Gene Symbol: vpx
Description: vpx protein
Species: Simian immunodeficiency virus

Top Publications

  1. Sharova N, Wu Y, Zhu X, Stranska R, Kaushik R, Sharkey M, et al. Primate lentiviral Vpx commandeers DDB1 to counteract a macrophage restriction. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000057 pubmed publisher
    Primate lentiviruses encode four "accessory proteins" including Vif, Vpu, Nef, and Vpr/Vpx. Vif and Vpu counteract the antiviral effects of cellular restrictions to early and late steps in the viral replication cycle...
  2. Wei W, Guo H, Han X, Liu X, Zhou X, Zhang W, et al. A novel DCAF1-binding motif required for Vpx-mediated degradation of nuclear SAMHD1 and Vpr-induced G2 arrest. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1745-56 pubmed publisher
    HIV-2 and closely related SIV Vpx proteins are essential for viral replication in macrophages and dendritic cells. Vpx hijacks DCAF1-DDB1-Cul4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to promote viral replication...
  3. Ahn J, Hao C, Yan J, Delucia M, Mehrens J, Wang C, et al. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) accessory virulence factor Vpx loads the host cell restriction factor SAMHD1 onto the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4DCAF1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This potent inhibition is counteracted by the Vpx accessory virulence factor of HIV-2/SIVsm viruses, which targets SAMHD1 for proteasome-dependent degradation, by ..
  4. Delucia M, Mehrens J, Wu Y, Ahn J. HIV-2 and SIVmac accessory virulence factor Vpx down-regulates SAMHD1 enzyme catalysis prior to proteasome-dependent degradation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19116-26 pubmed publisher
    ..simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) counteract this restriction via a virion-associated virulence accessory factor, Vpx (Vpr in some SIVs), which loads SAMHD1 onto CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for polyubiquitination, programming it ..
  5. Hrecka K, Hao C, Gierszewska M, Swanson S, Kesik Brodacka M, Srivastava S, et al. Vpx relieves inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages mediated by the SAMHD1 protein. Nature. 2011;474:658-61 pubmed publisher
    ..simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVsm/mac) transduce myeloid cells efficiently owing to their virion-associated Vpx accessory proteins, which counteract the restrictive mechanism...
  6. Goujon C, Arfi V, Pertel T, Luban J, Lienard J, Rigal D, et al. Characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVSM/human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx function in human myeloid cells. J Virol. 2008;82:12335-45 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)/simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(SM) Vpx is incorporated into virion particles and is thus present during the early steps of infection, when it has been reported to influence the nuclear ..
  7. Schüle S, Kloke B, Kaiser J, Heidmeier S, Panitz S, Wolfrum N, et al. Restriction of HIV-1 replication in monocytes is abolished by Vpx of SIVsmmPBj. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7098 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, efficient single round transduction of monocytes is mediated by vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys (SIVsmmPBj), depending on the presence of the viral accessory protein Vpx.
  8. Guo H, Wei W, Wei Z, Liu X, Evans S, Yang W, et al. Identification of critical regions in human SAMHD1 required for nuclear localization and Vpx-mediated degradation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66201 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vpx inactivates SAMHD1 by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation through an interaction with CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ..
  9. Pertel T, Reinhard C, Luban J. Vpx rescues HIV-1 transduction of dendritic cells from the antiviral state established by type 1 interferon. Retrovirology. 2011;8:49 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by SIVSM, a lentivirus endemic to the West African sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys)...

More Information


  1. Srivastava S, Swanson S, Manel N, Florens L, Washburn M, Skowronski J. Lentiviral Vpx accessory factor targets VprBP/DCAF1 substrate adaptor for cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to enable macrophage infection. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000059 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpx is a small virion-associated adaptor protein encoded by viruses of the HIV-2/SIVsm lineage of primate lentiviruses that enables these viruses to transduce monocyte-derived cells...
  2. Berger A, Munk C, Schweizer M, Cichutek K, Schüle S, Flory E. Interaction of Vpx and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 family member A (APOBEC3A) correlates with efficient lentivirus infection of monocytes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12248-54 pubmed publisher
    The accessory protein Vpx is encoded by lentiviruses of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and the simian immunodeficiency SIVsm/SIVmac lineage...
  3. Laguette N, Sobhian B, Casartelli N, Ringeard M, Chable Bessia C, Segeral E, et al. SAMHD1 is the dendritic- and myeloid-cell-specific HIV-1 restriction factor counteracted by Vpx. Nature. 2011;474:654-7 pubmed publisher
    The primate lentivirus auxiliary protein Vpx counteracts an unknown restriction factor that renders human dendritic and myeloid cells largely refractory to HIV-1 infection. Here we identify SAMHD1 as this restriction factor...
  4. Shingai M, Welbourn S, Brenchley J, Acharya P, Miyagi E, Plishka R, et al. The Expression of Functional Vpx during Pathogenic SIVmac Infections of Rhesus Macaques Suppresses SAMHD1 in CD4+ Memory T Cells. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004928 pubmed publisher
    For nearly 20 years, the principal biological function of the HIV-2/SIV Vpx gene has been thought to be required for optimal virus replication in myeloid cells...
  5. Schaller T, Pollpeter D, Apolonia L, Goujon C, Malim M. Nuclear import of SAMHD1 is mediated by a classical karyopherin ?/?1 dependent pathway and confers sensitivity to VpxMAC induced ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Retrovirology. 2014;11:29 pubmed publisher
    ..The Vpx proteins of the SIVSMM/HIV-2 lineage of lentiviruses bind SAMHD1 and recruit an ubiquitin ligase, leading to ..
  6. Planelles V, Barker E. Roles of Vpr and Vpx in modulating the virus-host cell relationship. Mol Aspects Med. 2010;31:398-406 pubmed publisher
    The human and simian immunodeficiency viruses contain small open reading frames known as vpr and vpx. These genes encode proteins that are highly related both at the amino acid level and functionally, although key differences do exist...
  7. Westmoreland S, Converse A, Hrecka K, Hurley M, Knight H, Piatak M, et al. SIV vpx is essential for macrophage infection but not for development of AIDS. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e84463 pubmed publisher
    Analysis of rhesus macaques infected with a vpx deletion mutant virus of simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIV?vpx) demonstrates that Vpx is essential for efficient monocyte/macrophage infection in vivo but is not necessary for ..
  8. Belshan M, Kimata J, Brown C, Cheng X, McCulley A, Larsen A, et al. Vpx is critical for SIVmne infection of pigtail macaques. Retrovirology. 2012;9:32 pubmed publisher
    Viral protein X (Vpx) of SIV has been reported to be important for establishing infection in vivo...
  9. Reinhard C, Bottinelli D, Kim B, Luban J. Vpx rescue of HIV-1 from the antiviral state in mature dendritic cells is independent of the intracellular deoxynucleotide concentration. Retrovirology. 2014;11:12 pubmed publisher
    SIVMAC/HIV-2 Vpx recruits the CUL4A-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to degrade the deoxynucleotide hydrolase SAMHD1...
  10. Fomsgaard A, Hirsch V, Allan J, Johnson P. A highly divergent proviral DNA clone of SIV from a distinct species of African green monkey. Virology. 1991;182:397-402 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that lentiviruses from African green monkeys may have evolved in concert with speciation of the genus and support the concept that SIVagm may be the oldest primate lentivirus type in existence. ..
  11. Cassiday P, DePaula Silva A, Chumley J, Ward J, Barker E, Planelles V. Understanding the molecular manipulation of DCAF1 by the lentiviral accessory proteins Vpr and Vpx. Virology. 2015;476:19-25 pubmed publisher
    Vpr and Vpx are primate lentivirus proteins that manipulate the cellular CRL4 ubiquitin ligase complex. While Vpr is common to all primate lentiviruses, Vpx is only encoded by HIV-2 and a limited range of SIVs...
  12. Wang H, Guo H, Su J, Rui Y, Zheng W, Gao W, et al. Inhibition of Vpx-Mediated SAMHD1 and Vpr-Mediated Host Helicase Transcription Factor Degradation by Selective Disruption of Viral CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Assembly. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    The lentiviral accessory proteins Vpx and Vpr are known to utilize CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase to induce the degradation of the host restriction factor SAMHD1 or host helicase transcription factor (HLTF), respectively...
  13. Kang J, Hou J, Zhao K, Yu X, Du J. HD domain of SAMHD1 influences Vpx-induced degradation at a post-interaction step. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;470:690-696 pubmed publisher
    Primate SAMHD1 proteins are potent inhibitors of viruses, including retroviruses such as HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Vpx, a distinctive viral protein expressed by HIV-2 and some SIVs, induces SAMHD1 degradation by forming a Vpx-DCAF1-based ..
  14. Rajendra Kumar P, Singhal P, Subba Rao M, Mahalingam S. Phosphorylation by MAPK regulates simian immunodeficiency virus Vpx protein nuclear import and virus infectivity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8553-63 pubmed
    ..ERK-2/MAPK is associated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virions and regulated the nuclear transport of Vpx and virus replication in non-proliferating target cells by phosphorylating Vpx...