Gene Symbol: pbpA
Description: penicillin-binding protein 1A
Species: Streptococcus pneumoniae R6
Coffey T, Daniels M, McDougal L, Dowson C, Tenover F, Spratt B. Genetic analysis of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with high-level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:1306-13 pubmed
..The Thr-550-->Ala substitution in CS111 therefore appears to provide increased resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins but a loss of resistance to penicillin...
Trzcinski K, Thompson C, Gilbey A, Dowson C, Lipsitch M. Incremental increase in fitness cost with increased beta -lactam resistance in pneumococci evaluated by competition in an infant rat nasal colonization model. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1296-303 pubmed
..The cost of penicillin-resistance acquisition for the Streptococcus pneumoniae strain competing with its susceptible ancestor to colonize the URT increases with the number of resistant pbp alleles acquired. ..
Coffey T, Daniels M, Enright M, Spratt B. Serotype 14 variants of the Spanish penicillin-resistant serotype 9V clone of Streptococcus pneumoniae arose by large recombinational replacements of the cpsA-pbp1a region. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 8):2023-31 pubmed publisher
..Serotype 14 variants of the Spanish serotype 9V clone have therefore arisen on more than one occasion by large recombinational replacements that extend from the start of the cps region into the pbp1a gene...
Bicmen M, Gulay Z, Ramaswamy S, Musher D, Gur D. Analysis of mutations in the pbp genes of penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci from Turkey. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:150-5 pubmed
..This is the first study to analyse alterations in the pbp sequences of pneumococci isolated in Turkey. ..
Liu E, Chang J, Lin J, Chang F, Fung C. Important Mutations Contributing to High-Level Penicillin Resistance in Taiwan19F-14, Taiwan23F-15, and Spain23F-1 of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Taiwan. Microb Drug Resist. 2016;22:646-654 pubmed
..High-level penicillin resistance could not be obtained without the combination of mutations in PBP1a with PBP2b and 2x. The amino acid substitutions in PBP1a, 2b, and 2x were the crucial factors for ?-lactam resistance. ..
Martin C, Briese T, Hakenbeck R. Nucleotide sequences of genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus oralis with high homology to Escherichia coli penicillin-binding proteins 1a and 1b. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4517-23 pubmed
..pneumoniae PBP 1a. Both PBPs are highly homologous to bifunctional high-M(r) Escherichia coli PBPs 1a and 1b...
S Le o R, Vilhelmsson S, de Lencastre H, Kristinsson K, Tomasz A. Diversity of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae circulating in Iceland after the introduction of penicillin-resistant clone Spain(6B)-2. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:966-75 pubmed publisher
..The major mechanism of dissemination of penicillin resistance in Iceland appears to be the repeated introduction of multiple lineages, followed by clonal spread...