Gene Symbol: TRK1
Description: Trk1p
Alias: Trk1p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Ruiz A, del Carmen Ruiz M, Sánchez Garrido M, Arino J, Ramos J. The Ppz protein phosphatases regulate Trk-independent potassium influx in yeast. FEBS Lett. 2004;578:58-62 pubmed negatively regulate the major potassium transport system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoded by the TRK1 and TRK2 genes...
  2. Vidal M, Gaber R. RPD3 encodes a second factor required to achieve maximum positive and negative transcriptional states in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:6317-27 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TRK1 and TRK2 encode the high- and low-affinity K+ transporters, respectively...
  3. Navarre C, Goffeau A. Membrane hyperpolarization and salt sensitivity induced by deletion of PMP3, a highly conserved small protein of yeast plasma membrane. EMBO J. 2000;19:2515-24 pubmed
    ..Nha1p Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, and suppresses the potassium dependency of a strain lacking the K(+) transporters, Trk1p and Trk2p. All these phenotypes could be reversed by the addition of high Ca(2+) concentration to the medium...
  4. Bertl A, Ramos J, Ludwig J, Lichtenberg Frate H, Reid J, Bihler H, et al. Characterization of potassium transport in wild-type and isogenic yeast strains carrying all combinations of trk1, trk2 and tok1 null mutations. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:767-80 pubmed
    ..As has been reported previously, Trk1p and Trk2p facilitate high-affinity potassium uptake and appear to be functionally redundant under a wide range of ..
  5. Vidal M, Buckley A, Hilger F, Gaber R. Direct selection for mutants with increased K+ transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;125:313-20 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells containing a deletion of TRK1, the gene encoding the high affinity potassium transporter, retain only low affinity uptake of this ion and consequently lose the ability to grow in media containing low levels (..
  6. Ko C, Buckley A, Gaber R. TRK2 is required for low affinity K+ transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;125:305-12 pubmed
    b>TRK1, the gene encoding the high affinity K+ transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is nonessential due to the existence of a functionally independent low affinity transporter...
  7. Ramos J, Alijo R, Haro R, Rodriguez Navarro A. TRK2 is not a low-affinity potassium transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:249-52 pubmed
    b>TRK1 and TRK2 encode proteins involved in K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A kinetic study of Rb+ influx in trk1 TRK2, trk1 TRK2D, and trk1 trk2 mutants reveals that TRK2 shows moderate affinity for Rb+...
  8. González A, Casado C, Petrezselyova S, Ruiz A, Arino J. Molecular analysis of a conditional hal3 vhs3 yeast mutant links potassium homeostasis with flocculation and invasiveness. Fungal Genet Biol. 2013;53:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence indicates that hyperactivation of Ppz1 would impair potassium transport through the Trk1/Trk2 transporters, thus resulting in a decrease in the intracellular pH and a subsequent increase in the levels of ..
  9. Petrezselyova S, Kinclova Zimmermannova O, Sychrova H. Vhc1, a novel transporter belonging to the family of electroneutral cation-Cl(-) cotransporters, participates in the regulation of cation content and morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering its identified function, we propose to refer to the yeast YBR235w gene as VHC1 (vacuolar protein homologous to CCC family 1). ..

More Information


  1. Fairman C, Zhou X, Kung C. Potassium uptake through the TOK1 K+ channel in the budding yeast. J Membr Biol. 1999;168:149-57 pubmed
    ..TOK1 so hyper-expressed could overcome the K+ auxotrophy of a mutant missing the two K+ transporters, TRK1 and TRK2...
  2. Erez O, Kahana C. Deletions of SKY1 or PTK2 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae trk1Deltatrk2Delta mutant cells exert dual effect on ion homeostasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:1142-9 pubmed
    ..We show here that deletion of SKY1 or PTK2 in trk1,2Delta cells increase spermine tolerance, implying Trk1,2p independent activity...
  3. Navarrete C, Petrezselyova S, Barreto L, Martinez J, Zahradka J, Arino J, et al. Lack of main K+ uptake systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells affects yeast performance in both potassium-sufficient and potassium-limiting conditions. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..of Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 strain and the corresponding mutant lacking the main potassium uptake systems (trk1 trk2) under potassium nonlimiting and limiting concentrations was performed, and novel important differences ..
  4. Zahradka J, Sychrova H. Plasma-membrane hyperpolarization diminishes the cation efflux via Nha1 antiporter and Ena ATPase under potassium-limiting conditions. FEMS Yeast Res. 2012;12:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Lost potassium is taken up by the Trk1 and Trk2 uptake systems...
  5. Bertl A, Anderson J, Slayman C, Sentenac H, Gaber R. Inward and outward rectifying potassium currents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediated by endogenous and heterelogously expressed ion channels. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1994;39:507-9 pubmed
    ..Similar K+ inward currents are induced by transformation of a trk1 mutant with AKT1 from A. thaliana.
  6. Maresova L, Sychrova H. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kha1 deletion mutants. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:588-600 pubmed
    ..MAB 2d has additional trk1 and trk2 deletions, i.e. is impaired in active K+ uptake as well...
  7. Dräxl S, Muller J, Li W, Michalke B, Scherb H, Hense B, et al. Caesium accumulation in yeast and plants is selectively repressed by loss of the SNARE Sec22p/SEC22. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2092 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding provides a new strategy to reduce radiocaesium entry into the food chain. ..
  8. Yenush L, Merchan S, Holmes J, Serrano R. pH-Responsive, posttranslational regulation of the Trk1 potassium transporter by the type 1-related Ppz1 phosphatase. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8683-92 pubmed
    ..Genetic evidence indicates that Trk1p is activated by the Hal4 and -5 kinases and inhibited by the Ppz1 and -2 phosphatases, which, in turn, are ..
  9. Wright M, Ramos J, Gomez M, Moulder K, Scherrer M, Munson G, et al. Potassium transport by amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13647-52 pubmed
    Deletion of the potassium transporter genes TRK1 and TRK2 impairs potassium uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in a greatly increased requirement for the ion and the inability to grow on low pH medium...
  10. de Nadal E, Calero F, Ramos J, Arino J. Biochemical and genetic analyses of the role of yeast casein kinase 2 in salt tolerance. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6456-62 pubmed
    ..The possible causes for the salt sensitivity phenotype of casein kinase mutants are discussed in the light of these findings. ..
  11. Marquina M, González A, Barreto L, Gelis S, Munoz I, Ruiz A, et al. Modulation of yeast alkaline cation tolerance by Ypi1 requires calcineurin. Genetics. 2012;190:1355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..mediated by augmented expression of the alkaline cation ATPase ENA1, and decreased lithium influx through the Trk1,2 high-affinity potassium transporters...
  12. Brandina I, Graham J, Lemaitre Guillier C, Entelis N, Krasheninnikov I, Sweetlove L, et al. Enolase takes part in a macromolecular complex associated to mitochondria in yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1217-28 pubmed
    ..This suggests an unsuspected novel function for this complex in tRNA mitochondrial import. ..
  13. Ko C, Gaber R. TRK1 and TRK2 encode structurally related K+ transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:4266-73 pubmed
    ..These structural features closely resemble those contained in TRK1, the high-affinity K+ transporter. TRK2 shares 55% amino acid sequence identity with TRK1...
  14. Zayats V, Stockner T, Pandey S, Wörz K, Ettrich R, Ludwig J. A refined atomic scale model of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K+-translocation protein Trk1p combined with experimental evidence confirms the role of selectivity filter glycines and other key residues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1848:1183-95 pubmed publisher
    Potassium ion (K+) uptake in yeast is mediated mainly by the Trk1/2 proteins that enable cells to survive on external K+ concentration as low as a few μM...
  15. Zahradka J, Van Heusden G, Sychrova H. Yeast 14-3-3 proteins participate in the regulation of cell cation homeostasis via interaction with Nha1 alkali-metal-cation/proton antiporter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:849-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed for the first time that the yeast 14-3-3 proteins and an alkali-metal-cation efflux system interact and that this interaction enhances the cell survival upon salt stress. ..
  16. Herrera R, Alvarez M, Gelis S, Kodedová M, Sychrova H, Kschischo M, et al. Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trk1 in stabilization of intracellular potassium content upon changes in external potassium levels. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1838:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..By using yeasts lacking the Trk1,2 system or expressing different versions of the mutated main plasma membrane potassium transporter (Trk1), we show ..
  17. Portillo F, Mulet J, Serrano R. A role for the non-phosphorylated form of yeast Snf1: tolerance to toxic cations and activation of potassium transport. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:512-6 pubmed
    ..for the non-activated form of Snf1: the regulation of the Trk high-affinity potassium transporter, encoded by the TRK1 and TRK2 genes...
  18. Grishin A, Li H, Levitan E, Zaks Makhina E. Identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-interacting factor 1 (TRAK2) as a trafficking factor for the K+ channel Kir2.1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30104-11 pubmed
    ..Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that an N-terminal region of GRIF-1 interacts with a C-terminal region of Kir2.1. These results indicate that GRIF-1 binds to Kir2.1 and facilitates trafficking of this channel to the cell surface. ..
  19. Stefan C, Zhang N, Sokabe T, Rivetta A, Slayman C, Montell C, et al. Activation of an essential calcium signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Kch1 and Kch2, putative low-affinity potassium transporters. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..They also promoted growth of trk1 trk2 mutant cells in low K(+) environments, suggesting they promote K(+) uptake...
  20. Madrid R, Gomez M, Ramos J, Rodriguez Navarro A. Ectopic potassium uptake in trk1 trk2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae correlates with a highly hyperpolarized membrane potential. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:14838-44 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the latter analyses, it is proposed that Trk1p and Trk2p are involved in the control of the membrane potential, preventing excessive hyperpolarizations...
  21. Michel B, Lozano C, Rodriguez M, Coria R, Ramirez J, Pena A. The yeast potassium transporter TRK2 is able to substitute for TRK1 in its biological function under low K and low pH conditions. Yeast. 2006;23:581-9 pubmed
    In S. cerevisiae, K+ transport relies principally on two structurally related membrane proteins, known as Trk1p and Trk2p. Direct involvement in cation movements has been demonstrated for Trk1p, which is a high-affinity K+ transporter...
  22. Gelis S, González Fernández R, Herrera R, Jorrín J, Ramos J. A physiological, biochemical and proteomic characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae trk1,2 transport mutants grown under limiting potassium conditions. Microbiology. 2015;161:1260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to unravel global physiological processes altered in trk1,2 mutants, we have established conditions at which both wild-type and mutants can grow at different rates...
  23. Felcmanová K, Neveceralova P, Sychrova H, Zimmermannova O. Yeast Kch1 and Kch2 membrane proteins play a pleiotropic role in membrane potential establishment and monovalent cation homeostasis regulation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..the deletion of KCH1 and KCH2 in wild type were observed in a strain lacking KCH genes and main K+ uptake systems Trk1 and Trk2. The role of the Kch homologue in cation homeostasis was also tested in Candida albicans cells...
  24. Herrero L, Monroy N, Gonzalez M. HIV-1 Vpu protein mediates the transport of potassium in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2013;52:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, expression of the Vpu protein suppresses the growth defect of K(+) uptake-deficient yeast (?trk1,2)...
  25. Lopreiato R, Facchin S, Sartori G, Arrigoni G, Casonato S, Ruzzene M, et al. Analysis of the interaction between piD261/Bud32, an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the Grx4 glutaredoxin. Biochem J. 2004;377:395-405 pubmed
    ..The functional significance of the interaction between Bud32 and the putative protease Ykr038/Kae1 is supported by its evolutionary conservation. ..
  26. Gerber S, Hasenbrink G, Hendriksen W, VAN Heusden P, Ludwig J, Klipp E, et al. Graphical analysis and experimental evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTRK1|2 and PBMH1|2 promoter region. Genome Inform. 2010;22:11-20 pubmed
    ..selected differentially expressed genes belong to functionally different families and encode duplicate functions, TRK1 and TRK2 as ion transporters and BMH1 and BMH2 as multiple regulators...
  27. Lapathitis G, Kotyk A. Univalent cation fluxes in yeast. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1998;44:371-80 pubmed
    ..wild-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in its mutants defective in the high-affinity K+ transport system TRK1 and in the double mutant with an additional deletion in the TRK2 gene...
  28. Ko C, Liang H, Gaber R. Roles of multiple glucose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:638-48 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TRK1 and TRK2 are required for high- and low-affinity K+ transport...
  29. Rios G, Ferrando A, Serrano R. Mechanisms of salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of the HAL1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1997;13:515-28 pubmed
    ..The effect of HAL1 on intracellular K+ was independent of the TRK1 and TOK1 genes, corresponding to a major K+ uptake system and to a K+ efflux system activated by depolarization, ..
  30. Anderson J, Nakamura R, Gaber R. Heterologous expression of K+ channels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: strategies for molecular analysis of structure and function. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1994;48:85-97 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae cells containing mutations in TRK1 or TRK1 and TRK2 opens the field of plant K+ channel biology to molecular approaches...
  31. Gaber R, Styles C, Fink G. TRK1 encodes a plasma membrane protein required for high-affinity potassium transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:2848-59 pubmed
    ..The gene that encodes this putative potassium transporter (TRK1) was cloned by its ability to relieve the potassium transport defect in trk1 cells...
  32. Liang H, Ko C, Herman T, Gaber R. Trinucleotide insertions, deletions, and point mutations in glucose transporters confer K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:926-35 pubmed
    Deletion of TRK1 and TRK2 abolishes high-affinity K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in the inability to grow on typical synthetic growth medium unless it is supplemented with very high concentrations of potassium...
  33. Merchan S, Pedelini L, Hueso G, Calzada A, Serrano R, Yenush L. Genetic alterations leading to increases in internal potassium concentrations are detrimental for DNA integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2011;16:152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..this slow growth phenotype observed in cdc7(ts) mutants with reduced Ppz activity is reverted by disrupting the TRK1 potassium transporter gene...
  34. Liu X, Yang H, Zhang X, Liu L, Lei M, Zhang Z, et al. Bdf1p deletion affects mitochondrial function and causes apoptotic cell death under salt stress. FEMS Yeast Res. 2009;9:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the bromodomain-containing protein, Bdf1p, is involved in the regulation of apoptosis in yeast cells. ..
  35. Yenush L, Mulet J, Arino J, Serrano R. The Ppz protein phosphatases are key regulators of K+ and pH homeostasis: implications for salt tolerance, cell wall integrity and cell cycle progression. EMBO J. 2002;21:920-9 pubmed
    ..In addition to providing a coherent explanation for all Ppz-dependent phenotypes, our results provide evidence for a causal relationship between intracellular cation homeostasis and a potential cell cycle checkpoint. ..