Gene Symbol: TUB2
Description: beta-tubulin
Alias: ARM10, SHE8, beta-tubulin
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. You L, Gillilan R, Huffaker T. Model for the yeast cofactor A-beta-tubulin complex based on computational docking and mutagensis. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:1343-54 pubmed
    ..In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-tubulin is encoded by TUB2 and cofactor A by RBL2...
  2. Sproul L, Anderson D, Mackey A, Saunders W, Gilbert S. Cik1 targets the minus-end kinesin depolymerase kar3 to microtubule plus ends. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1420-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that Cik1 targets Kar3 to the microtubule plus end. Kar3Cik1 then uses its minus-end-directed force to depolymerize microtubules from the plus end, with each tubulin-subunit release event tightly coupled to one ATP turnover. ..
  3. Yin H, You L, Pasqualone D, Kopski K, Huffaker T. Stu1p is physically associated with beta-tubulin and is required for structural integrity of the mitotic spindle. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:1881-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that Stu1p binds to interpolar microtubules of the mitotic spindle and plays an essential role in their ability to provide an outward force on the spindle poles. ..
  4. Johnson V, Ayaz P, Huddleston P, Rice L. Design, overexpression, and purification of polymerization-blocked yeast ??-tubulin mutants. Biochemistry. 2011;50:8636-44 pubmed publisher
  5. Al Bassam J, van Breugel M, Harrison S, Hyman A. Stu2p binds tubulin and undergoes an open-to-closed conformational change. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:1009-22 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this mechanism of microtubule regulation is a conserved feature of the Dis1/XMAP215 family of MAPs. ..
  6. Pasqualone D, Huffaker T. STU1, a suppressor of a beta-tubulin mutation, encodes a novel and essential component of the yeast mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1973-84 pubmed
    We have isolated a cold-sensitive allele of TUB2, the sole gene encoding beta-tubulin in S. cerevisiae, that confers a specific defect in spindle microtubule function...
  7. Wang P, Huffaker T. Stu2p: A microtubule-binding protein that is an essential component of the yeast spindle pole body. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:1271-80 pubmed
    Previously we isolated tub2-423, a cold-sensitive allele of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding beta-tubulin that confers a defect in mitotic spindle function...
  8. Geissler S, Siegers K, Schiebel E. A novel protein complex promoting formation of functional alpha- and gamma-tubulin. EMBO J. 1998;17:952-66 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the Gim proteins form a protein complex that promotes formation of functional alpha- and gamma-tubulin...
  9. Ayaz P, Ye X, Huddleston P, Brautigam C, Rice L. A TOG:??-tubulin complex structure reveals conformation-based mechanisms for a microtubule polymerase. Science. 2012;337:857-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Conformation-selective interactions with ??-tubulin explain how TOG-containing polymerases discriminate between unpolymerized and polymerized forms of ??-tubulin and how they selectively recognize the growing end of the microtubule. ..

More Information


  1. Machin N, Lee J, Barnes G. Microtubule stability in budding yeast: characterization and dosage suppression of a benomyl-dependent tubulin mutant. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:1241-59 pubmed
    ..the dynamic regulation of microtubule structures in yeast, we studied a conditional-lethal beta-tubulin mutation tub2-150...
  2. Vega L, Fleming J, Solomon F. An alpha-tubulin mutant destabilizes the heterodimer: phenotypic consequences and interactions with tubulin-binding proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:2349-60 pubmed
    ..These effects are explained by the ability of Pac2p to bind alpha-tubulin, a complex we demonstrate directly. The results suggest that tubulin-binding proteins can participate in equilibria between the heterodimer and its components. ..
  3. Estela A, Pla Martín D, Sanchez Piris M, Sesaki H, Palau F. Charcot-Marie-Tooth-related gene GDAP1 complements cell cycle delay at G2/M phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fis1 gene-defective cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36777-86 pubmed publisher
  4. Huisman S, Bales O, Bertrand M, Smeets M, Reed S, Segal M. Differential contribution of Bud6p and Kar9p to microtubule capture and spindle orientation in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:231-44 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate Bud6p function in MT capture at the cell cortex, independent of Kar9p-mediated MT delivery along actin cables. ..
  5. Fleming J, Vega L, Solomon F. Function of tubulin binding proteins in vivo. Genetics. 2000;156:69-80 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these proteins may provide a salvage pathway for dissociated tubulin heterodimers and so rescue cells from the deleterious effects of free beta-tubulin. ..
  6. Hardwick K, Li R, Mistrot C, Chen R, Dann P, Rudner A, et al. Lesions in many different spindle components activate the spindle checkpoint in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1999;152:509-18 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the cell cycle arrest caused by mutations that induce DNA damage (cdc13), inactivate the cyclin proteolysis machinery (cdc16 and cdc23), or arrest cells in anaphase (cdc15) is independent of the spindle checkpoint. ..
  7. Stearns T, Hoyt M, Botstein D. Yeast mutants sensitive to antimicrotubule drugs define three genes that affect microtubule function. Genetics. 1990;124:251-62 pubmed
    ..Such mutants fall into six complementation groups: TUB1, TUB2 and TUB3, the three tubulin genes of yeast, and three new genes, which we have named CIN1, CIN2 and CIN4...
  8. Berlin V, Styles C, Fink G. BIK1, a protein required for microtubule function during mating and mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, colocalizes with tubulin. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:2573-86 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that BIK1 is required stoichiometrically for the formation or stabilization of microtubules during mitosis and for spindle pole body fusion during conjugation. ..
  9. Korolyev E, Steinberg Neifach O, Eshel D. Mutations in the yeast kinesin-like Cin8p are alleviated by osmotic support. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;244:379-83 pubmed
  10. Farkasovsky M, Küntzel H. Yeast Num1p associates with the mother cell cortex during S/G2 phase and affects microtubular functions. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:1003-14 pubmed
    ..the cold-sensitive alpha-tubulin mutant tub1-1, and shows synthetic lethality with the beta-tubulin mutant alleles tub2-402, tub2-403, tub2-404, and tub2-405...
  11. Lang T, Schaeffeler E, Bernreuther D, Bredschneider M, Wolf D, Thumm M. Aut2p and Aut7p, two novel microtubule-associated proteins are essential for delivery of autophagic vesicles to the vacuole. EMBO J. 1998;17:3597-607 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that microtubules and an attached protein complex of Aut2p and Aut7p are involved in the delivery of autophagic vesicles to the vacuole. ..
  12. Reijo R, Cho D, Huffaker T. Deletion of a single-copy tRNA affects microtubule function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1993;135:955-62 pubmed
    rts1-1 was identified as an extragenic suppressor of tub2-104, a cold-sensitive allele of the sole gene encoding beta-tubulin in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  13. Mirón García M, Garrido Godino A, García Molinero V, Hernández Torres F, Rodriguez Navarro S, Navarro F. The prefoldin bud27 mediates the assembly of the eukaryotic RNA polymerases in an rpb5-dependent manner. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003297 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the role of URI seems to be conserved in humans, suggesting conserved mechanisms in RNA pols biogenesis. ..
  14. Irminger Finger I, Mathis N. Effect of microtubule-associated protein MHP1 on microtubule assembly and cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Struct Funct. 1998;23:209-19 pubmed
    ..Simultaneous overexpression of alpha and beta tubulin results in the accumulation of long aberrant microtubules in interphase, a similar phenotype as was observed in ..
  15. Ursic D, Sedbrook J, Himmel K, Culbertson M. The essential yeast Tcp1 protein affects actin and microtubules. Mol Biol Cell. 1994;5:1065-80 pubmed
    ..of allele-specific genetic interactions were observed when tcp1-1 was combined in the same strain with tub1-1, tub2-402, act1-1, and act1-4, but not with other tubulin or actin mutations or with mutations in other genes affecting ..
  16. Ayaz P, Munyoki S, Geyer E, Piedra F, Vu E, Bromberg R, et al. A tethered delivery mechanism explains the catalytic action of a microtubule polymerase. elife. 2014;3:e03069 pubmed publisher
    ..This tethering model can explain catalyst-like behavior and also predicts that the polymerase action changes the configuration of the microtubule end...
  17. Markus S, Kalutkiewicz K, Lee W. She1-mediated inhibition of dynein motility along astral microtubules promotes polarized spindle movements. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2221-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal how inhibitory microtubule-associated proteins selectively regulate motor activity to achieve unidirectional nuclear transport and demonstrate a direct link between cell-cycle machinery and dynein pathway activity. ..
  18. Woodruff J, Drubin D, Barnes G. Spindle assembly requires complete disassembly of spindle remnants from the previous cell cycle. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we propose that spindle disassembly is essential for regeneration of the intracellular pool of assembly-competent tubulin required for efficient spindle assembly during subsequent mitoses of daughter cells. ..
  19. Voloshin O, Gocheva Y, Gutnick M, Movshovich N, Bakhrat A, Baranes Bachar K, et al. Tubulin chaperone E binds microtubules and proteasomes and protects against misfolded protein stress. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2025-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a novel role for Pac2 in the misfolded protein stress response based on its ability to interact with both the MT cytoskeleton and the proteasomes. ..
  20. Kammerer D, Stevermann L, Liakopoulos D. Ubiquitylation regulates interactions of astral microtubules with the cleavage apparatus. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Photoconversion experiments showed that Kar9 association with aMTs is stable. We propose that ubiquitylation controls interactions of aMTs with the cleavage apparatus through localized disassembly of Kar9 complexes. ..
  21. Amit M, Weisberg S, Nadler Holly M, McCormack E, Feldmesser E, Kaganovich D, et al. Equivalent mutations in the eight subunits of the chaperonin CCT produce dramatically different cellular and gene expression phenotypes. J Mol Biol. 2010;401:532-43 pubmed publisher
    ..System-level analysis of the strains using RNA microarrays reveals connections between CCT and several cellular networks, including ribosome biogenesis and TOR2, that help to explain the phenotypic variability observed. ..
  22. Bock L, Pagliuca C, Kobayashi N, Grove R, Oku Y, Shrestha K, et al. Cnn1 inhibits the interactions between the KMN complexes of the yeast kinetochore. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:614-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Cnn1 regulates KMN activity in a spatiotemporal manner by inhibiting the interaction between its complexes. Cnn1 activity peaks in anaphase and is driven by the Cdc28, Mps1 and Ipl1 kinases. ..
  23. Howes S, Geyer E, LaFrance B, Zhang R, Kellogg E, Westermann S, et al. Structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules revealed by cryo-EM. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2669-2677 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences may reflect adaptations to the demands of different cell size or range of physiological growth temperatures. ..
  24. Schatz P, Solomon F, Botstein D. Isolation and characterization of conditional-lethal mutations in the TUB1 alpha-tubulin gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1988;120:681-95 pubmed
    ..Mutations that suppressed the cold-sensitive phenotypes of two of the TUB1 alleles occurred in TUB2, the single structural gene specifying beta-tubulin.
  25. Markus S, Punch J, Lee W. Motor- and tail-dependent targeting of dynein to microtubule plus ends and the cell cortex. Curr Biol. 2009;19:196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the cortical association domain is normally masked in the full-length dynein molecule. We propose that targeting of dynein to plus ends unmasks the tail, priming the motor for off-loading to cortical Num1 sites. ..
  26. Archer J, Magendantz M, Vega L, Solomon F. Formation and function of the Rbl2p-beta-tubulin complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1757-62 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that the Rbl2p-beta-tubulin complex is part of a cellular mechanism for regulating the levels and dimerization of tubulin chains. ..
  27. Archer J, Vega L, Solomon F. Rbl2p, a yeast protein that binds to beta-tubulin and participates in microtubule function in vivo. Cell. 1995;82:425-34 pubmed
    ..Rbl2p has functional homology with murine cofactor A, a protein important for in vitro assays of beta-tubulin folding. The results suggest that Rbl2p participates in microtubule morphogenesis but not in the assembled polymer. ..
  28. Su X, Qiu W, Gupta M, Pereira Leal J, Reck Peterson S, Pellman D. Mechanisms underlying the dual-mode regulation of microtubule dynamics by Kip3/kinesin-8. Mol Cell. 2011;43:751-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a concentration-dependent model for the coordination of the destabilizing and stabilizing activities of Kip3 and discuss its relevance to cellular microtubule organization. ..
  29. Laan L, Pavin N, Husson J, Romet Lemonne G, van Duijn M, López M, et al. Cortical dynein controls microtubule dynamics to generate pulling forces that position microtubule asters. Cell. 2012;148:502-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the intrinsic ability of cortical microtubule-dynein interactions to regulate microtubule dynamics and drive positioning processes in living cells. ..
  30. Leduc C, Padberg Gehle K, Varga V, Helbing D, Diez S, Howard J. Molecular crowding creates traffic jams of kinesin motors on microtubules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that transport kinesins, such as kinesin-1, may be evolutionarily adapted to avoid the formation of traffic jams by moving only with moderate processivity and dissociating rapidly from microtubule ends. ..
  31. Schwartz K, Richards K, Botstein D. BIM1 encodes a microtubule-binding protein in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:2677-91 pubmed
    ..One of the human homologues, EB1, has been reported previously as binding APC, itself a microtubule-binding protein and the product of a gene implicated in the etiology of human colon cancer. ..
  32. Gonzalez M, Cope J, Rank K, Chen C, Tittmann P, Rayment I, et al. Common mechanistic themes for the powerstroke of kinesin-14 motors. J Struct Biol. 2013;184:335-44 pubmed publisher
  33. Caudron F, Denarier E, Thibout Quintana J, Brocard J, Andrieux A, Fourest Lieuvin A. Mutation of Ser172 in yeast ? tubulin induces defects in microtubule dynamics and cell division. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13553 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of Mad2p-dependent spindle checkpoint, both mutations are deleterious. These findings show the importance of Ser172 for the correct function of both cytoplasmic and spindle MTs and for normal cell division. ..
  34. Beilharz T, Harrison P, Miles D, See M, Le U, Kalanon M, et al. Coordination of Cell Cycle Progression and Mitotic Spindle Assembly Involves Histone H3 Lysine 4 Methylation by Set1/COMPASS. Genetics. 2017;205:185-199 pubmed publisher
    ..of ?set1 strains was accompanied by deregulation of all four tubulin genes and the phenotype was suppressed by tub2-423 and ?tub3 mutations, establishing a genetic link between H3K4 methylation and microtubule function...
  35. Dong C, Lin Z, Diao W, Li D, Chu X, Wang Z, et al. The Elp2 subunit is essential for elongator complex assembly and functional regulation. Structure. 2015;23:1078-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Elp2 is a necessary component for functional Elongator and acts as a hub in the formation of various complexes. ..
  36. Funk C, Schmeiser V, Ortiz J, Lechner J. A TOGL domain specifically targets yeast CLASP to kinetochores to stabilize kinetochore microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:555-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In both phases, the activity of TOGL2 is essential for interpolar MT stability, whereas TOGL1 is not involved. Thus, the two TOGL domains of yeast CLASP have different activities and execute distinct mitotic functions. ..
  37. Keyes B, Burke D. Irc15 Is a microtubule-associated protein that regulates microtubule dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Biol. 2009;19:472-8 pubmed publisher
    Microtubules are polymers composed of alpha-beta tubulin heterodimers that assemble into microtubules. Microtubules are dynamic structures that have periods of both growth and shrinkage by addition and removal of subunits from the polymer...
  38. Hanna R, Maass D, Atkinson P, Northcote P, Teesdale Spittle P, Bellows D, et al. Characterizing the laulimalide-peloruside binding site using site-directed mutagenesis of TUB2 in S. cerevisiae. Mol Biosyst. 2014;10:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that yeast is an appropriate model to screen for small molecule drugs that may be efficacious in cancer therapy in humans through the newly characterised laulimalide-peloruside binding site. ..
  39. Rank K, Chen C, Cope J, Porche K, Hoenger A, Gilbert S, et al. Kar3Vik1, a member of the kinesin-14 superfamily, shows a novel kinesin microtubule binding pattern. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:957-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that head-head communication is mediated through the adjoining coiled coil. ..
  40. Estrem C, Fees C, Moore J. Dynein is regulated by the stability of its microtubule track. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2047-2058 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that interplay among dynein, dynactin, and the stability of the microtubule substrate creates a mechanism that regulates accurate spindle positioning. ..
  41. Laflamme G, Tremblay Boudreault T, Roy M, Andersen P, Bonneil E, Atchia K, et al. Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins link microtubule stability to genome integrity. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:27418-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate that SMC proteins can bind to and stabilize microtubules and that SMC-microtubule interactions are essential to establish a robust system to maintain genome integrity. ..
  42. Makanae K, Kintaka R, Makino T, Kitano H, Moriya H. Identification of dosage-sensitive genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the genetic tug-of-war method. Genome Res. 2013;23:300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in this study will provide basic knowledge about the physiology of chromosomal abnormalities and the evolution of chromosomal composition. ..
  43. Machin N, Lee J, Chamany K, Barnes G. Dosage suppressors of a benomyl-dependent tubulin mutant: evidence for a link between microtubule stability and cellular metabolism. Genetics. 1996;144:1363-73 pubmed
    ..of microtubule stability in yeast, dosage suppressors of the hyperstable microtubule phenotype of the budding yeast tub2-150 beta-tubulin mutation were isolated...