Gene Symbol: XRS2
Description: Xrs2p
Alias: Xrs2p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Boulton S, Jackson S. Components of the Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway are involved in telomeric length maintenance and telomeric silencing. EMBO J. 1998;17:1819-28 pubmed
    ..However, RAD50, MRE11 and XRS2 function both in Ku-dependent DNA DSB repair and in telomeric length maintenance, although they have no major ..
  2. Chamankhah M, Fontanie T, Xiao W. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mre11(ts) allele confers a separation of DNA repair and telomere maintenance functions. Genetics. 2000;155:569-76 pubmed
    ..that there is a strong correlation between Mre11 DNA repair and telomere maintenance functions and that Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex formation appears to be essential for both of these activities...
  3. Steininger S, Ahne F, Winkler K, Kleinschmidt A, Eckardt Schupp F, Moertl S. A novel function for the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex in base excision repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1853-65 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has well-characterized functions in DNA double-strand break processing, checkpoint activation, telomere length maintenance and meiosis...
  4. Nakada D, Matsumoto K, Sugimoto K. ATM-related Tel1 associates with double-strand breaks through an Xrs2-dependent mechanism. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1957-62 pubmed
    In budding yeast, TEL1 encodes a protein closely related to ATM. Xrs2 is an Nbs1 homolog and forms a complex with Mre11 and Rad50...
  5. Ivanov E, Sugawara N, White C, Fabre F, Haber J. Mutations in XRS2 and RAD50 delay but do not prevent mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3414-25 pubmed
    ..While most of these genes are essential for yeast mating-type (MAT) gene switching, neither RAD50 nor XRS2 is required to complete this specialized mitotic gene conversion process...
  6. Tsukamoto Y, Mitsuoka C, Terasawa M, Ogawa H, Ogawa T. Xrs2p regulates Mre11p translocation to the nucleus and plays a role in telomere elongation and meiotic recombination. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:597-608 pubmed
    ..b>Xrs2p is known to be essential for all the functions of the complex, but its role in the complex has not been clearly ..
  7. Psakhye I, Jentsch S. Protein group modification and synergy in the SUMO pathway as exemplified in DNA repair. Cell. 2012;151:807-820 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SUMOylation may thus often target a protein group rather than individual proteins, whereas localized modification enzymes and highly specific triggers ensure specificity. ..
  8. Lengsfeld B, Rattray A, Bhaskara V, Ghirlando R, Paull T. Sae2 is an endonuclease that processes hairpin DNA cooperatively with the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex. Mol Cell. 2007;28:638-51 pubmed
    ..complexes, but hairpin DNA structures are cleaved cooperatively in the presence of Mre11/Rad50 or Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2. Hairpin structures are not processed at the tip by Sae2 but rather at single-stranded DNA regions adjacent to the ..
  9. Usui T, Ogawa H, Petrini J. A DNA damage response pathway controlled by Tel1 and the Mre11 complex. Mol Cell. 2001;7:1255-66 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the diverse functions of the Mre11 complex in the cellular DNA damage response are conserved in mammals and yeast. ..

More Information


  1. Falck J, Coates J, Jackson S. Conserved modes of recruitment of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs to sites of DNA damage. Nature. 2005;434:605-11 pubmed
  2. Hohl M, Kwon Y, Galván S, Xue X, Tous C, Aguilera A, et al. The Rad50 coiled-coil domain is indispensable for Mre11 complex functions. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1124-31 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) influences diverse functions in the DNA damage response...
  3. D Amours D, Jackson S. The yeast Xrs2 complex functions in S phase checkpoint regulation. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2238-49 pubmed
    ..The equivalent complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Xrs2p complex) has been implicated in DNA double-strand break repair and in telomere length regulation...
  4. Chen L, Trujillo K, Ramos W, Sung P, Tomkinson A. Promotion of Dnl4-catalyzed DNA end-joining by the Rad50/Mre11/Xrs2 and Hdf1/Hdf2 complexes. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1105-15 pubmed
    S. cerevisiae RAD50, MRE11, and XRS2 genes are required for telomere maintenance, cell cycle checkpoint signaling, meiotic recombination, and the efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB)s by homologous recombination and ..
  5. Arora C, Kee K, Maleki S, Keeney S. Antiviral protein Ski8 is a direct partner of Spo11 in meiotic DNA break formation, independent of its cytoplasmic role in RNA metabolism. Mol Cell. 2004;13:549-59 pubmed
    ..Ski8 works with Spo11 to recruit other DSB proteins to meiotic chromosomes, implicating Ski8 as a scaffold protein mediating assembly of a multiprotein complex essential for DSB formation. ..
  6. Mallory J, Bashkirov V, Trujillo K, Solinger J, Dominska M, Sung P, et al. Amino acid changes in Xrs2p, Dun1p, and Rfa2p that remove the preferred targets of the ATM family of protein kinases do not affect DNA repair or telomere length in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:1041-64 pubmed
    ..b>Xrs2p and Mre11p are phosphorylated in a Tel1p-dependent manner in response to DNA damage [Genes Dev...
  7. Trujillo K, Roh D, Chen L, Van Komen S, Tomkinson A, Sung P. Yeast xrs2 binds DNA and helps target rad50 and mre11 to DNA ends. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48957-64 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad50, Mre11, and Xrs2 proteins are involved in homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining, DNA damage checkpoint signaling, and telomere maintenance...
  8. Matsuzaki K, Terasawa M, Iwasaki D, Higashide M, Shinohara M. Cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Lif1 and Sae2 controls imprecise nonhomologous end joining accompanied by double-strand break resection. Genes Cells. 2012;17:473-93 pubmed publisher
    ..CDK-dependent modification of the NHEJ pathway might make DSB ends compatible for NHEJ and thus prevent competition between HR and NHEJ in hierarchy on the choice of DSB repair pathways. ..
  9. Torres J, Schnakenberg S, Zakian V. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrm3p DNA helicase promotes genome integrity by preventing replication fork stalling: viability of rrm3 cells requires the intra-S-phase checkpoint and fork restart activities. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3198-212 pubmed
    ..the SRS2 inhibitor of recombination, the SGS1/TOP3 replication fork restart pathway, and the MRE11/RAD50/XRS2 (MRX) complex were critical for viability of rrm3 cells...
  10. Shima H, Suzuki M, Shinohara M. Isolation and characterization of novel xrs2 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;170:71-85 pubmed
    The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex is involved in DNA damage repair, DNA damage response, telomere control, and meiotic recombination. Here, we constructed and characterized novel mutant alleles of XRS2...
  11. Wilson T. A genomics-based screen for yeast mutants with an altered recombination/end-joining repair ratio. Genetics. 2002;162:677-88 pubmed
    ..which corresponded to all known structural/catalytic NHEJ components (yku70, yku80, dnl4, lif1, rad50, mre11, and xrs2); no new mutants in this category were identified...
  12. Anderson D, Trujillo K, Sung P, Erickson H. Structure of the Rad50 x Mre11 DNA repair complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by electron microscopy. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37027-33 pubmed
    ..Rad50 forms a complex with two other proteins, Mre11 and Xrs2, and this complex is involved in double-strand break formation and processing...
  13. Cejka P, Cannavo E, Polaczek P, Masuda Sasa T, Pokharel S, Campbell J, et al. DNA end resection by Dna2-Sgs1-RPA and its stimulation by Top3-Rmi1 and Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2. Nature. 2010;467:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to this core machinery, we establish that both the topoisomerase 3 (Top3) and Rmi1 complex and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex (MRX) have important roles as stimulatory components...
  14. Palmbos P, Daley J, Wilson T. Mutations of the Yku80 C terminus and Xrs2 FHA domain specifically block yeast nonhomologous end joining. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10782-90 pubmed
    ..of DNA double-strand break repair requires three protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: MRX (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2), Ku (Ku70-Ku80), and DNA ligase IV (Dnl4-Lif1-Nej1)...
  15. Matsuzaki K, Shinohara A, Shinohara M. Forkhead-associated domain of yeast Xrs2, a homolog of human Nbs1, promotes nonhomologous end joining through interaction with a ligase IV partner protein, Lif1. Genetics. 2008;179:213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast Xrs2, a homolog of human Nbs1, is a component of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex required for both HR and NHEJ...
  16. Wang H, Elledge S. Genetic and physical interactions between DPB11 and DDC1 in the yeast DNA damage response pathway. Genetics. 2002;160:1295-304 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DPB11 and DDC1 may function in the same or parallel pathways after DNA damage and that DDC1 may play a role in responding to replication defects. ..
  17. Manfrini N, Trovesi C, Wery M, Martina M, Cesena D, Descrimes M, et al. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:221-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. ..
  18. Bhattacharyya M, Matthews K, Lustig A. Mre11 nuclease and C-terminal tail-mediated DDR functions are required for initiating yeast telomere healing. Chromosoma. 2008;117:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..DeltaC49 provokes Rad53 phosphorylation after treatment with the radiomimetic agent MMS exclusively through the Tel1 pathway, suggesting that a Tel1-mediated function is initiated through the C-terminal tail. ..
  19. Seidel J, Anderson C, Blackburn E. A novel Tel1/ATM N-terminal motif, TAN, is essential for telomere length maintenance and a DNA damage response. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5736-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results define a conserved sequence motif within an otherwise poorly defined region of the Tel1/ATM kinase family proteins that is essential for normal Tel1 function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  20. Grandin N, Charbonneau M. Mitotic cyclins regulate telomeric recombination in telomerase-deficient yeast cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:9162-77 pubmed
    ..growth defect between mutations in CLB2 and RAD50 or in its partners in the conserved MRX complex, MRE11 and XRS2, was observed...
  21. Reha Krantz L, Siddique M, Murphy K, Tam A, O Carroll M, Lou S, et al. Drug-sensitive DNA polymerase ? reveals a role for mismatch repair in checkpoint activation in yeast. Genetics. 2011;189:1211-24 pubmed publisher
  22. Vigasová D, Sarangi P, Kolesar P, Vlasáková D, Slezakova Z, Altmannova V, et al. Lif1 SUMOylation and its role in non-homologous end-joining. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:5341-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that SUMOylation of Lif1 represents a new regulatory mechanism that downregulates NHEJ in a cell cycle phase-independent manner. ..
  23. Hirano Y, Fukunaga K, Sugimoto K. Rif1 and rif2 inhibit localization of tel1 to DNA ends. Mol Cell. 2009;33:312-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Rif1 and Rif2 inhibit the localization of Tel1, but not the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex, to adjacent DNA ends...
  24. Ho H, Burgess S. Pch2 acts through Xrs2 and Tel1/ATM to modulate interhomolog bias and checkpoint function during meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002351 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Pch2 physically interacts with the putative BRCT repeats in the N-terminal region of Xrs2, a member of the MRX complex that acts at sites of unprocessed DSBs...
  25. Matuo R, Sousa F, Bonatto D, Mielniczki Pereira A, Saffi J, Soares D, et al. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and histone acetyltransferases in 5-FU cytotoxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genet Mol Res. 2013;12:1440-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined deficiencies in HAT with defects in HR and PRR did not potentiate 5-FU cytotoxicity, possibly because they function in a common pathway. ..
  26. Bernstein K, Mimitou E, Mihalevic M, Chen H, Sunjaveric I, Symington L, et al. Resection activity of the Sgs1 helicase alters the affinity of DNA ends for homologous recombination proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2013;195:1241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a model where the role of Sgs1 in end resection along with Sae2 is important for removing Mre11 from DNA ends during repair. ..
  27. Chen Y, Chuang Y, Chuang C, Cheng Y, Chang C, Leng C, et al. S. cerevisiae Mre11 recruits conjugated SUMO moieties to facilitate the assembly and function of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:2199-213 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast and mammalian Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N)-Sae2/Ctp1 complex catalyzes the resection of DSBs induced by secondary structures, chemical adducts or ..
  28. Ghodke I, Muniyappa K. Processing of DNA double-stranded breaks and intermediates of recombination and repair by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11 and its stimulation by Rad50, Xrs2, and Sae2 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11273-86 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD50, MRE11, and XRS2 genes are essential for telomere length maintenance, cell cycle checkpoint signaling, meiotic recombination, and DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair via nonhomologous end joining and ..
  29. Chin J, Bashkirov V, Heyer W, Romesberg F. Esc4/Rtt107 and the control of recombination during replication. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:618-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that Esc4 associates with ssDNA of stalled forks and acts as a scaffolding protein to recruit and/or modulate the function of other proteins required to reinitiate DNA synthesis. ..
  30. Jessulat M, Alamgir M, Salsali H, Greenblatt J, Xu J, Golshani A. Interacting proteins Rtt109 and Vps75 affect the efficiency of non-homologous end-joining in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;469:157-64 pubmed
    ..We propose that one function of the Rtt109-Vps75 interacting protein pair is to affect the efficiency of NHEJ in yeast. Vps75 but not Rtt109 also seem to have an effect on the efficiency of DSB repair using homologous recombination. ..
  31. Bernstein K, Juanchich A, Sunjevaric I, Rothstein R. The Shu complex regulates Rad52 localization during rDNA repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2013;12:786-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that in the absence of UAF30, the Shu complex plays a central role in Rad52 rDNA localization as long as Rad52 can be sumoylated. This discrimination is important for rDNA copy number homeostasis. ..
  32. Ball L, Hanna M, Lambrecht A, Mitchell B, Ziola B, Cobb J, et al. The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex is required for yeast DNA postreplication repair. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109292 pubmed publisher
    ..To our surprise, genes encoding the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex, which are also required for homologous recombination, are epistatic to TLS mutations...
  33. Ogawa H, Johzuka K, Nakagawa T, Leem S, Hagihara A. Functions of the yeast meiotic recombination genes, MRE11 and MRE2. Adv Biophys. 1995;31:67-76 pubmed
    ..Analysis of properties of the mre11 disruption mutant as well as the xrs2 mutant showed a similarity to those of the rad50 disruptant...
  34. Usui T, Ohta T, Oshiumi H, Tomizawa J, Ogawa H, Ogawa T. Complex formation and functional versatility of Mre11 of budding yeast in recombination. Cell. 1998;95:705-16 pubmed
    ..Mre11 forms a complex with Rad50 and Xrs2, acting as the binding core, and participates in DSB processing...
  35. Symington L. Homologous recombination is required for the viability of rad27 mutants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:5589-95 pubmed
    ..of RAD27 to strains containing a mutation in either the RAD1, RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55, RAD57, MRE11, XRS2 or RAD59 gene. In no case were viable spore products recovered that contained both mutations...
  36. Palmbos P, Wu D, Daley J, Wilson T. Recruitment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dnl4-Lif1 complex to a double-strand break requires interactions with Yku80 and the Xrs2 FHA domain. Genetics. 2008;180:1809-19 pubmed publisher
    ..in at least three different functional complexes: Yku70-Yku80 (Ku), Dnl4-Lif1-Nej1 (DNA ligase IV), and Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX)...
  37. Ma Y, Greider C. Kinase-independent functions of TEL1 in telomere maintenance. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..a set of single point mutants and a double point mutant (tel1(KD)) of Tel1p that were kinase deficient and two Xrs2p mutants that failed to bind Tel1p...
  38. Krogh B, Llorente B, Lam A, Symington L. Mutations in Mre11 phosphoesterase motif I that impair Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex stability in addition to nuclease activity. Genetics. 2005;171:1561-70 pubmed
    The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex is involved in DNA double-strand break repair, telomere maintenance, and the intra-S phase checkpoint...
  39. Cannavo E, Cejka P. Sae2 promotes dsDNA endonuclease activity within Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 to resect DNA breaks. Nature. 2014;514:122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic evidence suggests that this process is initiated by the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex...
  40. Clatworthy A, Valencia Burton M, Haber J, Oettinger M. The MRE11-RAD50-XRS2 complex, in addition to other non-homologous end-joining factors, is required for V(D)J joining in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20247-52 pubmed
    ..However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying null mutations in components of the homologous Mre11p-Rad50p-Xrs2p (MRX) complex are viable...
  41. Myung K, Chen C, Kolodner R. Multiple pathways cooperate in the suppression of genome instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature. 2001;411:1073-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations that inactivate these pathways cause high rates of GCRs and show synergistic interactions, indicating that the pathways that suppress GCRs all compete for the same DNA substrates. ..
  42. Allen Soltero S, Martinez S, Putnam C, Kolodner R. A saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H2 interaction network functions to suppress genome instability. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1521-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis suggests that cells with RNase H2 defects have increased levels of DNA damage and depend on other pathways of DNA metabolism to overcome the deleterious effects of this DNA damage. ..
  43. Andrews C, Clarke D. MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2) mutants reveal dual intra-S-phase checkpoint systems in budding yeast. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1073-7 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that the equivalent budding yeast complex, MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2), is not required for the intra-S-phase checkpoint in response to DNA alkylation damage, but is required in the ..
  44. Galli A, Chan C, Parfenova L, Cervelli T, Schiestl R. Requirement of POL3 and POL4 on non-homologous and microhomology-mediated end joining in rad50/xrs2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutagenesis. 2015;30:841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the epistatic interaction between POL3, RAD50, XRS2 and POL4 in NHEJ using a plasmid-based endjoining assay in yeast...
  45. Ogi H, Goto G, Ghosh A, Zencir S, Henry E, Sugimoto K. Requirement of the FATC domain of protein kinase Tel1 for localization to DNA ends and target protein recognition. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:3480-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the FATC domain of Tel1 mediates localization to DNA ends and contributes to phosphorylation of target proteins. ..
  46. Simoneau A, Robellet X, Ladouceur A, D Amours D. Cdk1-dependent regulation of the Mre11 complex couples DNA repair pathways to cell cycle progression. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:1078-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a major DSB sensor, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex, is regulated by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation specifically in mitosis...
  47. Ivanov E, Korolev V, Fabre F. XRS2, a DNA repair gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is needed for meiotic recombination. Genetics. 1992;132:651-64 pubmed
    The XRS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been previously identified as a DNA repair gene. In this communication, we show that XRS2 also encodes an essential meiotic function...
  48. Park Y, Hohl M, Padjasek M, Jeong E, Jin K, Krężel A, et al. Eukaryotic Rad50 functions as a rod-shaped dimer. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2017;24:248-257 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that the hook and coiled-coil interfaces coordinately promote intracomplex assembly and define the intracomplex as the functional form of the Mre11 complex. ..
  49. Klein H. Mutations in recombinational repair and in checkpoint control genes suppress the lethal combination of srs2Delta with other DNA repair genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;157:557-65 pubmed
    ..However, cells do not achieve wild-type growth rates, suggesting that unrepaired damage is still present and may lead to chromosome loss. ..
  50. Grenon M, Magill C, Lowndes N, Jackson S. Double-strand breaks trigger MRX- and Mec1-dependent, but Tel1-independent, checkpoint activation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006;6:836-47 pubmed
    Together with the Tel1 PI3 kinase, the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex is involved in checkpoint activation in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs), a function also conserved in human cells by Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 acting with ATM...
  51. Moriel Carretero M, Aguilera A. A postincision-deficient TFIIH causes replication fork breakage and uncovers alternative Rad51- or Pol32-mediated restart mechanisms. Mol Cell. 2010;37:690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define the genetic and molecular hallmarks of replication fork breakage and restart and bring insights to understand specific NER-related human syndromes. ..
  52. Foster S, Zubko M, Guillard S, Lydall D. MRX protects telomeric DNA at uncapped telomeres of budding yeast cdc13-1 mutants. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:840-51 pubmed
    MRX, an evolutionally conserved DNA damage response complex composed of Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2, is involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, checkpoint activation and telomere maintenance...
  53. Kraus E, Leung W, Haber J. Break-induced replication: a review and an example in budding yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8255-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, the end of a linearized DNA fragment can initiate new DNA synthesis by BIR in which the newly synthesized DNA is displaced and subsequently forms circles by NHEJ. ..
  54. Ballew B, Lundblad V. Multiple genetic pathways regulate replicative senescence in telomerase-deficient yeast. Aging Cell. 2013;12:719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the MRX (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2) complex, as well as negative (Rif2) and positive (Tel1) regulators of this complex, comprise a single pathway that ..
  55. Bentsen I, Nielsen I, Lisby M, Nielsen H, Gupta S, Mundbjerg K, et al. MRX protects fork integrity at protein-DNA barriers, and its absence causes checkpoint activation dependent on chromatin context. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3173-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We discover a pivotal role for the MRX (Mre11, Rad50, Xrs2) complex for fork integrity at RFBs, which differs from its acknowledged function in double-strand break processing...
  56. Alzu A, Bermejo R, Begnis M, Lucca C, Piccini D, Carotenuto W, et al. Senataxin associates with replication forks to protect fork integrity across RNA-polymerase-II-transcribed genes. Cell. 2012;151:835-846 pubmed publisher
  57. Shor E, Gangloff S, Wagner M, Weinstein J, Price G, Rothstein R. Mutations in homologous recombination genes rescue top3 slow growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;162:647-62 pubmed
    ..In contrast, top3 mutants show extreme synergistic growth defects with mutations in RAD50, MRE11, XRS2, RDH54, and RAD1...
  58. Takata H, Tanaka Y, Matsuura A. Late S phase-specific recruitment of Mre11 complex triggers hierarchical assembly of telomere replication proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2005;17:573-83 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that MRX (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2), an evolutionarily conserved protein complex involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is recruited to the ..
  59. KALIFA L, Quintana D, Schiraldi L, Phadnis N, Coles G, Sia R, et al. Mitochondrial genome maintenance: roles for nuclear nonhomologous end-joining proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2012;190:951-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that loss of the MRX (Mre11p, Rad50p, Xrs2p) and Ku70/80 (Ku70p, Ku80p) complexes significantly impacts the rate of spontaneous deletion events in mtDNA, and ..
  60. Zhang X, Paull T. The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex and non-homologous end-joining of incompatible ends in S. cerevisiae. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1281-94 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex plays important roles in both homologous and non-homologous pathways of DNA repair...
  61. Oh J, Al Zain A, Cannavo E, Cejka P, Symington L. Xrs2 Dependent and Independent Functions of the Mre11-Rad50 Complex. Mol Cell. 2016;64:405-415 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex orchestrates the cellular response to DSBs through its structural, enzymatic, and signaling roles...
  62. Lewis L, Karthikeyan G, Westmoreland J, Resnick M. Differential suppression of DNA repair deficiencies of Yeast rad50, mre11 and xrs2 mutants by EXO1 and TLC1 (the RNA component of telomerase). Genetics. 2002;160:49-62 pubmed
    Rad50, Mre11, and Xrs2 form a nuclease complex that functions in both nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  63. Chepurnaia O, Peshekhonov V, Kozhina T, Korolev V. [The xrs2 gene controls recombination repair in yeast]. Genetika. 1993;29:571-80 pubmed
    The XRS2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are sensitive to ionizing and UV irradiation, have altered rates of spontaneous and induced mitotic recombination and are defective in meiosis...
  64. Liang J, Suhandynata R, Zhou H. Phosphorylation of Sae2 Mediates Forkhead-associated (FHA) Domain-specific Interaction and Regulates Its DNA Repair Function. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10751-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that phosphorylation of Thr-90 of Sae2 mediates its interaction with Rad53, Dun1, Xrs2, Dma1, and Dma2, whereas Rad53 and Dun1 additionally interact with phosphorylated Thr-279 of Sae2...
  65. Kaochar S, Shanks L, Weinert T. Checkpoint genes and Exo1 regulate nearby inverted repeat fusions that form dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21605-10 pubmed publisher