Gene Symbol: TRK2
Description: Trk2p
Alias: RPD2, Trk2p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Zahradka J, Van Heusden G, Sychrova H. Yeast 14-3-3 proteins participate in the regulation of cell cation homeostasis via interaction with Nha1 alkali-metal-cation/proton antiporter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:849-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed for the first time that the yeast 14-3-3 proteins and an alkali-metal-cation efflux system interact and that this interaction enhances the cell survival upon salt stress. ..
  2. Dräxl S, Muller J, Li W, Michalke B, Scherb H, Hense B, et al. Caesium accumulation in yeast and plants is selectively repressed by loss of the SNARE Sec22p/SEC22. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2092 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding provides a new strategy to reduce radiocaesium entry into the food chain. ..
  3. Petrezselyova S, Kinclova Zimmermannova O, Sychrova H. Vhc1, a novel transporter belonging to the family of electroneutral cation-Cl(-) cotransporters, participates in the regulation of cation content and morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering its identified function, we propose to refer to the yeast YBR235w gene as VHC1 (vacuolar protein homologous to CCC family 1). ..
  4. Madrid R, Gomez M, Ramos J, Rodriguez Navarro A. Ectopic potassium uptake in trk1 trk2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae correlates with a highly hyperpolarized membrane potential. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:14838-44 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the latter analyses, it is proposed that Trk1p and Trk2p are involved in the control of the membrane potential, preventing excessive hyperpolarizations...
  5. de Nadal E, Calero F, Ramos J, Arino J. Biochemical and genetic analyses of the role of yeast casein kinase 2 in salt tolerance. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6456-62 pubmed
    ..The possible causes for the salt sensitivity phenotype of casein kinase mutants are discussed in the light of these findings. ..
  6. Ko C, Gaber R. TRK1 and TRK2 encode structurally related K+ transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:4266-73 pubmed
    We describe the cloning and molecular analysis of TRK2, the gene likely to encode the low-affinity K+ transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  7. Herrero L, Monroy N, Gonzalez M. HIV-1 Vpu protein mediates the transport of potassium in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2013;52:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, evaluation of the ion channel activity of the Vpu protein in ?trk1,2 yeast could aid in the development of a high-throughput screening assay for molecules that target the retroviral protein...
  8. Stefan C, Zhang N, Sokabe T, Rivetta A, Slayman C, Montell C, et al. Activation of an essential calcium signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Kch1 and Kch2, putative low-affinity potassium transporters. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..They also promoted growth of trk1 trk2 mutant cells in low K(+) environments, suggesting they promote K(+) uptake...
  9. Petrezselyova S, Ramos J, Sychrova H. Trk2 transporter is a relevant player in K+ supply and plasma-membrane potential control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2011;56:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The biological role of Trk2p is less understood...

More Information


  1. Erez O, Kahana C. Deletions of SKY1 or PTK2 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae trk1Deltatrk2Delta mutant cells exert dual effect on ion homeostasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:1142-9 pubmed
    ..A model that integrates these results to explain the mechanism of ion transport across the plasma membrane is proposed. ..
  2. Ko C, Buckley A, Gaber R. TRK2 is required for low affinity K+ transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;125:305-12 pubmed
    ..trk1 delta trk2 mutants require up to tenfold higher concentrations of K+ to exhibit normal growth compared to trk1 delta TRK2 ..
  3. Felcmanová K, Neveceralova P, Sychrova H, Zimmermannova O. Yeast Kch1 and Kch2 membrane proteins play a pleiotropic role in membrane potential establishment and monovalent cation homeostasis regulation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..of KCH1 and KCH2 in wild type were observed in a strain lacking KCH genes and main K+ uptake systems Trk1 and Trk2. The role of the Kch homologue in cation homeostasis was also tested in Candida albicans cells...
  4. González A, Casado C, Petrezselyova S, Ruiz A, Arino J. Molecular analysis of a conditional hal3 vhs3 yeast mutant links potassium homeostasis with flocculation and invasiveness. Fungal Genet Biol. 2013;53:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence indicates that hyperactivation of Ppz1 would impair potassium transport through the Trk1/Trk2 transporters, thus resulting in a decrease in the intracellular pH and a subsequent increase in the levels of cAMP...
  5. Marquina M, González A, Barreto L, Gelis S, Munoz I, Ruiz A, et al. Modulation of yeast alkaline cation tolerance by Ypi1 requires calcineurin. Genetics. 2012;190:1355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to a complex role of Ypi1 on the regulation of cation homeostasis, largely mediated by the calcineurin phosphatase. ..
  6. Zahradka J, Sychrova H. Plasma-membrane hyperpolarization diminishes the cation efflux via Nha1 antiporter and Ena ATPase under potassium-limiting conditions. FEMS Yeast Res. 2012;12:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Lost potassium is taken up by the Trk1 and Trk2 uptake systems...
  7. Vidal M, Buckley A, Hilger F, Gaber R. Direct selection for mutants with increased K+ transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;125:313-20 pubmed
    ..Genetic evidence suggests that RPD2 mutations are alleles of TRK2, the putative low affinity transporter gene, whereas rpd1 and rpd3 mutations increase TRK2 activity: (1) RPD2 ..
  8. Anderson J, Nakamura R, Gaber R. Heterologous expression of K+ channels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: strategies for molecular analysis of structure and function. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1994;48:85-97 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae cells containing mutations in TRK1 or TRK1 and TRK2 opens the field of plant K+ channel biology to molecular approaches...
  9. Vidal M, Buckley A, Yohn C, Hoeppner D, Gaber R. Identification of essential nucleotides in an upstream repressing sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by selection for increased expression of TRK2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2370-4 pubmed
    The TRK2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a membrane protein involved in potassium transport and is expressed at extremely low levels...
  10. Lapathitis G, Kotyk A. Univalent cation fluxes in yeast. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1998;44:371-80 pubmed
    ..defective in the high-affinity K+ transport system TRK1 and in the double mutant with an additional deletion in the TRK2 gene...
  11. Fairman C, Zhou X, Kung C. Potassium uptake through the TOK1 K+ channel in the budding yeast. J Membr Biol. 1999;168:149-57 pubmed
    ..TOK1 so hyper-expressed could overcome the K+ auxotrophy of a mutant missing the two K+ transporters, TRK1 and TRK2. This trk1Delta trk2Delta double mutant hyperexpressing the TOK1 transgene had a higher internal K+ content than ..
  12. Ramos J, Alijo R, Haro R, Rodriguez Navarro A. TRK2 is not a low-affinity potassium transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:249-52 pubmed
    TRK1 and TRK2 encode proteins involved in K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A kinetic study of Rb+ influx in trk1 TRK2, trk1 TRK2D, and trk1 trk2 mutants reveals that TRK2 shows moderate affinity for Rb+...
  13. Liang H, Ko C, Herman T, Gaber R. Trinucleotide insertions, deletions, and point mutations in glucose transporters confer K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:926-35 pubmed
    Deletion of TRK1 and TRK2 abolishes high-affinity K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in the inability to grow on typical synthetic growth medium unless it is supplemented with very high concentrations of potassium...
  14. Portillo F, Mulet J, Serrano R. A role for the non-phosphorylated form of yeast Snf1: tolerance to toxic cations and activation of potassium transport. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:512-6 pubmed
    ..non-activated form of Snf1: the regulation of the Trk high-affinity potassium transporter, encoded by the TRK1 and TRK2 genes...
  15. Bertl A, Ramos J, Ludwig J, Lichtenberg Frate H, Reid J, Bihler H, et al. Characterization of potassium transport in wild-type and isogenic yeast strains carrying all combinations of trk1, trk2 and tok1 null mutations. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:767-80 pubmed
    ..As has been reported previously, Trk1p and Trk2p facilitate high-affinity potassium uptake and appear to be functionally redundant under a wide range of ..
  16. Grishin A, Li H, Levitan E, Zaks Makhina E. Identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-interacting factor 1 (TRAK2) as a trafficking factor for the K+ channel Kir2.1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30104-11 pubmed
    ..Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that an N-terminal region of GRIF-1 interacts with a C-terminal region of Kir2.1. These results indicate that GRIF-1 binds to Kir2.1 and facilitates trafficking of this channel to the cell surface. ..
  17. Merchan S, Pedelini L, Hueso G, Calzada A, Serrano R, Yenush L. Genetic alterations leading to increases in internal potassium concentrations are detrimental for DNA integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2011;16:152-65 pubmed publisher
  18. Yenush L, Mulet J, Arino J, Serrano R. The Ppz protein phosphatases are key regulators of K+ and pH homeostasis: implications for salt tolerance, cell wall integrity and cell cycle progression. EMBO J. 2002;21:920-9 pubmed
    ..In addition to providing a coherent explanation for all Ppz-dependent phenotypes, our results provide evidence for a causal relationship between intracellular cation homeostasis and a potential cell cycle checkpoint. ..
  19. Ruiz A, del Carmen Ruiz M, Sánchez Garrido M, Arino J, Ramos J. The Ppz protein phosphatases regulate Trk-independent potassium influx in yeast. FEBS Lett. 2004;578:58-62 pubmed
    ..regulate the major potassium transport system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoded by the TRK1 and TRK2 genes...
  20. Gelis S, González Fernández R, Herrera R, Jorrín J, Ramos J. A physiological, biochemical and proteomic characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae trk1,2 transport mutants grown under limiting potassium conditions. Microbiology. 2015;161:1260-70 pubmed publisher
  21. Navarre C, Goffeau A. Membrane hyperpolarization and salt sensitivity induced by deletion of PMP3, a highly conserved small protein of yeast plasma membrane. EMBO J. 2000;19:2515-24 pubmed
    ..antiporter, and suppresses the potassium dependency of a strain lacking the K(+) transporters, Trk1p and Trk2p. All these phenotypes could be reversed by the addition of high Ca(2+) concentration to the medium...
  22. Navarrete C, Petrezselyova S, Barreto L, Martinez J, Zahradka J, Arino J, et al. Lack of main K+ uptake systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells affects yeast performance in both potassium-sufficient and potassium-limiting conditions. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 strain and the corresponding mutant lacking the main potassium uptake systems (trk1 trk2) under potassium nonlimiting and limiting concentrations was performed, and novel important differences between ..
  23. Michel B, Lozano C, Rodriguez M, Coria R, Ramirez J, Pena A. The yeast potassium transporter TRK2 is able to substitute for TRK1 in its biological function under low K and low pH conditions. Yeast. 2006;23:581-9 pubmed
    In S. cerevisiae, K+ transport relies principally on two structurally related membrane proteins, known as Trk1p and Trk2p. Direct involvement in cation movements has been demonstrated for Trk1p, which is a high-affinity K+ transporter...
  24. Bertl A, Anderson J, Slayman C, Sentenac H, Gaber R. Inward and outward rectifying potassium currents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediated by endogenous and heterelogously expressed ion channels. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1994;39:507-9 pubmed
    ..Similar K+ inward currents are induced by transformation of a trk1 mutant with AKT1 from A. thaliana. ..
  25. Borovikova D, Herynkova P, Rapoport A, Sychrova H. Potassium uptake system Trk2 is crucial for yeast cell viability during anhydrobiosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2014;350:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two uptake systems, Trk1 and Trk2, are responsible for the accumulation of a relatively high intracellular potassium content (200-300 mM) and the ..
  26. Gerber S, Hasenbrink G, Hendriksen W, VAN Heusden P, Ludwig J, Klipp E, et al. Graphical analysis and experimental evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTRK1|2 and PBMH1|2 promoter region. Genome Inform. 2010;22:11-20 pubmed
    ..differentially expressed genes belong to functionally different families and encode duplicate functions, TRK1 and TRK2 as ion transporters and BMH1 and BMH2 as multiple regulators...
  27. Maresova L, Sychrova H. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kha1 deletion mutants. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:588-600 pubmed
    ..MAB 2d has additional trk1 and trk2 deletions, i.e. is impaired in active K+ uptake as well...
  28. Wright M, Ramos J, Gomez M, Moulder K, Scherrer M, Munson G, et al. Potassium transport by amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13647-52 pubmed
    Deletion of the potassium transporter genes TRK1 and TRK2 impairs potassium uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in a greatly increased requirement for the ion and the inability to grow on low pH medium...
  29. Ko C, Liang H, Gaber R. Roles of multiple glucose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:638-48 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TRK1 and TRK2 are required for high- and low-affinity K+ transport...