TOR1

Summary

Gene Symbol: TOR1
Description: phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein kinase TOR1
Alias: DRR1, phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein kinase TOR1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Wei M, Fabrizio P, Madia F, Hu J, Ge H, Li L, et al. Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000467 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present data suggesting that yeast Tor1 and Sch9 (a homolog of the mammalian kinases Akt and S6K) is a central component of a network that controls a ..
  2. Dubouloz F, Deloche O, Wanke V, Cameroni E, De Virgilio C. The TOR and EGO protein complexes orchestrate microautophagy in yeast. Mol Cell. 2005;19:15-26 pubmed
    ..Moreover, large-scale genetic analyses of the EGO complex confirm the existence of a growth control mechanism originating at the vacuolar membrane and pinpoint the amino acid glutamine as a key metabolite in TOR signaling. ..
  3. Stracka D, Jozefczuk S, Rudroff F, Sauer U, Hall M. Nitrogen source activates TOR (target of rapamycin) complex 1 via glutamine and independently of Gtr/Rag proteins. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:25010-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, sustained TORC1 activity is independent of Gtr/Rag. Thus, the nitrogen source and Gtr/Rag activate TORC1 via different mechanisms. ..
  4. Noda T, Ohsumi Y. Tor, a phosphatidylinositol kinase homologue, controls autophagy in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:3963-6 pubmed
    ..In nutrient-rich medium, Apg proteins are involved also in the transport of aminopeptidase I from the cytosol to the vacuole. Tor may act to switch Apg function between autophagy and transport of aminopeptidase I. ..
  5. Soulard A, Cremonesi A, Moes S, Schutz F, Jeno P, Hall M. The rapamycin-sensitive phosphoproteome reveals that TOR controls protein kinase A toward some but not all substrates. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3475-86 pubmed publisher
    ..MPK1 phosphorylates BCY1 T129 directly. Thus, TORC1 activates PKA toward some substrates by preventing MPK1-mediated activation of BCY1. ..
  6. Hosiner D, Lempiäinen H, Reiter W, Urban J, Loewith R, Ammerer G, et al. Arsenic toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a consequence of inhibition of the TORC1 kinase combined with a chronic stress response. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1048-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Curiously, whereas loss of SFP1 function leads to increased arsenic resistance, absence of TOR1 or SCH9 has the opposite effect suggesting that TORC1 has a role beyond down-regulation of Sfp1...
  7. Monteiro G, Netto L. Glucose repression of PRX1 expression is mediated by Tor1p and Ras2p through inhibition of Msn2/4p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;241:221-8 pubmed
    ..Mutation of AGGGG sequence at position -116 to -112 caused a high drop in PRX1 expression under respiratory conditions and in strains containing deletions of TOR1 or RAS2, confirming the finding that this sequence is a STRE.
  8. Sturgill T, Cohen A, Diefenbacher M, Trautwein M, Martin D, Hall M. TOR1 and TOR2 have distinct locations in live cells. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1819-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged, endogenous TOR1 and TOR2 in live S. cerevisiae cells...
  9. Lempiäinen H, Uotila A, Urban J, Dohnal I, Ammerer G, Loewith R, et al. Sfp1 interaction with TORC1 and Mrs6 reveals feedback regulation on TOR signaling. Mol Cell. 2009;33:704-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the Sfp1-interacting protein Mrs6, a Rab escort protein involved in membrane trafficking, regulates both Sfp1 nuclear localization and TORC1 signaling. ..

More Information

Publications78

  1. Powers T, Walter P. Regulation of ribosome biogenesis by the rapamycin-sensitive TOR-signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:987-1000 pubmed
    ..This induction has been shown previously to involve both the Ras-adenylate cyclase as well as the fermentable growth medium-induced pathways, and our results therefore suggest that these three pathways may be intimately linked. ..
  2. Kamada Y, Yoshino K, Kondo C, Kawamata T, Oshiro N, Yonezawa K, et al. Tor directly controls the Atg1 kinase complex to regulate autophagy. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1049-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the direct control of the Atg1 complex by TORC1 induces autophagy. ..
  3. Fiorentino D, Crabtree G. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae dna2 mutants suggests a role for the helicase late in S phase. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:2519-37 pubmed
    ..Dna2 mutants are also rescued by Tor2p and show synthetic lethality with tor1 deletion mutants under specific conditions...
  4. Bertram P, Choi J, Carvalho J, Ai W, Zeng C, Chan T, et al. Tripartite regulation of Gln3p by TOR, Ure2p, and phosphatases. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35727-33 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the free Gln3p, the Ure2p-bound Gln3p is signifcantly resistant to dephosphorylation. Taken together, these results reveal a tripartite regulatory mechanism by which the phosphorylation of Gln3p is regulated. ..
  5. Urban J, Soulard A, Huber A, Lippman S, Mukhopadhyay D, Deloche O, et al. Sch9 is a major target of TORC1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2007;26:663-74 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Sch9 functions analogously to the mammalian TORC1 substrate S6K1 rather than the mTORC2 substrate PKB/Akt. ..
  6. Pan Y, Schroeder E, Ocampo A, Barrientos A, Shadel G. Regulation of yeast chronological life span by TORC1 via adaptive mitochondrial ROS signaling. Cell Metab. 2011;13:668-78 pubmed publisher
    ..or increasing expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase significantly curtails CLS extension in tor1? strains, and treatment of wild-type strains with either rapamycin (to inhibit TORC1) or menadione (to generate ..
  7. Stephan J, Yeh Y, Ramachandran V, Deminoff S, Herman P. The Tor and PKA signaling pathways independently target the Atg1/Atg13 protein kinase complex to control autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, our data indicate that the PKA and Tor pathways function independently to control autophagy in S. cerevisiae, and that the Atg1/Atg13 kinase complex is a key site of signal integration within this degradative pathway. ..
  8. Reinke A, Anderson S, McCaffery J, Yates J, Aronova S, Chu S, et al. TOR complex 1 includes a novel component, Tco89p (YPL180w), and cooperates with Ssd1p to maintain cellular integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14752-62 pubmed
    ..Deletion of TOR1 or TCO89 results in two specific and distinct phenotypes, (i) rapamycin-hypersensitivity and (ii) decreased ..
  9. Jiang Y, Broach J. Tor proteins and protein phosphatase 2A reciprocally regulate Tap42 in controlling cell growth in yeast. EMBO J. 1999;18:2782-92 pubmed
    ..These results establish Tap42 as a target of Tor and add further refinement to the Tor signaling pathway. ..
  10. Martin D, Soulard A, Hall M. TOR regulates ribosomal protein gene expression via PKA and the Forkhead transcription factor FHL1. Cell. 2004;119:969-79 pubmed
    ..Thus, we describe a signaling mechanism linking an environmental sensor to ribosome biogenesis. ..
  11. Orlova M, Kanter E, Krakovich D, Kuchin S. Nitrogen availability and TOR regulate the Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1831-7 pubmed
    ..TOR and Snf1/AMPK are highly conserved in evolution, and their novel functional interaction in yeast suggests similar mechanisms in other eukaryotes. ..
  12. Wanke V, Pedruzzi I, Cameroni E, Dubouloz F, De Virgilio C. Regulation of G0 entry by the Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-CDK complex. EMBO J. 2005;24:4271-8 pubmed
    ..Importantly, we also show that Pho80-Pho85 and TORC1 converge on a single amino acid in Rim15. Thus, Rim15 plays a key role in G0 entry through its ability to integrate signaling from the PKA, TORC1, and Pho80-Pho85 pathways. ..
  13. Barbet N, Schneider U, Helliwell S, Stansfield I, Tuite M, Hall M. TOR controls translation initiation and early G1 progression in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:25-42 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with the immunosuppressant rapamycin or depleted for the targets of rapamycin TOR1 and TOR2 arrest growth in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle...
  14. Zheng X, Schreiber S. Target of rapamycin proteins and their kinase activities are required for meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3070-5 pubmed
    ..Mec1p, which is required for meiotic recombination, and the Tor proteins are, therefore, homologous kinases with distinct, yet essential, roles in meiosis. ..
  15. Pan Y, Shadel G. Extension of chronological life span by reduced TOR signaling requires down-regulation of Sch9p and involves increased mitochondrial OXPHOS complex density. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1:131-45 pubmed
  16. Zurita Martinez S, Puria R, Pan X, Boeke J, Cardenas M. Efficient Tor signaling requires a functional class C Vps protein complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;176:2139-50 pubmed
    ..Unlike most organisms that only contain one Tor protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses two, Tor1 and Tor2, which are thought to share all of the rapamycin-sensitive functions attributable to Tor signaling...
  17. Jin R, Dobry C, McCown P, Kumar A. Large-scale analysis of yeast filamentous growth by systematic gene disruption and overexpression. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:284-96 pubmed
  18. Wedaman K, Reinke A, Anderson S, Yates J, McCaffery J, Powers T. Tor kinases are in distinct membrane-associated protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1204-20 pubmed
    ..That these complexes colocalize to a membrane-bound compartment suggests an intimate relationship between membrane-mediated signaling and Tor activity. ..
  19. Neklesa T, Davis R. Superoxide anions regulate TORC1 and its ability to bind Fpr1:rapamycin complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results warrant an examination into whether similar reasons explain rapamycin resistance observed in various clinical samples. ..
  20. Bonawitz N, Chatenay Lapointe M, Pan Y, Shadel G. Reduced TOR signaling extends chronological life span via increased respiration and upregulation of mitochondrial gene expression. Cell Metab. 2007;5:265-77 pubmed
    ..We show here that deletion of the TOR1 gene extends chronological life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, primarily by increasing mitochondrial respiration ..
  21. Binda M, Péli Gulli M, Bonfils G, Panchaud N, Urban J, Sturgill T, et al. The Vam6 GEF controls TORC1 by activating the EGO complex. Mol Cell. 2009;35:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to its regulatory role in homotypic vacuolar fusion and vacuole protein sorting within the HOPS complex, Vam6 also controls TORC1 function by activating the Gtr1 subunit of the EGO complex. ..
  22. Wanke V, Cameroni E, Uotila A, Piccolis M, Urban J, Loewith R, et al. Caffeine extends yeast lifespan by targeting TORC1. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This kinase cascade appears to have been evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that caffeine may extend lifespan in other eukaryotes, including man. ..
  23. Loewith R, Jacinto E, Wullschleger S, Lorberg A, Crespo J, Bonenfant D, et al. Two TOR complexes, only one of which is rapamycin sensitive, have distinct roles in cell growth control. Mol Cell. 2002;10:457-68 pubmed
    The target of rapamycin (TOR) proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TOR1 and TOR2, redundantly regulate growth in a rapamycin-sensitive manner...
  24. Petkova M, Pujol Carrion N, Arroyo J, García Cantalejo J, Angeles de la Torre Ruiz M. Mtl1 is required to activate general stress response through Tor1 and Ras2 inhibition under conditions of glucose starvation and oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:19521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of TOR1, disruption of RAS2, or hyperactivation of Rho1 restored both the viability and the transcriptional function (both ..
  25. Kunz J, Schneider U, Howald I, Schmidt A, Hall M. HEAT repeats mediate plasma membrane localization of Tor2p in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37011-20 pubmed
    ..Our studies therefore place Tor proteins at the site of action of their known downstream effectors and suggest that they may be part of a multiprotein complex. ..
  26. Schmelzle T, Hall M. TOR, a central controller of cell growth. Cell. 2000;103:253-62 pubmed
  27. Crespo J, Powers T, Fowler B, Hall M. The TOR-controlled transcription activators GLN3, RTG1, and RTG3 are regulated in response to intracellular levels of glutamine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6784-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as glutamine starvation affects only a subset of TOR-controlled transcription factors, TOR appears to discriminate between different nutrient conditions to elicit a response appropriate to a given condition. ..
  28. Wei M, Fabrizio P, Hu J, Ge H, Cheng C, Li L, et al. Life span extension by calorie restriction depends on Rim15 and transcription factors downstream of Ras/PKA, Tor, and Sch9. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase Rim15 is required for yeast chronological life span extension caused by deficiencies in Ras2, Tor1, and Sch9, and by calorie restriction...
  29. Reinke A, Chen J, Aronova S, Powers T. Caffeine targets TOR complex I and provides evidence for a regulatory link between the FRB and kinase domains of Tor1p. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31616-26 pubmed
    ..Strongest resistance requires two simultaneous mutations in TOR1, the first at either one of two highly conserved positions within the FRB (rapamycin binding) domain and a second ..
  30. Zurita Martinez S, Cardenas M. Tor and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A: two parallel pathways regulating expression of genes required for cell growth. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:63-71 pubmed
  31. Torres J, Di Como C, Herrero E, De La Torre Ruiz M. Regulation of the cell integrity pathway by rapamycin-sensitive TOR function in budding yeast. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43495-504 pubmed
    ..kinase C (PKC)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is regulated by TOR function because upon specific Tor1 and Tor2 inhibition by rapamycin, Mpk1 is activated rapidly in a process mediated by Sit4 and Tap42...
  32. Wei Y, Tsang C, Zheng X. Mechanisms of regulation of RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription by TORC1. EMBO J. 2009;28:2220-30 pubmed publisher
    We have found earlier that Tor1 binds to 5S rDNA chromatin but the functional significance has not been established...
  33. Dilova I, Aronova S, Chen J, Powers T. Tor signaling and nutrient-based signals converge on Mks1p phosphorylation to regulate expression of Rtg1.Rtg3p-dependent target genes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46527-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find that Tor- and glutamine-mediated RTG-target gene repression can be experimentally uncoupled, indicating that glutamine and Tor act, at least in part, independently to inhibit this pathway. ..
  34. Li H, Tsang C, Watkins M, Bertram P, Zheng X. Nutrient regulates Tor1 nuclear localization and association with rDNA promoter. Nature. 2006;442:1058-61 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Tor1 is dynamically distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus in yeast...
  35. Niles B, Mogri H, Hill A, Vlahakis A, Powers T. Plasma membrane recruitment and activation of the AGC kinase Ypk1 is mediated by target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) and its effector proteins Slm1 and Slm2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1536-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings both extend the scope of cellular processes regulated by Ypk1/2 to include negative regulation of calcineurin and broaden the repertoire of mechanisms for membrane recruitment and activation of a protein kinase. ..
  36. Sundaram V, Petkova M, Pujol Carrion N, Boada J, De La Torre Ruiz M. Tor1, Sch9 and PKA downregulation in quiescence rely on Mtl1 to preserve mitochondrial integrity and cell survival. Mol Microbiol. 2015;97:93-109 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that all these effects are a consequence of signalling defects suppressed by TOR1 (target of rapamycin) and SCH9 deletion and less efficiently by Protein kinase A (PKA) inactivation...
  37. Stames E, O Toole J. Mitochondrial aminopeptidase deletion increases chronological lifespan and oxidative stress resistance while decreasing respiratory metabolism in S. cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77234 pubmed publisher
    ..ATP synthase complex was decreased in the icp55 deletion strain and was corrected by concurrent deletion of tor1. The icp55 deletion strain demonstrated an increased chronological lifespan and decreased reactive oxygen species...
  38. Tenay B, Kimberlin E, Williams M, Denise J, Fakilahyel J, Kim K. Inactivation of Tor proteins affects the dynamics of endocytic proteins in early stage of endocytosis. J Biosci. 2013;38:351-61 pubmed
    ..here that endocytic proteins, Abp1 and Rvs167, are less recruited to endocytic sites not only in tor2 but also tor1 mutants...
  39. Rodriguez Colman M, Sorolla M, Vall Llaura N, Tamarit J, Ros J, Cabiscol E. The FOX transcription factor Hcm1 regulates oxidative metabolism in response to early nutrient limitation in yeast. Role of Snf1 and Tor1/Sch9 kinases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:2004-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Lack of sucrose-nonfermenting (Snf1) kinase increases cytoplasmic localization of Hcm1, whereas ?tor1 cells showed a mild increase in nuclear Hcm1...
  40. Kira S, Tabata K, Shirahama Noda K, Nozoe A, Yoshimori T, Noda T. Reciprocal conversion of Gtr1 and Gtr2 nucleotide-binding states by Npr2-Npr3 inactivates TORC1 and induces autophagy. Autophagy. 2014;10:1565-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Both npr2? mutants and a GTP-bound Gtr1 mutant suppressed autophagy and increased Tor1 vacuole localization. Furthermore, Gtr2 binds to the TORC1 subunit Kog1...
  41. Petkova M, Pujol Carrion N, De La Torre Ruiz M. Mtl1 O-mannosylation mediated by both Pmt1 and Pmt2 is important for cell survival under oxidative conditions and TOR blockade. Fungal Genet Biol. 2012;49:903-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a relevant role for Mtl1 O-mannosylation mediated by both Pmt1 and Pmt2 in the response to oxidative stress and in rapamycin treatment. ..
  42. McDaniel S, Hepperla A, Huang J, Dronamraju R, Adams A, Kulkarni V, et al. H3K36 Methylation Regulates Nutrient Stress Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Enforcing Transcriptional Fidelity. Cell Rep. 2017;19:2371-2382 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Set2-enforced transcriptional fidelity is critical to the proper regulation of inducible and highly regulated transcription programs. ..
  43. Yan Y, Kang B. Regulation of Vid-dependent degradation of FBPase by TCO89, a component of TOR Complex 1. Int J Biol Sci. 2010;6:361-70 pubmed
    ..The P1S mutation of FBPase, reported to block its degradation, was observed to impair the association of FBPase with TORCI components. These results implicated an important regulatory role of TCO89 and TORCI in this pathway. ..
  44. Dyavaiah M, Rooney J, Chittur S, Lin Q, Begley T. Autophagy-dependent regulation of the DNA damage response protein ribonucleotide reductase 1. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:462-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight roles for autophagy and TOR signaling in regulating a specific protein and demonstrate the importance of these pathways in optimizing the DNA damage response. ..
  45. Weidberg H, Moretto F, Spedale G, Amon A, van Werven F. Nutrient Control of Yeast Gametogenesis Is Mediated by TORC1, PKA and Energy Availability. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006075 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our data demonstrate that nutrient control of entry into sporulation is mediated by a combination of energy availability, TORC1 and PKA activities that converge on the IME1 promoter. ..
  46. Homza B, Vasyl kovs ka R, Semchyshyn H. [Defects in TOR regulatory complexes retard aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress development in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Ukr Biochem J. 2014;86:85-92 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae as compared with glucose. However, defects in TOR regulatory complexes retard aging and development of the stress in yeast independent on the type of carbohydrate in the cultivation medium. ..
  47. Tang F, Watkins J, Bermudez M, Gray R, Gaban A, Portie K, et al. A life-span extending form of autophagy employs the vacuole-vacuole fusion machinery. Autophagy. 2008;4:874-86 pubmed
    ..Pending future biochemical studies, the concept of secretophagy may provide a mechanism for autophagy in life-span extension. ..
  48. González A, Casado C, Arino J, Casamayor A. Ptc6 is required for proper rapamycin-induced down-regulation of the genes coding for ribosomal and rRNA processing proteins in S. cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64470 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects cannot be attributed to the regulation of the Sch9 kinase, but they could involve modulation of the binding of the Ifh1 co-activator to specific gene promoters. ..
  49. Chen X, Meng F, Zhou J. Telomere recombination accelerates cellular aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000535 pubmed publisher
    ..The shortened life span of type II survivors was extended by calorie restriction or TOR1 deletion, but not by Fob1p inactivation or Sir2p over-expression...
  50. Rai R, Varma S, Shinde N, Ghosh S, Kumaran S, Skariah G, et al. Small ubiquitin-related modifier ligase activity of Mms21 is required for maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14516-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish Mms21-mediated sumoylation as a determinant of cell cycle progression and maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in budding yeast. ..
  51. Guedes A, Ludovico P, Sampaio Marques B. Caloric restriction alleviates alpha-synuclein toxicity in aged yeast cells by controlling the opposite roles of Tor1 and Sir2 on autophagy. Mech Ageing Dev. 2017;161:270-276 pubmed publisher
    ..The data gathered showed that TOR1 deletion also results in similar longevity extension and abrogation of syn toxicity...
  52. Wang C, Skinner C, Easlon E, Lin S. Deleting the 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 extends life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing stress response. Genetics. 2009;183:1373-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Deleting Bmh1 may eliminate the inhibitory effects of Bmh1 on these longevity factors and therefore extends life span. ..
  53. Neklesa T, Davis R. A genome-wide screen for regulators of TORC1 in response to amino acid starvation reveals a conserved Npr2/3 complex. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000515 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, in yeast, the Npr2/3 complex mediates an amino acid starvation signal to TORC1. ..
  54. Laxman S, Tu B. Multiple TORC1-associated proteins regulate nitrogen starvation-dependent cellular differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26081 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies also suggest the CEN.PK strain background of S. cerevisiae may be particularly useful for investigations of nitrogen starvation-induced diploid pseudohyphal growth. ..
  55. Lu Y, Swamy K, Leu J. Experimental Evolution Reveals Interplay between Sch9 and Polyploid Stability in Yeast. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006409 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpressing SCH9, but not TOR1, allows newly-formed tetraploids to exhibit evolved phenotypes and knocking out SCH9 diminishes the evolved ..
  56. Sommer L, Janke J, Bennett W, Bürck J, Ulrich A, Tieleman D, et al. Characterization of the immersion properties of the peripheral membrane anchor of the FATC domain of the kinase "target of rapamycin" by NMR, oriented CD spectroscopy, and MD simulations. J Phys Chem B. 2014;118:4817-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a detailed characterization of the membrane immersion properties of the oxidized and reduced yeast TOR1 FATC domain (2438-2470 = y1fatc)...
  57. Handee W, Li X, Hall K, Deng X, Li P, Benning C, et al. An Energy-Independent Pro-longevity Function of Triacylglycerol in Yeast. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005878 pubmed publisher
    ..Because both lifespan regulation and TAG metabolism are conserved, this cellular pro-longevity function of TAG may extend to other organisms. ..
  58. Peng J, He M, Duan Y, Liu Y, Zhou J. Inhibition of telomere recombination by inactivation of KEOPS subunit Cgi121 promotes cell longevity. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005071 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that HR activity at telomeres interferes with telomerase to pose a negative impact on cellular longevity. ..
  59. Cao H, Wang Y, Zhong Y, Liu X, Miao M, Duan W, et al. [YPK1 overexpression resulted salt stress hypersensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on TOR1]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2009;49:1069-74 pubmed
    ..We overexpressed YPK1 in wild type and tor1 mutant cells and monitored the cell growth responding to salt stress...
  60. Panchaud N, Péli Gulli M, De Virgilio C. Amino acid deprivation inhibits TORC1 through a GTPase-activating protein complex for the Rag family GTPase Gtr1. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results delineate a potentially conserved mechanism by which the Iml1, Npr2, and Npr3 orthologous proteins in humans may suppress tumor formation. ..
  61. Sadeh A, Movshovich N, Volokh M, Gheber L, Aharoni A. Fine-tuning of the Msn2/4-mediated yeast stress responses as revealed by systematic deletion of Msn2/4 partners. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:3127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Such negative regulation is crucial to minimize the cost of uncontrolled stress response gene expression and ensures a high growth rate in the absence of stress. ..
  62. Dames S, Mulet J, Rathgeb Szabo K, Hall M, Grzesiek S. The solution structure of the FATC domain of the protein kinase target of rapamycin suggests a role for redox-dependent structural and cellular stability. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20558-64 pubmed
    ..Because the amount of TOR mRNA is not changed, the redox state of the FATC disulfide bond is probably influencing the degradation of TOR. ..
  63. Helliwell S, Wagner P, Kunz J, Deuter Reinhard M, Henriquez R, Hall M. TOR1 and TOR2 are structurally and functionally similar but not identical phosphatidylinositol kinase homologues in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1994;5:105-18 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes TOR1 and TOR2 were originally identified by mutations that confer resistance to the immunosuppressant rapamycin...
  64. Rispal D, Eltschinger S, Stahl M, Vaga S, Bodenmiller B, Abraham Y, et al. Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 Regulates Actin Polarization and Endocytosis via Multiple Pathways. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:14963-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional hits in our phosphoproteomic screens highlight the intricate control TORC2 exerts over diverse aspects of eukaryote cell physiology. ..
  65. Madeira J, Masuda C, Maya Monteiro C, Matos G, Montero Lomelí M, Bozaquel Morais B. TORC1 inhibition induces lipid droplet replenishment in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:737-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that the TORC1 pathway is involved in neutral lipid homeostasis in yeast. ..
  66. Wu X, Jiang Y. Overproduction of non-translatable mRNA silences. The transcription of Ty1 retrotransposons in S. cerevisiae via functional inactivation of the nuclear cap-binding complex and subsequent hyperstimulation of the TORC1 pathway. Yeast. 2008;25:327-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Although overproduction of non-translatable mRNA causes transient Ty1 transcriptional silencing, it does not play a detectable role in controlling Ty1 retrotransposition. ..
  67. Peters T, Rardin M, Czerwieniec G, Evani U, Reis Rodrigues P, Lithgow G, et al. Tor1 regulates protein solubility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4679-88 pubmed publisher
    ..However, genetic or chemical inhibition of the Tor1 kinase is sufficient to promote accumulation of insoluble protein...
  68. Chen J, Powers T. Coordinate regulation of multiple and distinct biosynthetic pathways by TOR and PKA kinases in S. cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2006;49:281-93 pubmed
    ..Our results underscore how multiple signaling pathways, general growth conditions, as well as the availability of specific nutrients contribute to the maintenance of appropriate patterns of gene activity in yeast. ..
  69. Kennedy M, Gable K, Niewola Staszkowska K, Abreu S, Johnston A, Harris L, et al. A neurotoxic glycerophosphocholine impacts PtdIns-4, 5-bisphosphate and TORC2 signaling by altering ceramide biosynthesis in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004010 pubmed publisher