Apetala2 transcription factor family, and that this is mediated by their meprin and TRAF (tumor necrosis factor receptor-..