Gene Symbol: THO2
Description: Tho2p
Alias: LDB5, RLR1, ZRG13, Tho2p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Chanarat S, Seizl M, Strasser K. The Prp19 complex is a novel transcription elongation factor required for TREX occupancy at transcribed genes. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1147-58 pubmed publisher
  2. Gallardo M, Aguilera A. A new hyperrecombination mutation identifies a novel yeast gene, THP1, connecting transcription elongation with mitotic recombination. Genetics. 2001;157:79-89 pubmed
    ..that Thp1p and two other proteins previously shown to control transcription-associated recombination, Hpr1p and Tho2p, act in the same "pathway" connecting transcription elongation with the incidence of mitotic ..
  3. Strasser K, Masuda S, Mason P, Pfannstiel J, Oppizzi M, Rodriguez Navarro S, et al. TREX is a conserved complex coupling transcription with messenger RNA export. Nature. 2002;417:304-8 pubmed
    ..We also show that Sub2 and Yra1 interact genetically with all four components of the THO complex (Tho2, Hpr1, Mft1 and Thp2)...
  4. West R, Milgrom E. DEAD-box RNA helicase Sub2 is required for expression of lacZ fusions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is a dosage-dependent suppressor of RLR1 (THO2). Gene. 2002;288:19-27 pubmed
    b>RLR1 (THO2) encodes a novel, phylogenetically-conserved KEKE motif protein involved in transcription and transcription-associated recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  5. Jimeno S, Rondón A, Luna R, Aguilera A. The yeast THO complex and mRNA export factors link RNA metabolism with transcription and genome instability. EMBO J. 2002;21:3526-35 pubmed
    The THO complex is a multimeric factor containing four polypeptides, Tho2, Hpr1, Mft1 and Thp2...
  6. Röther S, Clausing E, Kieser A, Strasser K. Swt1, a novel yeast protein, functions in transcription. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36518-25 pubmed
    ..Importantly, deletion of Swt1 leads to decreased transcription. Taken together, these data suggest that Swt1 functions in gene expression in conjunction with the TREX complex. ..
  7. Gaillard H, Wellinger R, Aguilera A. A new connection of mRNP biogenesis and export with transcription-coupled repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:3893-906 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that RNAPII is not proficient for TCR in mRNP biogenesis and export mutants, opening new perspectives on our knowledge of TCR in eukaryotic cells. ..
  8. Garcia Rubio M, Chávez S, Huertas P, Tous C, Jimeno S, Luna R, et al. Different physiological relevance of yeast THO/TREX subunits in gene expression and genome integrity. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;279:123-32 pubmed
    ..THO is composed of Tho2, Hpr1, Mft1 and Thp2 subunits, which associate with the Sub2-Yra1 export factors and Tex1 to form the TREX complex...
  9. Chavez S, Beilharz T, Rondón A, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J, et al. A protein complex containing Tho2, Hpr1, Mft1 and a novel protein, Thp2, connects transcription elongation with mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 2000;19:5824-34 pubmed
    ..We have shown previously that the yeast genes HPR1 and THO2 may be keys to the understanding of transcription-associated recombination, as they both affect transcription ..

More Information


  1. González Barrera S, Prado F, Verhage R, Brouwer J, Aguilera A. Defective nucleotide excision repair in yeast hpr1 and tho2 mutants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2193-201 pubmed
    ..We show that null mutations of the HPR1 and THO2 genes, encoding two prominent proteins of the THO complex, increase UV sensitivity of yeast cells lacking GGR...
  2. Peña A, Gewartowski K, Mroczek S, Cuellar J, Szykowska A, Prokop A, et al. Architecture and nucleic acids recognition mechanism of the THO complex, an mRNP assembly factor. EMBO J. 2012;31:1605-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In yeast, this complex has been described as a heterotetramer (Tho2, Hpr1, Mft1, and Thp2) that interacts with Tex1 and mRNA export factors Sub2 and Yra1 to form the TRanscription ..
  3. Piruat J, Aguilera A. A novel yeast gene, THO2, is involved in RNA pol II transcription and provides new evidence for transcriptional elongation-associated recombination. EMBO J. 1998;17:4859-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that there is a set of proteins including Hpr1p and Tho2p, in the absence of which RNA pol II transcription is stalled or blocked, causing genetic instability.
  4. Eshleman N, Liu G, McGrath K, Parker R, Buchan J. Defects in THO/TREX-2 function cause accumulation of novel cytoplasmic mRNP granules that can be cleared by autophagy. RNA. 2016;22:1200-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This identifies a novel mechanism of quality control for aberrant mRNPs assembled in the nucleus. ..
  5. Yu T, Wang C, Lin J. Depleting components of the THO complex causes increased telomere length by reducing the expression of the telomere-associated protein Rif1p. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33498 pubmed publisher
    ..The THO complex comprises four protein subunits, namely, Tho2p, Hpr1p, Mft1p, and Thp2p...
  6. Meinel D, Burkert Kautzsch C, Kieser A, O Duibhir E, Siebert M, Mayer A, et al. Recruitment of TREX to the transcription machinery by its direct binding to the phospho-CTD of RNA polymerase II. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003914 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we provide insight into how the phospho-code of the CTD directs mRNP formation and export through TREX recruitment...
  7. Skruzny M, Schneider C, Rácz A, Weng J, Tollervey D, Hurt E. An endoribonuclease functionally linked to perinuclear mRNP quality control associates with the nuclear pore complexes. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that Swt1 endoribonuclease might be transiently recruited to NPCs to initiate the degradation of defective pre-mRNPs or mRNPs trapped at nuclear periphery in order to avoid their cytoplasmic export and translation...
  8. Ren Y, Schmiege P, Blobel G. Structural and biochemical analyses of the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 in association with THO or Yra1. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Both THO and Yra1-C stimulated Sub2's intrinsic ATPase activity. We propose that THO surveys common landmarks in each nuclear mRNP to localize Sub2 for targeted loading of Yra1. ..
  9. Kinkelin K, Wozniak G, Rothbart S, Lidschreiber M, Strahl B, Cramer P. Structures of RNA polymerase II complexes with Bye1, a chromatin-binding PHF3/DIDO homologue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish Bye1 as the founding member of a unique family of chromatin transcription factors that link histones with active PTMs to transcribing Pol II...
  10. Luna R, Jimeno S, Marin M, Huertas P, Garcia Rubio M, Aguilera A. Interdependence between transcription and mRNP processing and export, and its impact on genetic stability. Mol Cell. 2005;18:711-22 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a tight interdependence among mRNP biogenesis steps and transcription and an unexpected effect of the nuclear exosome and the cleavage/polyadenylation factors on transcription elongation and genetic integrity. ..
  11. Martínez Lumbreras S, Taverniti V, Zorrilla S, Séraphin B, Pérez Cañadillas J. Gbp2 interacts with THO/TREX through a novel type of RRM domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Gbp2 interacts genetically with Tho2 as the double deletion shows a synthetic phenotype and preventing Gbp2 interaction with the THO/TREX complex partly ..
  12. Zhang Y, French S, Beyer A, Schneider D. The Transcription Factor THO Promotes Transcription Initiation and Elongation by RNA Polymerase I. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:3010-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pol I transcription in hpr1 or tho2 null mutants is dramatically reduced to less than 20% of the WT level...
  13. Konopka C, Locke M, Gallagher P, Pham N, Hart M, Walker C, et al. A yeast model for polyalanine-expansion aggregation and toxicity. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1971-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus longer expansions may have a different mechanism for toxicity. We think that this difference underscores the potential need to examine the cytotoxic mechanisms of both long and short expansions in models of expansion disorders. ..
  14. Pfeiffer V, Crittin J, Grolimund L, Lingner J. The THO complex component Thp2 counteracts telomeric R-loops and telomere shortening. EMBO J. 2013;32:2861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data indicate that THO, through the interplay with TERRA, regulates chromosome end processing activities and prevents interference with semiconservative DNA replication of telomeric DNA...
  15. Harbison C, Gordon D, Lee T, Rinaldi N, Macisaac K, Danford T, et al. Transcriptional regulatory code of a eukaryotic genome. Nature. 2004;431:99-104 pubmed
    ..We find that environment-specific use of regulatory elements predicts mechanistic models for the function of a large population of yeast's transcriptional regulators. ..
  16. West R, Kruger B, Thomas S, Ma J, Milgrom E. RLR1 (THO2), required for expressing lacZ fusions in yeast, is conserved from yeast to humans and is a suppressor of SIN4. Gene. 2000;243:195-205 pubmed
    We isolated a mutation (rlr1-1; required for lacZ RNA) in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) RLR1 gene as a suppressor of sin4, a component of the Mediator subcomplex of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and a determinant of chromatin ..
  17. Bermejo R, Capra T, Jossen R, Colosio A, Frattini C, Carotenuto W, et al. The replication checkpoint protects fork stability by releasing transcribed genes from nuclear pores. Cell. 2011;146:233-46 pubmed publisher
  18. Jimeno S, Garcia Rubio M, Luna R, Aguilera A. A reduction in RNA polymerase II initiation rate suppresses hyper-recombination and transcription-elongation impairment of THO mutants. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;280:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study furthers the understanding of the importance of THO in transcription and the maintenance of genome stability. ..
  19. Castellano Pozo M, Garcia Muse T, Aguilera A. R-loops cause replication impairment and genome instability during meiosis. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:923-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, RNase H partially suppressed the replication impairment and the DNA-damage accumulation. We conclude that R-loops can form during meiosis causing replication impairment with deleterious results. ..