Gene Symbol: APETALA1
Description: K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Alias: AGAMOUS-like 7, AGL7, APETALA1, AtAP1, F4N2.9, F4N2_9, FLORAL HOMEOTIC PROTEIN APETALA1, K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Fornara F, Parenicová L, Falasca G, Pelucchi N, Masiero S, Ciannamea S, et al. Functional characterization of OsMADS18, a member of the AP1/SQUA subfamily of MADS box genes. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:2207-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, when compared to AP1, OsMADS18 during evolution seems to have conserved the mechanistic properties of protein-protein interactions, although it cannot complement the AP1 function. ..
  2. Alvarez Buylla E, García Ponce B, Garay Arroyo A. Unique and redundant functional domains of APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER, two recently duplicated Arabidopsis thaliana floral MADS-box genes. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:3099-107 pubmed
    b>APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL) are closely related MADS box genes that are partially redundant during Arabidopsis thaliana floral meristem determination...
  3. Kaufmann K, Wellmer F, Muiño J, Ferrier T, Wuest S, Kumar V, et al. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1. Science. 2010;328:85-9 pubmed publisher
    The MADS-domain transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis flower development...
  4. Yang Y, Jack T. Defining subdomains of the K domain important for protein-protein interactions of plant MADS proteins. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;55:45-59 pubmed
    ..Conserved hydrophobic positions are most important for the strength of both PI/AP3 and PI/SEP3 dimerization, though ionic and/or polar interactions appear to play a secondary role. ..
  5. Pastore J, Limpuangthip A, Yamaguchi N, Wu M, Sang Y, Han S, et al. LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY2 acts together with LEAFY to activate APETALA1. Development. 2011;138:3189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these intricate regulatory interactions not only direct the precision of this crucial developmental transition in rapidly changing environmental conditions, but also contribute to its robustness and irreversibility. ..
  6. Yamaguchi A, Wu M, Yang L, Wu G, Poethig R, Wagner D. The microRNA-regulated SBP-Box transcription factor SPL3 is a direct upstream activator of LEAFY, FRUITFULL, and APETALA1. Dev Cell. 2009;17:268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..by the induction and subsequent activity of the transcription factors LEAFY (LFY), FRUITFULL (FUL), and APETALA1 (AP1)...
  7. Pelaz S, Gustafson Brown C, Kohalmi S, Crosby W, Yanofsky M. APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact to promote flower development. Plant J. 2001;26:385-94 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis, the closely related APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL) MADS-box genes share overlapping roles in promoting flower meristem identity...
  8. Zhang W, Zhang T, Wu Y, Jiang J. Genome-wide identification of regulatory DNA elements and protein-binding footprints using signatures of open chromatin in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2719-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 90% of the binding sites of two well-characterized MADS domain transcription factors, APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3, were covered by the DH sites...
  9. Kavaĭ ool U, Kupriianova E, Ezhova T. [Different action of the APETALA1 gene on the development of reproductive organs in flowers of the abruptus mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh]. Ontogenez. 2011;42:307-11 pubmed
    The APETALA1 (AP1) gene of A. thaliana codes type II MADS protein with domains MADS, I, K, and C. The role of K- and C-domains in the functioning of AP1 protein is poorly investigated...

More Information


  1. Sridhar V, Surendrarao A, Liu Z. APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact with SEUSS to mediate transcription repression during flower development. Development. 2006;133:3159-66 pubmed
    ..Using the yeast two-hybrid assay and a co-immunoprecipitation assay, we showed that APETALA1 (AP1) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), both MADS box DNA-binding proteins, interacted with SEU...
  2. Honma T, Goto K. Complexes of MADS-box proteins are sufficient to convert leaves into floral organs. Nature. 2001;409:525-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the class B proteins of Arabidopsis, PISTILLATA (PI) and APETALA3 (AP3), interact with APETALA1 (AP1, a class A protein) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3, previously AGL9), and with AGAMOUS (AG, a class C protein) through ..
  3. Kaufmann K, Anfang N, Saedler H, Theissen G. Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B sister (ABS) protein. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;274:103-18 pubmed
    ..Thus the evolutionary developmental genetics of B(sister) genes can probably only be understood as part of a complex and redundant gene network that may govern ovule formation in a conserved manner, which has yet to be fully explored. ..
  4. Karim M, Hirota A, Kwiatkowska D, Tasaka M, Aida M. A role for Arabidopsis PUCHI in floral meristem identity and bract suppression. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1360-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that PUCHI acts together with BOP1 and BOP2 to promote expression of LEAFY and APETALA1, two central regulators of floral meristem identity...
  5. Ye L, Wang B, Zhang W, Shan H, Kong H. Gains and Losses of Cis-regulatory Elements Led to Divergence of the Arabidopsis APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER Duplicate Genes in the Time, Space, and Level of Expression and Regulation of One Paralog by the Other. Plant Physiol. 2016;171:1055-69 pubmed publisher
    ..and evolutionary analyses, we demonstrate that the differences between the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL) duplicate genes in the time, space, and level of expression were determined by the ..
  6. Han Y, Zhang C, Yang H, Jiao Y. Cytokinin pathway mediates APETALA1 function in the establishment of determinate floral meristems in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6840-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of the FM and specification of outer whorl organs (sepals and petals) requires the floral homeotic gene APETALA1 (AP1). To determine FM identity, AP1 also prevents the formation of flowers in the axils of sepals...
  7. Smaczniak C, Immink R, Muiño J, Blanvillain R, Busscher M, Busscher Lange J, et al. Characterization of MADS-domain transcription factor complexes in Arabidopsis flower development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, members of other transcription factor families were identified as interaction partners of floral MADS-domain proteins suggesting various specific combinatorial modes of action. ..
  8. Saleh A, Alvarez Venegas R, Avramova Z. Dynamic and stable histone H3 methylation patterns at the Arabidopsis FLC and AP1 loci. Gene. 2008;423:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential involvement of ATX1 and CLF in generating the dual H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks on FLC and AP1 nucleosomes was investigated. ..
  9. Han Y, Jiao Y. APETALA1 establishes determinate floral meristem through regulating cytokinins homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e989039 pubmed publisher
  10. Ng M, Yanofsky M. Activation of the Arabidopsis B class homeotic genes by APETALA1. Plant Cell. 2001;13:739-53 pubmed
    ..Localized expression of AP3 and PI requires the activities of at least three genes: APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO)...
  11. Riechmann J, Krizek B, Meyerowitz E. Dimerization specificity of Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1, APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and AGAMOUS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4793-8 pubmed
    The MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1 (AP1), APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) act in a combinatorial manner to specify the identity of Arabidopsis floral organs...
  12. Benlloch R, Kim M, Sayou C, Thevenon E, Parcy F, Nilsson O. Integrating long-day flowering signals: a LEAFY binding site is essential for proper photoperiodic activation of APETALA1. Plant J. 2011;67:1094-102 pubmed publisher
    The transition to flowering in Arabidopsis is characterized by the sharp and localized upregulation of APETALA1 (AP1) transcription in the newly formed floral primordia...
  13. Liljegren S, Gustafson Brown C, Pinyopich A, Ditta G, Yanofsky M. Interactions among APETALA1, LEAFY, and TERMINAL FLOWER1 specify meristem fate. Plant Cell. 1999;11:1007-18 pubmed
    ..lateral meristems is primarily due to the cooperative activity of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1), and CAULIFLOWER...
  14. Sundstrom J, Nakayama N, Glimelius K, Irish V. Direct regulation of the floral homeotic APETALA1 gene by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2006;46:593-600 pubmed
    The floral homeotic gene APETALA1 (AP1) specifies floral meristem identity and sepal and petal identity in Arabidopsis...
  15. Liu C, Zhou J, Bracha Drori K, Yalovsky S, Ito T, Yu H. Specification of Arabidopsis floral meristem identity by repression of flowering time genes. Development. 2007;134:1901-10 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis, the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) are activated to play a pivotal role in specifying floral meristems during floral transition...
  16. Maizel A, Busch M, Tanahashi T, Perkovic J, Kato M, Hasebe M, et al. The floral regulator LEAFY evolves by substitutions in the DNA binding domain. Science. 2005;308:260-3 pubmed
    ..We report that the DNA binding domain of LEAFY, although largely conserved, has diverged in activity. On the contrary, other, more rapidly evolving portions of the protein have few effects on LEAFY activity. ..
  17. Yalovsky S, Rodríguez Concepción M, Bracha K, Toledo Ortiz G, Gruissem W. Prenylation of the floral transcription factor APETALA1 modulates its function. Plant Cell. 2000;12:1257-66 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis MADS box transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) was identified as a substrate for farnesyltransferase and shown to be farnesylated efficiently both in vitro and in vivo...
  18. Kavaĭ ool U, Karpenko O, Ezhova T. [Interaction between the ABRUPTUS/PINOID and APETALA1 genes regulating the inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana]. Genetika. 2010;46:373-82 pubmed
    ..A complementary interaction of the dominant alleles was observed during floral development, implicating both of the genes in the process. ..
  19. Chen Y, Huang Y, Wu H, Wu M, Chang W, Kuo Y, et al. Angiostatin K1-3 induces E-selectin via AP1 and Ets1: a mediator for anti-angiogenic action of K1-3. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:1953-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also demonstrate E-selectin as a novel target for the anti-angiogenic therapy. ..
  20. Hou C, Yang C. Comparative analysis of the pteridophyte Adiantum MFT ortholog reveals the specificity of combined FT/MFT C and N terminal interaction with FD for the regulation of the downstream gene AP1. Plant Mol Biol. 2016;91:563-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed that AcMFT from a non-flowering plant could interact with FD to regulate the floral transition and that this function was reduced due to the weakened ability of AcMFT-FD to activate the downstream gene AP1. ..
  21. Xu M, Hu T, McKim S, Murmu J, Haughn G, Hepworth S. Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 and 2 promote floral meristem fate and determinacy in a previously undefined pathway targeting APETALA1 and AGAMOUS-LIKE24. Plant J. 2010;63:974-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) are key regulators of this transition and expression of these genes in primordia produced by the ..
  22. Gregis V, Sessa A, Colombo L, Kater M. AGAMOUS-LIKE24 and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE determine floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2008;56:891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis the identity of floral meristems is promoted and maintained by APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL)...
  23. MacLean A, Orlovskis Z, Kowitwanich K, Zdziarska A, Angenent G, Immink R, et al. Phytoplasma effector SAP54 hijacks plant reproduction by degrading MADS-box proteins and promotes insect colonization in a RAD23-dependent manner. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001835 pubmed publisher
    ..with members of the MADS-domain transcription factor (MTF) family, including key regulators SEPALLATA3 and APETALA1, that occupy central positions in the regulation of floral development...
  24. Han X, Yin L, Xue H. Co-expression analysis identifies CRC and AP1 the regulator of Arabidopsis fatty acid biosynthesis. J Integr Plant Biol. 2012;54:486-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15, indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis. ..
  25. Winter C, Yamaguchi N, Wu M, Wagner D. Transcriptional programs regulated by both LEAFY and APETALA1 at the time of flower formation. Physiol Plant. 2015;155:55-73 pubmed publisher
    ..are the plant-specific helix-turn-helix transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) and the MADS box transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1). The interactions between these two transcriptional regulators are complex...
  26. Goslin K, Zheng B, Serrano Mislata A, Rae L, Ryan P, Kwasniewska K, et al. Transcription Factor Interplay between LEAFY and APETALA1/CAULIFLOWER during Floral Initiation. Plant Physiol. 2017;174:1097-1109 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factors LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1), together with the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), control the onset of flower development in a partially redundant manner...
  27. Wang X, Cai Y, Wang H, Zeng Y, Zhuang X, Li B, et al. Trans-Golgi network-located AP1 gamma adaptins mediate dileucine motif-directed vacuolar targeting in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:4102-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with subcellular localization studies showing that AP1 gamma adaptins localize to the TGN, we propose that the AP1 complex on the TGN mediates tonoplast targeting of membrane proteins with the dileucine motif. ..
  28. Gregis V, Sessa A, Colombo L, Kater M. AGL24, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, and APETALA1 redundantly control AGAMOUS during early stages of flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1373-82 pubmed
    ..AGL24 promotes inflorescence identity, and its expression is downregulated by APETALA1 (AP1) and LEAFY to establish floral meristem identity...
  29. Gregis V, Sessa A, Dorca Fornell C, Kater M. The Arabidopsis floral meristem identity genes AP1, AGL24 and SVP directly repress class B and C floral homeotic genes. Plant J. 2009;60:626-37 pubmed publisher