Description: Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
Alias: AINTEGUMENTA, AtANT, CKC, CKC1, COMPLEMENTING A PROTEIN KINASE C MUTANT 1, DRAGON, DRG, T28I19.30, T28I19_30, Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Klucher K, Chow H, Reiser L, Fischer R. The AINTEGUMENTA gene of Arabidopsis required for ovule and female gametophyte development is related to the floral homeotic gene APETALA2. Plant Cell. 1996;8:137-53 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) locus of Arabidopsis have a profound effect on ovule development...
  2. Nole Wilson S, Krizek B. AINTEGUMENTA contributes to organ polarity and regulates growth of lateral organs in combination with YABBY genes. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:977-87 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the relationship between AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), a gene that promotes initiation and growth of lateral organ primordia, and polarity genes...
  3. Mizukami Y, Fischer R. Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:942-7 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that ANT regulates cell proliferation and organ growth by maintaining the meristematic competence of cells during organogenesis. ..
  4. Krizek B, Prost V, Macias A. AINTEGUMENTA promotes petal identity and acts as a negative regulator of AGAMOUS. Plant Cell. 2000;12:1357-66 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) gene has been shown previously to be involved in ovule development and in the initiation and growth of floral organs...
  5. Azhakanandam S, Nole Wilson S, Bao F, Franks R. SEUSS and AINTEGUMENTA mediate patterning and ovule initiation during gynoecium medial domain development. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:1165-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a synergistic genetic interaction between seuss and aintegumenta mutants resulting in a complete loss of ovule initiation and a reduction of the structures derived from the ..
  6. Krizek B. AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 act redundantly to regulate Arabidopsis floral growth and patterning. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1916-29 pubmed publisher
    ..An early marker of lateral organ fate is the AP2/ERF-type transcription factor AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), which has been proposed to act downstream of auxin in organogenic growth...
  7. Manchado Rojo M, Weiss J, Egea Cortines M. Validation of Aintegumenta as a gene to modify floral size in ornamental plants. Plant Biotechnol J. 2014;12:1053-65 pubmed publisher
    The gene AINTEGUMENTA (AtANT) is an APETALA2 transcription factor in Arabidopsis activating growth downstream of auxin signalling. Lateral organ size is positively correlated with ANT expression in Arabidopsis...
  8. Krizek B, Sulli C. Mapping sequences required for nuclear localization and the transcriptional activation function of the Arabidopsis protein AINTEGUMENTA. Planta. 2006;224:612-21 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis thaliana floral development protein AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) is a member of a large family of DNA binding proteins (AP2/ERF family) that control plant growth and development in response to developmental or environmental signals...
  9. Meng L, Wang Y, Yao S, Liu A. Arabidopsis AINTEGUMENTA mediates salt tolerance by trans-repressing SCABP8. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:2919-27 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) gene, which encodes an APETALA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, controls plant organ cell number and organ size throughout shoot development. ANT is thus a key factor in the development of plant shoots...

More Information


  1. Randall R, Sornay E, Dewitte W, Murray J. AINTEGUMENTA and the D-type cyclin CYCD3;1 independently contribute to petal size control in Arabidopsis: evidence for organ size compensation being an emergent rather than a determined property. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:3991-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, the aintegumenta (ant) mutant exhibits reduced cell number but increased cell size in LAOs...
  2. Losa A, Colombo M, Brambilla V, Colombo L. Genetic interaction between AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and the ovule identity genes SEEDSTICK (STK), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) and SHATTERPROOF2 (SHP2). Sex Plant Reprod. 2010;23:115-21 pubmed publisher
    b>AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) promotes initiation and growth of ovule integuments which cell fate is specified by ovule identity factors, such as SEEDSTICK (STK), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) and SHATTERPROOF2 (SHP2)...
  3. Yamaguchi N, Wu M, Winter C, Berns M, Nole Wilson S, Yamaguchi A, et al. A molecular framework for auxin-mediated initiation of flower primordia. Dev Cell. 2013;24:271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..three genes encode known regulators of flower development: LEAFY (LFY), which specifies floral fate, and two AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA transcription factors, key regulators of floral growth...
  4. Galbiati F, Sinha Roy D, Simonini S, Cucinotta M, Ceccato L, Cuesta C, et al. An integrative model of the control of ovule primordia formation. Plant J. 2013;76:446-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here that CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1), CUC2 and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) have additive effects on ovule primordia formation...
  5. Krizek B, Bequette C, Xu K, Blakley I, Fu Z, Stratmann J, et al. RNA-Seq Links the Transcription Factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to Cell Wall Remodeling and Plant Defense Pathways. Plant Physiol. 2016;171:2069-84 pubmed publisher
    b>AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) are two related transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that have partially overlapping roles in several aspects of flower development, including floral organ initiation,..
  6. Horiguchi G, Gonzalez N, Beemster G, Inze D, Tsukaya H. Impact of segmental chromosomal duplications on leaf size in the grandifolia-D mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2009;60:122-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the duplications, genes were found that encode AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), a factor that extends the duration of cell proliferation, and CYCD3;1, a G(1)/S cyclin...
  7. Wynn A, Rueschhoff E, Franks R. Transcriptomic characterization of a synergistic genetic interaction during carpel margin meristem development in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26231 pubmed publisher
    ..When fertilized the ovules will develop into seeds. SEUSS (SEU) and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for the proper formation of ovules from the carpel ..
  8. Schneitz K, Baker S, Gasser C, Redweik A. Pattern formation and growth during floral organogenesis: HUELLENLOS and AINTEGUMENTA are required for the formation of the proximal region of the ovule primordium in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 1998;125:2555-63 pubmed
    ..Two genes, HUELLENLOS and AINTEGUMENTA have overlapping functions in the ovule and differentially control the formation of the central and proximal ..
  9. Okamuro J, Caster B, Villarroel R, Van Montagu M, Jofuku K. The AP2 domain of APETALA2 defines a large new family of DNA binding proteins in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7076-81 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the expression of at least three RAP2 genes in vegetative tissues are controlled by AP2. Thus, unlike other floral homeotic genes, AP2 is active during both reproductive and vegetative development. ..
  10. Mudunkothge J, Krizek B. Three Arabidopsis AIL/PLT genes act in combination to regulate shoot apical meristem function. Plant J. 2012;71:108-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of shoot apical meristem activity in Arabidopsis thaliana that encode related AIL/PLT transcription factors: AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6)/PLETHORA3 (PLT3) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE7 (AIL7)/PLETHORA7 (PLT7)...
  11. Nole Wilson S, Krizek B. DNA binding properties of the Arabidopsis floral development protein AINTEGUMENTA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:4076-82 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis protein AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) is a member of a plant-specific family of transcription factors (AP2/EREBP) that share either one or two copies of an approximately 70 amino acid region called the AP2 repeat...
  12. Yamaguchi N, Jeong C, Nole Wilson S, Krizek B, Wagner D. AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6/PLETHORA3 Induce LEAFY Expression in Response to Auxin to Promote the Onset of Flower Formation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2016;170:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that two transcription factors belonging to the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA family, AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6/PLETHORA3 (AIL6/PLT3), act in parallel with MP ..