Gene Symbol: SFVgp1
Description: Nonstructural polyprotein
Species: Semliki forest virus

Top Publications

  1. Lulla A, Lulla V, Merits A. Macromolecular assembly-driven processing of the 2/3 cleavage site in the alphavirus replicase polyprotein. J Virol. 2012;86:553-65 pubmed publisher
  2. Akhrymuk I, Kulemzin S, Frolova E. Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein induces rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II. J Virol. 2012;86:7180-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that the nsP2-induced degradation of Rpb1 is a critical mechanism utilized by the Old World alphaviruses to subvert the cellular antiviral response...
  3. Varjak M, Zusinaite E, Merits A. Novel functions of the alphavirus nonstructural protein nsP3 C-terminal region. J Virol. 2010;84:2352-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of nsP3 or a mutant lacking the 10 C-terminal aa residues repressed the establishment of infection, while the expression of nsP3 lacking 30 C-terminal aa residues led to the reduced synthesis of subgenomic RNA. ..
  4. Breakwell L, Dosenovic P, Karlsson Hedestam G, D Amato M, Liljestrom P, Fazakerley J, et al. Semliki Forest virus nonstructural protein 2 is involved in suppression of the type I interferon response. J Virol. 2007;81:8677-84 pubmed
    ..These results provide novel information about the mode of action of this viral IFN antagonist...
  5. Salonen A, Vasiljeva L, Merits A, Magden J, Jokitalo E, Kääriäinen L. Properly folded nonstructural polyprotein directs the semliki forest virus replication complex to the endosomal compartment. J Virol. 2003;77:1691-702 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the nsP1 domain alone is responsible for the membrane association of the nonstructural polyprotein, whereas the nsP1 domain together with the nsP3 domain targets it to the intracellular vesicles. ..
  6. Takkinen K. Complete nucleotide sequence of the nonstructural protein genes of Semliki Forest virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:5667-82 pubmed
    ..In other aspects the amino acid sequence homology between Sindbis, Middelburg and Semliki Forest virus nonstructural proteins is highly significant...
  7. Galbraith S, Sheahan B, Atkins G. Deletions in the hypervariable domain of the nsP3 gene attenuate Semliki Forest virus virulence. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:937-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes that deletions in the nsP3 hypervariable domain attenuate virulence after peripheral inoculation and also reduce virulence after intranasal inoculation...
  8. Tamm K, Merits A, Sarand I. Mutations in the nuclear localization signal of nsP2 influencing RNA synthesis, protein expression and cytotoxicity of Semliki Forest virus. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:676-86 pubmed publisher
  9. Panas M, Varjak M, Lulla A, Eng K, Merits A, Karlsson Hedestam G, et al. Sequestration of G3BP coupled with efficient translation inhibits stress granules in Semliki Forest virus infection. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that the nsP3/G3BP interaction also blocks SGs induced by other stresses than virus infection. This is one of few described viral mechanisms for SG disruption and underlines the role of SGs in antiviral defense...

More Information


  1. Riedel H, Lehrach H, Garoff H. Nucleotide sequence at the junction between the nonstructural and the structural genes of the semliki forest virus genome. J Virol. 1982;42:725-9 pubmed
  2. Lulla V, Sawicki D, Sawicki S, Lulla A, Merits A, Ahola T. Molecular defects caused by temperature-sensitive mutations in Semliki Forest virus nsP1. J Virol. 2008;82:9236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..nsP1 is suggested to contain a specific subdomain involved in minus-strand synthesis and interaction with the polymerase nsP4 and the protease nsP2...
  3. Saul S, Ferguson M, Cordonin C, Fragkoudis R, Ool M, Tamberg N, et al. Differences in Processing Determinants of Nonstructural Polyprotein and in the Sequence of Nonstructural Protein 3 Affect Neurovirulence of Semliki Forest Virus. J Virol. 2015;89:11030-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the usefulness of consensus clones as tools for studies of alphaviruses was demonstrated. ..
  4. Schulte T, Liu L, Panas M, Thaa B, Dickson N, Götte B, et al. Combined structural, biochemical and cellular evidence demonstrates that both FGDF motifs in alphavirus nsP3 are required for efficient replication. Open Biol. 2016;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Chikungunya virus nsP3 also binds G3BP dimers via a hierarchical interaction, which was found to be critical for viral replication. These results highlight a conserved molecular mechanism in host cell modulation. ..
  5. K ri inen L, Takkinen K, Ker nen S, S derlund H. Replication of the genome of alphaviruses. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1987;7:231-50 pubmed
    ..Even when the primary structure of the four non-structural proteins of both SFV and SIN is known, the correlation of the genetic data with the individual proteins has not yet been possible...
  6. Roussel A, Lescar J, Vaney M, Wengler G, Wengler G, Rey F. Structure and interactions at the viral surface of the envelope protein E1 of Semliki Forest virus. Structure. 2006;14:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify the major determinants for the E1/E2 icosahedral shell formation and open the way to rational mutagenesis approaches to shed light on SFV assembly...
  7. Panas M, Ahola T, McInerney G. The C-terminal repeat domains of nsP3 from the Old World alphaviruses bind directly to G3BP. J Virol. 2014;88:5888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..nsP3 variants with or without this domain colocalized with G3BP. Furthermore, we show that the C-terminal repeat motifs of nsP3 were sufficient for G3BP binding...
  8. Karo Astover L, Sarova O, Merits A, Zusinaite E. The infection of mammalian and insect cells with SFV bearing nsP1 palmitoylation mutations. Virus Res. 2010;153:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the lack of nsP1 palmitoylation had a less severe effect on the function of the replication complex in mammalian cells when compared with that in mosquito cells. ..
  9. Spuul P, Salonen A, Merits A, Jokitalo E, K ri inen L, Ahola T. Role of the amphipathic peptide of Semliki forest virus replicase protein nsP1 in membrane association and virus replication. J Virol. 2007;81:872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides essential affinity for membranes, and other regions of nsP1 also appear to contribute to the localization of the protein...
  10. Lulla V, Merits A, Sarin P, K ri inen L, Ker nen S, Ahola T. Identification of mutations causing temperature-sensitive defects in Semliki Forest virus RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2006;80:3108-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These types of defects were not associated with mutations in other nonstructural proteins...