Gene Symbol: YPK1
Description: serine/threonine protein kinase YPK1
Alias: SLI2, serine/threonine protein kinase YPK1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Gelperin D, Horton L, Dechant A, Hensold J, Lemmon S. Loss of ypk1 function causes rapamycin sensitivity, inhibition of translation initiation and synthetic lethality in 14-3-3-deficient yeast. Genetics. 2002;161:1453-64 pubmed
    ..One mutation was found to be allelic to YPK1, which encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase...
  2. Sun Y, Taniguchi R, Tanoue D, Yamaji T, Takematsu H, Mori K, et al. Sli2 (Ypk1), a homologue of mammalian protein kinase SGK, is a downstream kinase in the sphingolipid-mediated signaling pathway of yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4411-9 pubmed
    ..One of these genes, SLI2, is synonymous with YPK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase...
  3. Niles B, Joslin A, Fresques T, Powers T. TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling maintains sphingolipid homeostasis by sensing and regulating ROS accumulation. Cell Rep. 2014;6:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae...
  4. Momoi M, Tanoue D, Sun Y, Takematsu H, Suzuki Y, Suzuki M, et al. SLI1 (YGR212W) is a major gene conferring resistance to the sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitor ISP-1, and encodes an ISP-1 N-acetyltransferase in yeast. Biochem J. 2004;381:321-8 pubmed
    ..In a previous study, we cloned yeast multicopy suppressor genes for ISP-1, and one of these, YPK1/SLI2, was shown to encode a serine/threonine kinase which is a yeast homologue of mammalian SGK1 (serum/glucocorticoid-..
  5. Luo G, Gruhler A, Liu Y, Jensen O, Dickson R. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10433-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that eisosome formation and turnover are regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway...
  6. Roelants F, Baltz A, TROTT A, Fereres S, Thorner J. A protein kinase network regulates the function of aminophospholipid flippases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two such targets are related protein kinases Ypk1 and Ypk2 (orthologs of mammalian SGK1), which have been implicated in multiple processes, including endocytosis and ..
  7. Roelants F, Torrance P, Bezman N, Thorner J. Pkh1 and Pkh2 differentially phosphorylate and activate Ypk1 and Ykr2 and define protein kinase modules required for maintenance of cell wall integrity. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3005-28 pubmed
    ..They activate two closely related, functionally redundant enzymes, Ypk1 and Ykr2 (homologs of mammalian protein kinase, serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase)...
  8. Chen P, Lee K, Levin D. A pair of putative protein kinase genes (YPK1 and YPK2) is required for cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;236:443-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report the isolation and genetic characterization of a pair of previously described genes (YPK1 and YPK2) which are predicted to encode protein kinases that share 90% amino acid identity with each other and 44-..
  9. Niles B, Mogri H, Hill A, Vlahakis A, Powers T. Plasma membrane recruitment and activation of the AGC kinase Ypk1 is mediated by target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) and its effector proteins Slm1 and Slm2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1536-41 pubmed publisher
    The yeast AGC kinase orthologs Ypk1 and Ypk2 control several important cellular processes, including actin polarization, endocytosis, and sphingolipid metabolism...

More Information


  1. Roelants F, Breslow D, Muir A, Weissman J, Thorner J. Protein kinase Ypk1 phosphorylates regulatory proteins Orm1 and Orm2 to control sphingolipid homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19222-7 pubmed publisher
    ..upon addition of inhibitor myriocin), thereby restoring sphingolipid production. We show here that protein kinase Ypk1, one of an essential pair of protein kinases, is responsible for this regulatory modification...
  2. Yamane Sando Y, Shimobayashi E, Shimobayashi M, Kozutsumi Y, Oka S, Takematsu H. Fpk1/2 kinases regulate cellular sphingoid long-chain base abundance and alter cellular resistance to LCB elevation or depletion. Microbiologyopen. 2014;3:196-212 pubmed publisher
    ..RSK3, which belongs to the p90-S6K subfamily, was identified as a functional counterpart of Fpk1/2 in mammalian cells as the RSK3 gene functionally complemented the ISP-1-resistant phenotype of fpk1/2? cells. ..
  3. Schmelzle T, Helliwell S, Hall M. Yeast protein kinases and the RHO1 exchange factor TUS1 are novel components of the cell integrity pathway in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1329-39 pubmed
    ..Activation of PKC1 occurs via the GTPase RHO1 and the kinase pair PKH1 and PKH2. Here we report that YPK1 and YPK2, an essential pair of homologous kinases and proposed downstream effectors of PKH and sphingolipids, are ..
  4. deHart A, Schnell J, Allen D, Tsai J, Hicke L. Receptor internalization in yeast requires the Tor2-Rho1 signaling pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:4676-84 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a novel function for the Tor2-Rho1 pathway in controlling endocytosis in yeast, a function that is mediated in part through the plasma membrane protein Fks1. ..
  5. Roelants F, Torrance P, Thorner J. Differential roles of PDK1- and PDK2-phosphorylation sites in the yeast AGC kinases Ypk1, Pkc1 and Sch9. Microbiology. 2004;150:3289-304 pubmed
    ..These kinases activate three AGC family kinases involved in the maintenance of cell wall integrity: Ypk1 and Ypk2, two closely related, functionally redundant enzymes (orthologues of mammalian protein kinase SGK), and ..
  6. Jacquier N, Schneiter R. Ypk1, the yeast orthologue of the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase, is required for efficient uptake of fatty acids. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that efficient fatty-acid uptake by yeast cells requires the protein kinase Ypk1, the orthologue of the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase Sgk1...
  7. Casamayor A, Torrance P, Kobayashi T, Thorner J, Alessi D. Functional counterparts of mammalian protein kinases PDK1 and SGK in budding yeast. Curr Biol. 1999;9:186-97 pubmed
    ..Expression of human PDK1 in otherwise inviable pkh1Delta pkh2Delta cells permitted growth. In addition, the yeast YPK1 and YKR2 genes were found to encode protein kinases each with a catalytic domain closely resembling that of SGK; ..
  8. Guerreiro J, Muir A, Ramachandran S, Thorner J, Sá Correia I. Sphingolipid biosynthesis upregulation by TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling during yeast adaptive response to acetic acid stress. Biochem J. 2016;473:4311-4325 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae mutants with increased sensitivity to acetic acid identified loss-of-function mutations in the YPK1 gene, which encodes a protein kinase activated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 2 (TORC2)...
  9. Vlahakis A, Graef M, Nunnari J, Powers T. TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling is an essential positive regulator of the general amino acid control response and autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:10586-91 pubmed publisher
    ..as a positive regulator of autophagy through the conserved TORC2 and its downstream target protein kinase, Ypk1. Under these conditions, TORC2-Ypk1 signaling negatively regulates the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, ..
  10. Surlow B, Cooley B, Needham P, Brodsky J, Patton Vogt J. Loss of Ypk1, the yeast homolog to the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase, accelerates phospholipase B1-mediated phosphatidylcholine deacylation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31591-604 pubmed publisher
    b>Ypk1, the yeast homolog of the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk1), affects diverse cellular activities, including sphingolipid homeostasis...
  11. Yerlikaya S, Meusburger M, Kumari R, Huber A, Anrather D, Costanzo M, et al. TORC1 and TORC2 work together to regulate ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Ypk3 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, whereas TORC2 regulates phosphorylation of only the N-terminal phosphosite via Ypk1. Cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable variant of Rps6 display a reduced growth rate and a 40S biogenesis defect, ..
  12. Sartorel E, Barrey E, Lau R, Thorner J. Plasma membrane aminoglycerolipid flippase function is required for signaling competence in the yeast mating pheromone response pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:134-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus proper remodeling of plasma membrane aminoglycerolipids and phosphoinositides is necessary for efficient recruitment, stability, and function of the pheromone signaling apparatus. ..
  13. Liu K, Zhang X, Lester R, Dickson R. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22679-87 pubmed
    ..the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes...
  14. Niles B, Powers T. TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling regulates actin polarization via reactive oxygen species. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:3962-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that in budding yeast, TORC2 and its downstream kinase Ypk1 regulate actin polarization by controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation...
  15. Hatakeyama R, Kono K, Yoshida S. Ypk1 and Ypk2 kinases maintain Rho1 at the plasma membrane by flippase-dependent lipid remodeling after membrane stresses. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:1169-1178 pubmed publisher
    The plasma membrane (PM) is frequently challenged by mechanical stresses. In budding yeast, TORC2-Ypk1/Ypk2 kinase cascade plays a crucial role in PM stress responses by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton via Rho1 GTPase...
  16. Cao H, Wang Y, Zhong Y, Liu X, Miao M, Duan W, et al. [YPK1 overexpression resulted salt stress hypersensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on TOR1]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2009;49:1069-74 pubmed
    Serine/threonine protein kinase YPK1, a homologue of mammalian protein kinase serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK), plays important physiological roles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  17. Vlahakis A, Lopez Muniozguren N, Powers T. Calcium channel regulator Mid1 links TORC2-mediated changes in mitochondrial respiration to autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2016;215:779-788 pubmed
    ..contrast, TORC2 functions as a positive regulator of autophagy during amino acid starvation, via its target kinase Ypk1, by repressing the activity of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and promoting the general amino acid ..
  18. Chauhan N, Han G, Somashekarappa N, Gable K, Dunn T, Kohlwein S. Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by the Morphogenesis Checkpoint Kinase Swe1. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:2524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased phosphorylation and inhibition of Orm proteins by the kinase Ypk1. Here we present evidence that the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint kinase, Swe1, regulates SL biosynthesis ..
  19. Alvaro C, Aindow A, Thorner J. Differential Phosphorylation Provides a Switch to Control How α-Arrestin Rod1 Down-regulates Mating Pheromone Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2016;203:299-317 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation of Rod1 by phosphorylation is mediated by two distinct stress-activated protein kinases, Snf1/AMPK and Ypk1/SGK1, and demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that this phospho-regulation impedes the ability of Rod1 to promote ..
  20. Fröhlich F, Olson D, Christiano R, Farese R, Walther T. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of yeast reveal the global cellular response to sphingolipid depletion. Proteomics. 2016;16:2759-2763 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified Ypk signaling as a pathway likely to be activated under these conditions, and we identified potential Ypk1 target proteins...
  21. Kennedy M, Gable K, Niewola Staszkowska K, Abreu S, Johnston A, Harris L, et al. A neurotoxic glycerophosphocholine impacts PtdIns-4, 5-bisphosphate and TORC2 signaling by altering ceramide biosynthesis in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004010 pubmed publisher
  22. Leskoske K, Roelants F, Marshall M, Hill J, Thorner J. The Stress-Sensing TORC2 Complex Activates Yeast AGC-Family Protein Kinase Ypk1 at Multiple Novel Sites. Genetics. 2017;207:179-195 pubmed publisher
    ..Its essential functions are exerted via phosphorylation and stimulation of downstream protein kinase Ypk1 (and its paralog Ypk2)...
  23. Muir A, Roelants F, Timmons G, Leskoske K, Thorner J. Down-regulation of TORC2-Ypk1 signaling promotes MAPK-independent survival under hyperosmotic stress. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..In our prior proteome-wide screen, Fps1 was identified as a target of TORC2-dependent protein kinase Ypk1 (Muir et al., 2014)...
  24. García Marqués S, Randez Gil F, Dupont S, Garre E, Prieto J. Sng1 associates with Nce102 to regulate the yeast Pkh-Ypk signalling module in response to sphingolipid status. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:1319-33 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae, evidence links sphingolipid homeostasis and membrane phospholipid asymmetry to the activity of the Ypk1/2 proteins, the yeast orthologous of the mammalian SGK1-3 kinases...
  25. Lee Y, Jeschke G, Roelants F, Thorner J, Turk B. Reciprocal phosphorylation of yeast glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases in adaptation to distinct types of stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4705-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Gpd1, in contrast, is a target of TORC2-dependent kinases Ypk1 and Ypk2...