Gene Symbol: XRN1
Description: chromatin-binding exonuclease XRN1
Alias: DST2, KEM1, RAR5, SEP1, SKI1, chromatin-binding exonuclease XRN1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Pathak R, Bogomolnaya L, Guo J, Polymenis M. A role for KEM1 at the START of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2005;48:300-9 pubmed
    b>KEM1 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, conserved in all eukaryotes, whose deletion leads to pleiotropic phenotypes...
  2. Haimovich G, Medina D, Causse S, Garber M, Millán Zambrano G, Barkai O, et al. Gene expression is circular: factors for mRNA degradation also foster mRNA synthesis. Cell. 2013;153:1000-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene expression process is therefore circular, whereby the hitherto first and last stages are interconnected. ..
  3. Berretta J, Pinskaya M, Morillon A. A cryptic unstable transcript mediates transcriptional trans-silencing of the Ty1 retrotransposon in S. cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2008;22:615-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show the first example of an RNA-dependent gene trans-silencing mediated by epigenetic marks in S. cerevisiae. ..
  4. Sheth U, Parker R. Decapping and decay of messenger RNA occur in cytoplasmic processing bodies. Science. 2003;300:805-8 pubmed
    ..These results define the flux of mRNAs between polysomes and P bodies as a critical aspect of cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism and a possible site for regulation of mRNA degradation...
  5. Decker C, Teixeira D, Parker R. Edc3p and a glutamine/asparagine-rich domain of Lsm4p function in processing body assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:437-49 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a stepwise model for P-body assembly with the initial formation of a core mRNA-protein complex that then aggregates through multiple specific mechanisms. ..
  6. Luo G, Costanzo M, Boone C, Dickson R. Nutrients and the Pkh1/2 and Pkc1 protein kinases control mRNA decay and P-body assembly in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8759-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammals may use similar regulatory mechanisms because components of the decay apparatus and signaling pathways are conserved. ..
  7. Nissan T, Rajyaguru P, She M, Song H, Parker R. Decapping activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae act by multiple mechanisms. Mol Cell. 2010;39:773-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify numerous direct interactions between Pat1, Dcp1, Dcp2, Dhh1, Scd6, Edc3, Xrn1, and the Lsm1-7 complex...
  8. Fischer N, Weis K. The DEAD box protein Dhh1 stimulates the decapping enzyme Dcp1. EMBO J. 2002;21:2788-97 pubmed
    ..and is shown to be in a complex with the mRNA degradation factor Pat1/Mtr1 and with the 5'-3' exoribonuclease Xrn1. Dhh1 specifically affects mRNA turnover in the deadenylation-dependent decay pathway, but does not act on the ..
  9. Venema J, Tollervey D. Ribosome synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Annu Rev Genet. 1999;33:261-311 pubmed
    ..Here, we will discuss the recent, and often surprising, advances in our understanding of ribosome synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These will underscore the unexpected complexity of eukaryotic ribosome synthesis. ..

More Information


  1. van Dijk E, Chen C, d Aubenton Carafa Y, Gourvennec S, Kwapisz M, Roche V, et al. XUTs are a class of Xrn1-sensitive antisense regulatory non-coding RNA in yeast. Nature. 2011;475:114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae, the bona-fide regulatory ncRNAs are destabilized by the Xrn1 5'-3' RNA exonuclease (also known as Kem1), but the genome-wide characterization of the entire regulatory ncRNA family remains elusive...
  2. Sun M, Schwalb B, Pirkl N, Maier K, Schenk A, Failmezger H, et al. Global analysis of eukaryotic mRNA degradation reveals Xrn1-dependent buffering of transcript levels. Mol Cell. 2013;52:52-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that buffering of mRNA levels requires the RNA exonuclease Xrn1. The buffering is rapidly established when mRNA synthesis is impaired, but is delayed when mRNA degradation is ..
  3. Anderson J, Parker R. The 3' to 5' degradation of yeast mRNAs is a general mechanism for mRNA turnover that requires the SKI2 DEVH box protein and 3' to 5' exonucleases of the exosome complex. EMBO J. 1998;17:1497-506 pubmed
    ..These observations argue that efficient mRNA turnover is required for viability and that we have identified the two major pathways of mRNA decay in yeast. ..
  4. Wahba L, Amon J, Koshland D, Vuica Ross M. RNase H and multiple RNA biogenesis factors cooperate to prevent RNA:DNA hybrids from generating genome instability. Mol Cell. 2011;44:978-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, RNA:DNA hybrids are a potent source for changing genome structure. By preventing their formation and accumulation, multiple RNA biogenesis factors and RNase H act as guardians of the genome. ..
  5. Bouveret E, Rigaut G, Shevchenko A, Wilm M, Seraphin B. A Sm-like protein complex that participates in mRNA degradation. EMBO J. 2000;19:1661-71 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the involvement of a new conserved Sm-like protein complex and a new factor, Pat1p, in mRNA degradation and suggest a physical connection between decapping and exonuclease trimming. ..
  6. Goler Baron V, Selitrennik M, Barkai O, Haimovich G, Lotan R, Choder M. Transcription in the nucleus and mRNA decay in the cytoplasm are coupled processes. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2022-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, by recruiting Rpb4/7, Pol II governs not only transcription but also mRNA decay. ..
  7. Chernyakov I, Whipple J, Kotelawala L, Grayhack E, Phizicky E. Degradation of several hypomodified mature tRNA species in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by Met22 and the 5'-3' exonucleases Rat1 and Xrn1. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that components of this RTD pathway include the 5'-3' exonucleases Rat1 and Xrn1, and Met22, which likely acts indirectly through Rat1 and Xrn1...
  8. Dutko J, Kenny A, Gamache E, Curcio M. 5' to 3' mRNA decay factors colocalize with Ty1 gag and human APOBEC3G and promote Ty1 retrotransposition. J Virol. 2010;84:5052-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of DDD and NMD explain the strong requirement for general 5' to 3' mRNA degradation factors Dcp1, Dcp2, and Xrn1 in Ty1 retromobility...
  9. Rose M. Nuclear fusion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1996;12:663-95 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, yeast karyogamy has become an important model system to investigate critical functions of the cytoplasmic microtubules and the microtubule organizing center, the nuclear envelope, and the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  10. Bousquet Antonelli C, Presutti C, Tollervey D. Identification of a regulated pathway for nuclear pre-mRNA turnover. Cell. 2000;102:765-75 pubmed
    ..We propose that nuclear pre-mRNA turnover represents a novel step in the regulation of gene expression. ..
  11. Toh e A, Wickner R. "Superkiller" mutations suppress chromosomal mutations affecting double-stranded RNA killer plasmid replication in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:527-30 pubmed
    ..The ski1-1 mutation suppresses (bypasses) all mak mutations tested except mak16-1...
  12. Chang L, Lee F. The RNA helicase Dhh1p cooperates with Rbp1p to promote porin mRNA decay via its non-conserved C-terminal domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1331-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that the non-conserved C-terminus of Dhh1p plays a role in defining specific interactions with mRNA regulatory factors that promote distinct mRNA decay. ..
  13. Ma Z, Atencio D, Barnes C, Defiglio H, Hanes S. Multiple roles for the Ess1 prolyl isomerase in the RNA polymerase II transcription cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3594-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Ess1 has direct effects on RNA polymerase transcription by controlling cofactor binding via conformationally induced changes in the CTD and indirect effects by influencing chromatin modification. ..
  14. Pashler A, Towler B, Jones C, Newbury S. The roles of the exoribonucleases DIS3L2 and XRN1 in human disease. Biochem Soc Trans. 2016;44:1377-1384 pubmed
    ..DIS3L2 and XRN1 are conserved exoribonucleases that are critical for the degradation of cytoplasmic RNAs...
  15. Castells Roca L, Muhlenhoff U, Lill R, Herrero E, Belli G. The oxidative stress response in yeast cells involves changes in the stability of Aft1 regulon mRNAs. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:232-48 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae cells redirect iron assimilation through the non-reductive pathway to minimize oxidative damage by the ferrous ions, which are formed during iron import through the Ftr1/Fet3 complexes. ..
  16. Kramer E, Hopper A. Retrograde transfer RNA nuclear import provides a new level of tRNA quality control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:21042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that the retrograde process provides a newly discovered level of tRNA quality control as a pathway that monitors both end processing of pre-tRNAs and the modification state of mature tRNAs. ..
  17. Cheng C, Serviene E, Nagy P. Suppression of viral RNA recombination by a host exoribonuclease. J Virol. 2006;80:2631-40 pubmed
    ..A previous genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model host, identified five host genes, including XRN1, encoding a 5'-3' exoribonuclease, whose absence led to an approximately 10- to 50-fold enhancement of RNA ..
  18. Lotan R, Goler Baron V, Duek L, Haimovich G, Choder M. The Rpb7p subunit of yeast RNA polymerase II plays roles in the two major cytoplasmic mRNA decay mechanisms. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:1133-43 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analyses suggest that Rpb7p plays two distinct roles in mRNA decay, which can both be uncoupled from Rpb7p's role in transcription. Thus, Rpb7p plays pivotal roles in determining mRNA levels. ..
  19. Sinturel F, Navickas A, Wery M, Descrimes M, Morillon A, Torchet C, et al. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1853-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5'-3' cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in ..
  20. Checkley M, Nagashima K, Lockett S, Nyswaner K, Garfinkel D. P-body components are required for Ty1 retrotransposition during assembly of retrotransposition-competent virus-like particles. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:382-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified cytoplasmic P-body components encoded by DHH1, KEM1, LSM1, and PAT1 as cofactors that posttranscriptionally enhance Ty1 retrotransposition...
  21. Schneider C, Leung E, Brown J, Tollervey D. The N-terminal PIN domain of the exosome subunit Rrp44 harbors endonuclease activity and tethers Rrp44 to the yeast core exosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1127-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In BY4741, rrp44-exo was synthetic-lethal with loss of the cytoplasmic 5'-exonuclease Xrn1, indicating block of mRNA turnover, but not with loss of the nuclear 3'-exonuclease Rrp6...
  22. Mayer M, Pot I, Chang M, Xu H, Aneliunas V, Kwok T, et al. Identification of protein complexes required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1736-45 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we find that genes involved in mitotic spindle integrity and positioning have a previously unrecognized role in sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  23. Caetano S, Menezes R, Amaral C, Rodrigues Pousada C, Pimentel C. Repression of the Low Affinity Iron Transporter Gene FET4: A NOVEL MECHANISM AGAINST CADMIUM TOXICITY ORCHESTRATED BY YAP1 VIA ROX1. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:18584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..of Yap1 or Rox1 is compromised, cells activate post-transcriptional mechanisms, involving the exoribonuclease Xrn1, to compensate the derepression of FET4...
  24. Esteban R, Vega L, Fujimura T. 20S RNA narnavirus defies the antiviral activity of SKI1/XRN1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present evidence that the SKI1/XRN1 5'-exonuclease plays a major role in the elimination of the non-viral upstream sequences from the primary ..
  25. Manfrini N, Trovesi C, Wery M, Martina M, Cesena D, Descrimes M, et al. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:221-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA...
  26. Tishkoff D, Rockmill B, Roeder G, Kolodner R. The sep1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae arrests in pachytene and is deficient in meiotic recombination. Genetics. 1995;139:495-509 pubmed
    Strand exchange protein 1 (Sep1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae promotes homologous pairing of DNA in vitro and sep1 mutants display pleiotropic phenotypes in both vegetative and meiotic cells...
  27. Xue Y, Bai X, Lee I, Kallstrom G, Ho J, Brown J, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAI1 (YGL246c) is homologous to human DOM3Z and encodes a protein that binds the nuclear exoribonuclease Rat1p. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4006-15 pubmed
    ..is synthetically lethal with the rat1-1(ts) mutation and shows genetic interaction with a deletion of SKI2 but not XRN1. Polysome analysis of an rai1 deletion mutant indicated a defect in 60S biogenesis which was nearly fully reversed ..
  28. Kowalinski E, Kögel A, Ebert J, Reichelt P, Stegmann E, Habermann B, et al. Structure of a Cytoplasmic 11-Subunit RNA Exosome Complex. Mol Cell. 2016;63:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the interacting residues in the yeast complexes allowed us to identify a splice variant of human HBS1-Like as a Ski7-like exosome-binding protein, revealing the evolutionary conservation of this cytoplasmic cofactor. ..
  29. Taoka M, Yamauchi Y, Nobe Y, Masaki S, Nakayama H, Ishikawa H, et al. An analytical platform for mass spectrometry-based identification and chemical analysis of RNA in ribonucleoprotein complexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:e140 pubmed publisher
  30. Venkatesh S, Li H, Gogol M, Workman J. Selective suppression of antisense transcription by Set2-mediated H3K36 methylation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13610 pubmed publisher
    ..This difference in transcriptional outcomes of overlapping transcripts due to a strand-independent addition of H3K36 methylation is a key regulatory feature of interleaved transcriptomes. ..
  31. Luke B, Azzalin C, Hug N, Deplazes A, Peter M, Lingner J. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ebs1p is a putative ortholog of human Smg7 and promotes nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:7688-97 pubmed
    ..Overall our findings suggest that NMD is more conserved in evolution than previously thought, and that at least one of the Smg5-7 proteins is conserved in budding yeast. ..
  32. Ghazal G, Gagnon J, Jacques P, Landry J, Robert F, Elela S. Yeast RNase III triggers polyadenylation-independent transcription termination. Mol Cell. 2009;36:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a model for transcription termination in which cotranscriptional cleavage by Rnt1p provides access for exoribonucleases in the absence of polyadenylation signals. ..
  33. Wahba L, Gore S, Koshland D. The homologous recombination machinery modulates the formation of RNA-DNA hybrids and associated chromosome instability. elife. 2013;2:e00505 pubmed publisher
    ..The deleterious hybrid-forming activity of Rad51p is counteracted by Srs2p, a known Rad51p antagonist. Thus Srs2p serves as a novel anti-hybrid mechanism in vivo. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00505.001. ..
  34. Harigaya Y, Parker R. Global analysis of mRNA decay intermediates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in mRNA degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped 5' monophosphate ends on mRNAs in wild-type and dcp2 xrn1 yeast cells, wherein mRNA endonuclease cleavage products are stabilized. This led to three important observations...
  35. Pinskaya M, Gourvennec S, Morillon A. H3 lysine 4 di- and tri-methylation deposited by cryptic transcription attenuates promoter activation. EMBO J. 2009;28:1697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a model wherein certain promoters are embedded in a repressive chromatin controlled by cryptic transcription. ..
  36. Petfalski E, Dandekar T, Henry Y, Tollervey D. Processing of the precursors to small nucleolar RNAs and rRNAs requires common components. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1181-9 pubmed
    ..8S rRNA. Processing of the pre-rRNA and both intronic and polycistronic snoRNAs therefore involves common components. ..
  37. Cesena D, Cassani C, Rizzo E, Lisby M, Bonetti D, Longhese M. Regulation of telomere metabolism by the RNA processing protein Xrn1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:3860-3874 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the lack of the RNA processing proteins Xrn1 or Rrp6 partially bypasses the requirement for the CST component Cdc13 in telomere protection by attenuating the ..
  38. Cole S, LaRiviere F, Merrikh C, Moore M. A convergence of rRNA and mRNA quality control pathways revealed by mechanistic analysis of nonfunctional rRNA decay. Mol Cell. 2009;34:440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that 18S NRD and NGD are different observable outcomes of the same initiating event: a ribosome stalled inappropriately at a sense codon during translation elongation. ..
  39. Braun K, Vaga S, Dombek K, Fang F, Palmisano S, Aebersold R, et al. Phosphoproteomic analysis identifies proteins involved in transcription-coupled mRNA decay as targets of Snf1 signaling. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra64 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, we found that Ccr4 (the major cytoplasmic deadenylase), Dhh1 (an RNA helicase), and Xrn1 (an exoribonuclease) were required for the glucose-induced decay of Snf1-dependent mRNAs that were activated by ..
  40. Brown J, Bai X, Johnson A. The yeast antiviral proteins Ski2p, Ski3p, and Ski8p exist as a complex in vivo. RNA. 2000;6:449-57 pubmed
    ..b>XRN1 (SKI1) encodes a cytoplasmic 5'-exoribonuclease responsible for the majority of cytoplasmic RNA turnover, whereas ..
  41. Wu J, Hopper A. Healing for destruction: tRNA intron degradation in yeast is a two-step cytoplasmic process catalyzed by tRNA ligase Rlg1 and 5'-to-3' exonuclease Xrn1. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1556-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This process requires healing of the 5' termini of linear introns by the tRNA ligase Rlg1 and destruction by the cytoplasmic tRNA quality control 5'-to-3' exonuclease Xrn1, which has specificity for RNAs with 5' monophosphate.
  42. Park Y, Hwang O, Kim J. Two-hybrid cloning and characterization of OSH3, a yeast oxysterol-binding protein homolog. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:733-40 pubmed
    ..identified by its ability on a high-copy number plasmid to suppress the nuclear fusion defect caused by the kem1 null mutation...
  43. Rowley P, Ho B, Bushong S, Johnson A, Sawyer S. XRN1 Is a Species-Specific Virus Restriction Factor in Yeasts. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005890 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotes, the degradation of cellular mRNAs is accomplished by Xrn1 and the cytoplasmic exosome. Because viral RNAs often lack canonical caps or poly-A tails, they can also be vulnerable to degradation by these host exonucleases...
  44. Huch S, Müller M, Muppavarapu M, Gommlich J, Balagopal V, Nissan T. The decapping activator Edc3 and the Q/N-rich domain of Lsm4 function together to enhance mRNA stability and alter mRNA decay pathway dependence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biol Open. 2016;5:1388-1399 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we suggest that the effects on mRNA stability in the edc3? lsm4?C mutant may originate from mRNA decay protein abundance or changes in mRNPs, or alternatively may imply a role for P bodies in mRNA stabilization. ..
  45. Beckham C, Hilliker A, Cziko A, Noueiry A, Ramaswami M, Parker R. The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1p affects and accumulates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae P-bodies. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:984-93 pubmed
    ..Combined with earlier work showing Ded1p can have a positive effect on translation, these results suggest that Ded1p is a bifunctional protein that can affect both translation initiation and P-body formation. ..
  46. Reineke L, Cao Y, Baus D, Hossain N, Merrick W. Insights into the role of yeast eIF2A in IRES-mediated translation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24492 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that eIF2A acts as a switch to regulate IRES-mediated translation, and eEF1A may be an important mediator of translational activation during ethanol stress. ..
  47. Simpson C, Lui J, Kershaw C, Sims P, Ashe M. mRNA localization to P-bodies in yeast is bi-phasic with many mRNAs captured in a late Bfr1p-dependent wave. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights a potential new regulatory juncture in gene expression that would facilitate the overall rationalization of protein content required for adaptation to stress. ..
  48. Grousl T, Opekarová M, Stradalova V, Hasek J, Malinsky J. Evolutionarily conserved 5'-3' exoribonuclease Xrn1 accumulates at plasma membrane-associated eisosomes in post-diauxic yeast. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0122770 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that the main mRNA decay enzyme, exoribonuclease Xrn1, accumulates at the plasma membrane-associated eisosomes after glucose exhaustion in a culture of the yeast S...
  49. Johnson A, Kolodner R. Synthetic lethality of sep1 (xrn1) ski2 and sep1 (xrn1) ski3 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is independent of killer virus and suggests a general role for these genes in translation control. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2719-27 pubmed
    Strand exchange protein 1 (Sep1) (also referred to as exoribonuclease I [Xrn1]) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been implicated in DNA recombination, RNA turnover, karyogamy, and G4 DNA pairing among other disparate cellular processes...
  50. Kim J, Ljungdahl P, Fink G. kem mutations affect nuclear fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;126:799-812 pubmed
    We have identified mutations in three genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KEM1, KEM2 and KEM3, that enhance the nuclear fusion defect of kar1-1 yeast during conjugation. The KEM1 and KEM3 genes are located on the left arm of chromosome VII...
  51. Mauchi N, Ohtake Y, Irie K. Stability control of MTL1 mRNA by the RNA-binding protein Khd1p in yeast. Cell Struct Funct. 2010;35:95-105 pubmed
    ..However, mutations in DCP1 and DCP2, encoding a decapping enzyme complex, and XRN1, encoding a 5'-3' exonuclease, restored the decreased MTL1 mRNA levels...
  52. Interthal H, Bellocq C, Bahler J, Bashkirov V, Edelstein S, Heyer W. A role of Sep1 (= Kem1, Xrn1) as a microtubule-associated protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1995;14:1057-66 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the SEP1 (also known as XRN1, KEM1, DST2, RAR5) gene function exhibit a number of phenotypes in cellular processes related to microtubule function...
  53. Cuenca Bono B, García Molinero V, Pascual García P, García Oliver E, Llopis A, Rodriguez Navarro S. A novel link between Sus1 and the cytoplasmic mRNA decay machinery suggests a broad role in mRNA metabolism. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:19 pubmed publisher
    ..These interactions suggest a role for Sus1 in gene expression during cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism in addition to its nuclear function. ..
  54. Schwer B, Mao X, Shuman S. Accelerated mRNA decay in conditional mutants of yeast mRNA capping enzyme. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2050-7 pubmed
    ..Uncapped poly(A)+ SSA4 mRNA accumulated in cells lacking the 5' exoribonuclease Xrn1. These findings provide genetic evidence for the long-held idea that the cap guanylate is critical for mRNA ..
  55. Stevens A, Maupin M. A 5'----3' exoribonuclease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: size and novel substrate specificity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1987;252:339-47 pubmed
    ..When poly(dT).poly(dA) with a 5'-terminal poly(A) segment on the poly(dA) is used as a substrate, the enzyme hydrolyzes the poly(A) "tail," removing the last ribonucleotide, but does not hydrolyze the poly(dA). ..
  56. Neves L, Douglass S, Spreafico R, Venkataramanan S, Kress T, Johnson T. The histone variant H2A.Z promotes efficient cotranscriptional splicing in S. cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2017;31:702-717 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that H2A.Z is required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing and indicate a role for H2A.Z in coordinating the kinetics of transcription elongation and splicing. ..
  57. Passos D, Doma M, Shoemaker C, Muhlrad D, Green R, Weissman J, et al. Analysis of Dom34 and its function in no-go decay. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3025-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence that the process of NGD is conserved in insect cells. On the basis of these results and the process of translation termination, we suggest a multistep model for the process of NGD. ..
  58. Maderazo A, He F, Mangus D, Jacobson A. Upf1p control of nonsense mRNA translation is regulated by Nmd2p and Upf3p. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4591-603 pubmed
    ..Changes in mRNA levels were not the basis of suppression, however, since deletion of DCP1 or XRN1 or high-copy-number can1-100 expression in wild-type cells caused an increase in mRNA abundance similar to that ..
  59. Johnson A. Rat1p and Xrn1p are functionally interchangeable exoribonucleases that are restricted to and required in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6122-30 pubmed
    b>XRN1 encodes an abundant cytoplasmic exoribonuclease, Xrn1p, responsible for mRNA turnover in yeast...
  60. Benard L, Carroll K, Valle R, Masison D, Wickner R. The ski7 antiviral protein is an EF1-alpha homolog that blocks expression of non-Poly(A) mRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Virol. 1999;73:2893-900 pubmed
    ..b>ski1/xrn1Delta ski2Delta and ski1/xrn1Delta ski7Delta mutants were viable but temperature sensitive for growth.
  61. Curwin A, LeBlanc M, Fairn G, McMaster C. Localization of lipid raft proteins to the plasma membrane is a major function of the phospholipid transfer protein Sec14. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55388 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization of both lipid raft proteins was restored upon increased expression of the sec14(ts) allele. We suggest that a major function provided by Sec14 is trafficking and localization of lipid raft proteins. ..
  62. Brown J, Yang X, Johnson A. Inhibition of mRNA turnover in yeast by an xrn1 mutation enhances the requirement for eIF4E binding to eIF4G and for proper capping of transcripts by Ceg1p. Genetics. 2000;155:31-42 pubmed
    Null mutants of XRN1, encoding the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease in yeast, are viable but accumulate decapped, deadenylated transcripts...
  63. Larimer F, Stevens A. Disruption of the gene XRN1, coding for a 5'----3' exoribonuclease, restricts yeast cell growth. Gene. 1990;95:85-90 pubmed
    As a step toward determining the metabolic role(s) of a 5'----3' exoribonuclease (XRN1), a yeast gene, XRN1, encoding XRN1, was first cloned, then disrupted to test its essentially or effect on yeast cell growth...
  64. Toesca I, Nery C, Fernandez C, Sayani S, Chanfreau G. Cryptic transcription mediates repression of subtelomeric metal homeostasis genes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002163 pubmed publisher
  65. Kim J, Kim J. KEM1 is involved in filamentous growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;216:33-8 pubmed
    The KEM1/XRN1 gene was originally identified because of its functions in microtubule-mediated processes, and is also known to be a major cytoplasmic 5'-3' exoribonuclease gene, which is involved in RNA turnover...