Gene Symbol: ABI2
Description: Protein phosphatase 2C family protein
Alias: ABA INSENSITIVE 2, AtABI2, MHM17.19, MHM17_19, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C, Protein phosphatase 2C family protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     ABI2

Top Publications

  1. Park S, Fung P, Nishimura N, Jensen D, Fujii H, Zhao Y, et al. Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins. Science. 2009;324:1068-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illustrate the power of the chemical genetic approach for sidestepping genetic redundancy. ..
  2. Rodriguez P. Protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) function in higher plants. Plant Mol Biol. 1998;38:919-27 pubmed
    ..For instance, the ABI1/ABI2 PP2Cs are central components in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction...
  3. Szostkiewicz I, Richter K, Kepka M, Demmel S, Ma Y, Korte A, et al. Closely related receptor complexes differ in their ABA selectivity and sensitivity. Plant J. 2010;61:25-35 pubmed publisher
    ..RCAR3 was identified in a screen for interactors of the PP2Cs ABI1 and ABI2, which are key regulators of ABA responses...
  4. Ma Y, Szostkiewicz I, Korte A, Moes D, Yang Y, Christmann A, et al. Regulators of PP2C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors. Science. 2009;324:1064-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Key players in ABA signal transduction include the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) ABI1 and ABI2, which act by negatively regulating ABA responses...
  5. Fujii H, Chinnusamy V, Rodrigues A, Rubio S, Antoni R, Park S, et al. In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway. Nature. 2009;462:660-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway...
  6. Umezawa T, Sugiyama N, Mizoguchi M, Hayashi S, Myouga F, Yamaguchi Shinozaki K, et al. Type 2C protein phosphatases directly regulate abscisic acid-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A subgroup of protein phosphatase 2C (group A PP2C) or SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (subclass III SnRK2) have been known as major negative or ..
  7. Leung J, Merlot S, Giraudat J. The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction. Plant Cell. 1997;9:759-71 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis, the ABA-INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) protein phosphatase 2C is required for proper ABA responsiveness both in seeds and in vegetative tissues...
  8. Melcher K, Ng L, Zhou X, Soon F, Xu Y, Suino Powell K, et al. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors. Nature. 2009;462:602-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling. ..
  9. Zhou X, Soon F, Ng L, Kovach A, Suino Powell K, Li J, et al. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors...

More Information


  1. Vlad F, Droillard M, Valot B, Khafif M, Rodrigues A, Brault M, et al. Phospho-site mapping, genetic and in planta activation studies reveal key aspects of the different phosphorylation mechanisms involved in activation of SnRK2s. Plant J. 2010;63:778-90 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and SnRK2.10, which may be conserved between the two subgroups of SnRK2s depending on their ABA-responsiveness. ..
  2. Melcher K, Xu Y, Ng L, Zhou X, Soon F, Chinnusamy V, et al. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. ..
  3. Zhao Y, Chan Z, Xing L, Liu X, Hou Y, Chinnusamy V, et al. The unique mode of action of a divergent member of the ABA-receptor protein family in ABA and stress signaling. Cell Res. 2013;23:1380-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that PYL13 is not an ABA receptor but can modulate the ABA pathway by interacting with and inhibiting both the PYL receptors and the PP2C co-receptors...
  4. Dong H, Yu H, Bao Z, Guo X, Peng J, Yao Z, et al. The ABI2-dependent abscisic acid signalling controls HrpN-induced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2005;221:313-27 pubmed
    ..In contrast, HrpN failed to induce these responses in the abi2-1 mutant, which is impaired in the phosphatase ABI2...
  5. Antoni R, Gonzalez Guzman M, Rodriguez L, Peirats Llobet M, Pizzio G, Fernandez M, et al. PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1-LIKE8 plays an important role for the regulation of abscisic acid signaling in root. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:931-41 pubmed publisher
    ..interacted in vivo with at least five PP2Cs, namely HYPERSENSITIVE TO ABA1 (HAB1), HAB2, ABA-INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1), ABI2, and PP2CA/ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE GERMINATION3 as revealed by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry ..
  6. Vranová E, Tähtiharju S, Sriprang R, Willekens H, Heino P, Palva E, et al. The AKT3 potassium channel protein interacts with the AtPP2CA protein phosphatase 2C. J Exp Bot. 2001;52:181-2 pubmed
    ..potassium channel protein was identified as a strongly interacting partner of the Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C (AtPP2CA) in a yeast two-hybrid screen...
  7. He J, Duan Y, Hua D, Fan G, Wang L, Liu Y, et al. DEXH box RNA helicase-mediated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in Arabidopsis mediates crosstalk between abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Plant Cell. 2012;24:1815-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Two dominant-negative mutations in ABA insensitive1 (abi1-1) and abi2-1 greatly reduced ROS production in mitochondria...
  8. Vlad F, Rubio S, Rodrigues A, Sirichandra C, Belin C, Robert N, et al. Protein phosphatases 2C regulate the activation of the Snf1-related kinase OST1 by abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3170-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, HAB1 and the related PP2Cs ABI1 and ABI2 interact with OST1 in vivo, and mutations in the corresponding genes strongly affect OST1 activation by ABA...
  9. Merlot S, Gosti F, Guerrier D, Vavasseur A, Giraudat J. The ABI1 and ABI2 protein phosphatases 2C act in a negative feedback regulatory loop of the abscisic acid signalling pathway. Plant J. 2001;25:295-303 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis ABI1 and ABI2 genes encode two protein serine/threonine phosphatases 2C (PP2C)...
  10. Léran S, Edel K, Pervent M, Hashimoto K, Corratgé Faillie C, Offenborn J, et al. Nitrate sensing and uptake in Arabidopsis are enhanced by ABI2, a phosphatase inactivated by the stress hormone abscisic acid. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra43 pubmed publisher
    ..additional components that regulate nitrate transport, sensing, and signaling: the calcium sensor CBL1 and protein phosphatase 2C family member ABI2, which is inhibited by the stress-response hormone abscisic acid...
  11. Guo Y, Xiong L, Song C, Gong D, Halfter U, Zhu J. A calcium sensor and its interacting protein kinase are global regulators of abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:233-44 pubmed
    ..PKS3 physically interacts with the 2C-type protein phosphatase ABI2 (ABA-insensitive 2) and to a lesser extent with the homologous ABI1 (ABA-insensitive 1) protein...
  12. Xiong L, Lee H, Ishitani M, Zhu J. Regulation of osmotic stress-responsive gene expression by the LOS6/ABA1 locus in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8588-96 pubmed
    ..This feedback regulation by ABA is impaired in the ABA-insensitive mutant abi1 but not in abi2. Moreover, the up-regulation of LOS6/ABA1, LOS5/ABA3, AAO3, and NCED3 by osmotic stress is reduced substantially in ..
  13. Soon F, Ng L, Zhou X, West G, Kovach A, Tan M, et al. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases. Science. 2012;335:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. ..
  14. Yamburenko M, Zubo Y, Börner T. Abscisic acid affects transcription of chloroplast genes via protein phosphatase 2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes: repression by guanosine-3'-5'-bisdiphosphate and activation by sigma factor 5. Plant J. 2015;82:1030-41 pubmed publisher
    ..acid does not influence chloroplast transcription in the mutant lines abi1-1 and abi2-1 with constitutive protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) activity, suggesting that ABA affects chloroplast gene activity by binding to the pyrabactin ..
  15. Miao Y, Lv D, Wang P, Wang X, Chen J, Miao C, et al. An Arabidopsis glutathione peroxidase functions as both a redox transducer and a scavenger in abscisic acid and drought stress responses. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2749-66 pubmed
    ..ATGPX3 physically interacted with the 2C-type protein phosphatase ABA INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and, to a lesser extent, with ABI1...
  16. Sun H, Wang X, Ding W, Zhu S, Zhao R, Zhang Y, et al. Identification of an important site for function of the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI2 in abscisic acid signalling in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:5713-25 pubmed publisher
    It is known that the clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs), including ABI1 and ABI2 and other PP2C members, are key players that function directly downstream of the PYR/PYL/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptors...
  17. Huang P, Ju H, Min J, Zhang X, Chung J, Cheong H, et al. Molecular and physiological characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana Oxidation-related Zinc Finger 2, a plasma membrane protein involved in ABA and salt stress response through the ABI2-mediated signaling pathway. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, in the presence of ABA and salt stress, the transcript level of ABA insensitive 2 (ABI2), but not that of ABI1, in AtOZF2-overexpressing plants was lower than that in the wild type, whereas ..
  18. Zhao R, Sun H, Mei C, Wang X, Yan L, Liu R, et al. The Arabidopsis Ca(2+) -dependent protein kinase CPK12 negatively regulates abscisic acid signaling in seed germination and post-germination growth. New Phytol. 2011;192:61-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical assays showed that CPK12 interacted with, phosphorylated and stimulated a type 2C protein phosphatase ABI2, and phosphorylated two ABA-responsive transcription factors (ABF1 and ABF4) in vitro...
  19. Saez A, Rodrigues A, Santiago J, Rubio S, Rodriguez P. HAB1-SWI3B interaction reveals a link between abscisic acid signaling and putative SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2972-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, our results uncover SWI3B as a novel positive regulator of ABA signaling and suggest that HAB1 modulates ABA response through the regulation of a putative SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. ..
  20. Larkindale J, Hall J, Knight M, Vierling E. Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:882-97 pubmed
    ..Fifteen mutants showed significant phenotypes. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling mutants (abi1 and abi2) and the UV-sensitive mutant, uvh6, showed the strongest defects in acquired thermotolerance of root growth and ..
  21. Rodriguez P, Benning G, Grill E. ABI2, a second protein phosphatase 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. 1998;421:185-90 pubmed
    ..The ABI2 protein shows 80% amino acid sequence identity to ABI1, a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) involved in ABA signaling...
  22. Lim C, Lee S. Arabidopsis abscisic acid receptors play an important role in disease resistance. Plant Mol Biol. 2015;88:313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate that alteration of RCAR4- or RCAR5-HAB1 mediated ABA signaling influences resistance to bacterial pathogens via stomatal regulation. ..
  23. Lee S, Lan W, Buchanan B, Luan S. A protein kinase-phosphatase pair interacts with an ion channel to regulate ABA signaling in plant guard cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings are in keeping with a paradigm in which a protein kinase-phosphatase pair interacts physically with a target protein to couple a signal with a specific response. ..
  24. Uhrig J, Mutondo M, Zimmermann I, Deeks M, Machesky L, Thomas P, et al. The role of Arabidopsis SCAR genes in ARP2-ARP3-dependent cell morphogenesis. Development. 2007;134:967-77 pubmed
  25. Laanemets K, Brandt B, Li J, Merilo E, Wang Y, Keshwani M, et al. Calcium-dependent and -independent stomatal signaling network and compensatory feedback control of stomatal opening via Ca2+ sensitivity priming. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:504-13 pubmed publisher
  26. Ohta M, Guo Y, Halfter U, Zhu J. A novel domain in the protein kinase SOS2 mediates interaction with the protein phosphatase 2C ABI2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:11771-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified the protein phosphatase 2C ABI2 (abscisic acid-insensitive 2) as a SOS2-interacting protein...
  27. Hua D, Wang C, He J, Liao H, Duan Y, Zhu Z, et al. A plasma membrane receptor kinase, GHR1, mediates abscisic acid- and hydrogen peroxide-regulated stomatal movement in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2546-61 pubmed publisher
    ..when coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and this activation was inhibited by ABA-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) but not ABI1...
  28. Yu F, Qian L, Nibau C, Duan Q, Kita D, Levasseur K, et al. FERONIA receptor kinase pathway suppresses abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis by activating ABI2 phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a positive regulator of auxin-promoted growth, to suppress the abscisic acid (ABA) response through activation of ABI2, a negative regulator of ABA signaling...
  29. Yang Y, Sulpice R, Himmelbach A, Meinhard M, Christmann A, Grill E. Fibrillin expression is regulated by abscisic acid response regulators and is involved in abscisic acid-mediated photoprotection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6061-6 pubmed
    ..ABA induces fibrillin accumulation, and the ABA response regulators ABI1 and ABI2 regulate fibrillin expression...