Gene Symbol: STE4
Description: G protein subunit beta
Alias: HMD2, G protein subunit beta
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     STE4

Top Publications

  1. Whiteway M, Hougan L, Thomas D. Overexpression of the STE4 gene leads to mating response in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:217-22 pubmed
    The STE4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the beta subunit of the yeast pheromone receptor-coupled G protein. Overexpression of the STE4 protein led to cell cycle arrest of haploid cells...
  2. Kao L, Peterson J, Ji R, Bender L, Bender A. Interactions between the ankyrin repeat-containing protein Akr1p and the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:168-78 pubmed
    ..AKR1 could serve as a multicopy suppressor of the lethality caused by either loss of GPA1 or overexpression of STE4, which encodes the G beta subunit of this G protein, suggesting that pheromone signaling is inhibited by ..
  3. Butty A, Pryciak P, Huang L, Herskowitz I, Peter M. The role of Far1p in linking the heterotrimeric G protein to polarity establishment proteins during yeast mating. Science. 1998;282:1511-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gbetagamma to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ..
  4. Schrick K, Garvik B, Hartwell L. Mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of the pheromone signal transduction pathway in the chemotropic response to pheromone. Genetics. 1997;147:19-32 pubmed
    ..In contrast, cells mutant for the receptor (ste2) or the beta or gamma subunit (ste4 and ste18) of the G protein were extremely defective in both diploid and prezygote formation and discriminated ..
  5. Nern A, Arkowitz R. A GTP-exchange factor required for cell orientation. Nature. 1998;391:195-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the association of an exchange factor and the betagamma subunit of a hetero-trimeric G protein links receptor-mediated activation to oriented cell growth. ..
  6. Zhao Z, Leung T, Manser E, Lim L. Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the small GTP-binding protein Cdc42p and its activator CDC24. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:5246-57 pubmed
    Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the STE4-STE18 G-protein beta gamma subunits...
  7. Song J, Hirschman J, Gunn K, Dohlman H. Regulation of membrane and subunit interactions by N-myristoylation of a G protein alpha subunit in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20273-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that myristoylation is required for specific targeting of Gpa1p to the plasma membrane, where it is needed to interact with the receptor and to regulate the release of Gbetagamma. ..
  8. Pryciak P, Huntress F. Membrane recruitment of the kinase cascade scaffold protein Ste5 by the Gbetagamma complex underlies activation of the yeast pheromone response pathway. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2684-97 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results suggest that this event promotes kinase cascade activation by delivering the Ste5-associated kinases to the cell surface kinase Ste20, whose function may depend on Cdc42 and Cdc24. ..
  9. Hirschman J, De Zutter G, Simonds W, Jenness D. The G beta gamma complex of the yeast pheromone response pathway. Subcellular fractionation and protein-protein interactions. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:240-8 pubmed
    Genetic evidence suggests that the yeast STE4 and STE18 genes encode G beta and G gamma subunits, respectively, that the G betagamma complex plays a positive role in the pheromone response pathway, and that its activity is subject to ..

More Information


  1. Pryciak P, Hartwell L. AKR1 encodes a candidate effector of the G beta gamma complex in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway and contributes to control of both cell shape and signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2614-26 pubmed
  2. Leeuw T, Wu C, Schrag J, Whiteway M, Thomas D, Leberer E. Interaction of a G-protein beta-subunit with a conserved sequence in Ste20/PAK family protein kinases. Nature. 1998;391:191-5 pubmed
    ..Ste20 is involved in transmitting the mating-pheromone signal from the betagamma-subunits (encoded by the STE4 and STE18 genes, respectively) of a heterotrimeric G protein to a downstream MAP kinase cascade...
  3. Song J, Dohlman H. Partial constitutive activation of pheromone responses by a palmitoylation-site mutant of a G protein alpha subunit in yeast. Biochemistry. 1996;35:14806-17 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that Gpa1p is palmitoylated via a thioester bond at Cys 3 and that palmitoylation plays a role in modulating Gpa1p signaling and membrane localization. ..
  4. Whiteway M, Dignard D, Thomas D. Mutagenesis of Ste18, a putative G gamma subunit in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway. Biochem Cell Biol. 1992;70:1230-7 pubmed
    ..for two classes of STE18 mutations, those that allowed for increased mating of a strain containing a defective STE4 gene (compensators) and those that inhibited mating even in the presence of a functional STE18 gene (dominant ..
  5. Yashar B, Irie K, Printen J, Stevenson B, Sprague G, Matsumoto K, et al. Yeast MEK-dependent signal transduction: response thresholds and parameters affecting fidelity. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6545-53 pubmed
    ..This behavior suggests that Ste5p, which has been proposed to be a tether for the kinases in the mating pathway, contributes to Ste7p specificity. ..
  6. Coria R, Saviñón Tejeda A, Birnbaumer L. STE2/SCG1-dependent inhibition of STE4-induced growth arrest by mutant STE4 delta C6 in the yeast pheromone response pathway. FEBS Lett. 1995;367:122-6 pubmed
    ..response pathway involves the activation of a heterotrimeric G protein composed by SCG1 (alpha) (also GPA1), STE4 (beta), and STE18 (gamma) subunits by the pheromone-activated receptors STE2 and STE3 in a and alpha cells, ..
  7. Cole G, Stone D, Reed S. Stoichiometry of G protein subunits affects the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromone signal transduction pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:510-7 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPA1, STE4, and STE18 genes encode products homologous to mammalian G-protein alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively...
  8. Leza M, Elion E. POG1, a novel yeast gene, promotes recovery from pheromone arrest via the G1 cyclin CLN2. Genetics. 1999;151:531-43 pubmed
    ..These and other results suggest that POG1 may regulate additional genes during vegetative growth and recovery. ..
  9. Nern A, Arkowitz R. A Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma protein complex required for yeast orientation during mating. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:1187-202 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that formation of a Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma complex functions as a landmark for orientation of the cytoskeleton during growth towards an external signal. ..
  10. Yu Y, Hirsch J. An essential gene pair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a potential role in mating. DNA Cell Biol. 1995;14:411-8 pubmed
    ..Because mating efficiency was increased by extra copies of the SSF genes and decreased by elimination of the gene products, it is likely that these genes play a role in mating as well as in an essential function. ..
  11. Whiteway M, Clark K, Leberer E, Dignard D, Thomas D. Genetic identification of residues involved in association of alpha and beta G-protein subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3223-9 pubmed
    The GPA1, STE4, and STE18 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively, of a G protein involved in the mating response pathway...
  12. Clark K, Dignard D, Thomas D, Whiteway M. Interactions among the subunits of the G protein involved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:1-8 pubmed
    The SCG1 (GPA1), STE4, and STE18 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode mating-pathway components whose amino acid sequences are similar to those of the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively, of mammalian G proteins...
  13. Inouye C, Dhillon N, Thorner J. Ste5 RING-H2 domain: role in Ste4-promoted oligomerization for yeast pheromone signaling. Science. 1997;278:103-6 pubmed
    ..Ste5 also associates with Ste4, the beta subunit of a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein, potentially linking receptor activation ..
  14. Draper E, Dubrovskyi O, Bar E, Stone D. Dse1 may control cross talk between the pheromone and filamentation pathways in yeast. Curr Genet. 2009;55:611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the interaction of Dse1 with both Gbeta and Ste11 may be designed to control cross talk between the pheromone and filamentation pathways. ..
  15. Liu C, van Dyk D, Li Y, Andrews B, Rao H. A genome-wide synthetic dosage lethality screen reveals multiple pathways that require the functioning of ubiquitin-binding proteins Rad23 and Dsk2. BMC Biol. 2009;7:75 pubmed publisher
  16. Bao M, Schwartz M, Cantin G, Yates J, Madhani H. Pheromone-dependent destruction of the Tec1 transcription factor is required for MAP kinase signaling specificity in yeast. Cell. 2004;119:991-1000 pubmed
    ..Signal-induced destruction of a transcription factor for a competing pathway provides a mechanism for signaling specificity. ..
  17. Xu G, Jansen G, Thomas D, Hollenberg C, Ramezani Rad M. Ste50p sustains mating pheromone-induced signal transduction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:773-83 pubmed
    ..These data show that a new component, Ste50p, determines the extent and the duration of signal transduction by acting between the G protein and the MAP kinase complex in S. cerevisiae. ..
  18. Wu Y, Hooks S, Harden T, Dohlman H. Dominant-negative inhibition of pheromone receptor signaling by a single point mutation in the G protein alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35287-97 pubmed
    ..Dominant-negative mutants may be useful in matching specific receptors and their cognate G proteins and in determining mechanisms of G protein signaling specificity. ..
  19. Leberer E, Chenevert J, Leeuw T, Harcus D, Herskowitz I, Thomas D. Genetic interactions indicate a role for Mdg1p and the SH3 domain protein Bem1p in linking the G-protein mediated yeast pheromone signalling pathway to regulators of cell polarity. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;252:608-21 pubmed
  20. Akada R, Kallal L, Johnson D, Kurjan J. Genetic relationships between the G protein beta gamma complex, Ste5p, Ste20p and Cdc42p: investigation of effector roles in the yeast pheromone response pathway. Genetics. 1996;143:103-17 pubmed
    ..Synthetic sterile mutants that exacerbate the phenotype of ste4-ts mutations were isolated to identify proteins that functionally interact with Ste4p...
  21. Elion E, Brill J, Fink G. FUS3 represses CLN1 and CLN2 and in concert with KSS1 promotes signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:9392-6 pubmed
    ..a step(s) in signal transduction between the beta subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), STE4, and the mating type-specific transcriptional activator, STE12...
  22. Mahanty S, Wang Y, Farley F, Elion E. Nuclear shuttling of yeast scaffold Ste5 is required for its recruitment to the plasma membrane and activation of the mating MAPK cascade. Cell. 1999;98:501-12 pubmed
    ..This novel regulatory scheme may ensure that cytoplasmic Ste5 does not activate downstream kinases in the absence of pheromone and could be applicable to other membrane-recruited signaling proteins. ..
  23. Kim J, Hirsch J. A nucleolar protein that affects mating efficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by altering the morphological response to pheromone. Genetics. 1998;149:795-805 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of SSF1 conferred the ability to form mating projections on cells containing a temperature-sensitive STE4 allele, but had only a small effect on transcriptional induction...
  24. Cherkasova V, Lyons D, Elion E. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Genetics. 1999;151:989-1004 pubmed
    ..Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition. ..
  25. Zhu M, Torres M, Kelley J, Dohlman H, Wang Y. Pheromone- and RSP5-dependent ubiquitination of the G protein beta subunit Ste4 in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27147-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Ste4 is the ? subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein that mediates mating responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we show that Ste4 undergoes ubiquitination in response to pheromone stimulation...
  26. Spain B, Koo D, Ramakrishnan M, Dzudzor B, Colicelli J. Truncated forms of a novel yeast protein suppress the lethality of a G protein alpha subunit deficiency by interacting with the beta subunit. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:25435-44 pubmed
    ..allele of the G alpha (GPA1/SCG1) subunit results in cell death due to unchecked signaling from the G beta gamma (STE4, STE18, respectively) heterodimer. We have identified three high copy suppressors of gpa1 lethality...
  27. Kim J, Couve A, Hirsch J. Receptor inhibition of pheromone signaling is mediated by the Ste4p Gbeta subunit. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:441-9 pubmed
    ..Mutations that suppress the effects of receptor inhibition were obtained in the STE4 gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of the G protein that transmits the pheromone response signal...
  28. DeSimone S, Kurjan J. Switch-domain mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein alpha-subunit Gpa1p identify a receptor subtype-biased mating defect. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:662-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility that these phenotypes may reflect a differential role for the switch II region in activation by the a- and alpha-factor receptors. ..
  29. Hemsley P, Grierson C. The ankyrin repeats and DHHC S-acyl transferase domain of AKR1 act independently to regulate switching from vegetative to mating states in yeast. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28799 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteins similar to AKR1 are found in all eukaryotes and our results have broad implications for future work on these proteins and the control of switching between G?? regulated pathways. ..
  30. Andersson J, Simpson D, Qi M, Wang Y, Elion E. Differential input by Ste5 scaffold and Msg5 phosphatase route a MAPK cascade to multiple outcomes. EMBO J. 2004;23:2564-76 pubmed
    ..Previous work has suggested that the Kss1 MAPK cascade is activated independently of the mating G protein (Ste4)-scaffold (Ste5) system during IG...
  31. Rad M, Xu G, Hollenberg C. STE50, a novel gene required for activation of conjugation at an early step in mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;236:145-54 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of STE4 (G beta) in wild-type cells elicits a constitutive growth arrest signal, however this phenotype is suppressed by a ..
  32. Inouye C, Dhillon N, Durfee T, Zambryski P, Thorner J. Mutational analysis of STE5 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: application of a differential interaction trap assay for examining protein-protein interactions. Genetics. 1997;147:479-92 pubmed
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation analysis, examining the binding in vitro of Ste5 to Ste11, Ste7, Ste4 (G protein beta subunit), and Fus3 (MAPK), confirmed that each mutation specifically affects the interaction of ..
  33. Sugimoto K, Matsumoto K, Kornberg R, Reed S, Wittenberg C. Dosage suppressors of the dominant G1 cyclin mutant CLN3-2: identification of a yeast gene encoding a putative RNA/ssDNA binding protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;248:712-8 pubmed
    ..HMD genes) of the mating defect caused by CLN3-2, a dominant mutation in CLN3, HMD2 and HMD3 are identical to STE4 and STE5, respectively, HMD1 is an essential gene that encodes a protein containing a putative RNA binding domain...
  34. Oda Y, Huang K, Cross F, Cowburn D, Chait B. Accurate quantitation of protein expression and site-specific phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6591-6 pubmed
  35. Cismowski M, Metodiev M, Draper E, Stone D. Biochemical analysis of yeast G(alpha) mutants that enhance adaptation to pheromone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:247-54 pubmed
    ..A combination of G(alpha) affinity chromatography, GTP binding/hydrolysis studies, and genetic analysis allowed us to assign a distinct mechanism of action to each of these mutant proteins. ..
  36. Kim J, Bortz E, Zhong H, Leeuw T, Leberer E, Vershon A, et al. Localization and signaling of G(beta) subunit Ste4p are controlled by a-factor receptor and the a-specific protein Asg7p. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8826-35 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Asg7p mediates a regulatory process that blocks signaling from a G protein beta subunit and causes its relocalization within the cell. ..
  37. Kim J, Rose M. Stable Pseudohyphal Growth in Budding Yeast Induced by Synergism between Septin Defects and Altered MAP-kinase Signaling. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005684 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike classical pseudo-hyphal growth, sadF signaling requires Ste5, Ste4 and Ste18, the scaffold protein and G-protein β and γ subunits from the pheromone response pathway, ..
  38. Stevenson B, Ferguson B, De Virgilio C, Bi E, Pringle J, Ammerer G, et al. Mutation of RGA1, which encodes a putative GTPase-activating protein for the polarity-establishment protein Cdc42p, activates the pheromone-response pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2949-63 pubmed
  39. O Rourke S, Herskowitz I. The Hog1 MAPK prevents cross talk between the HOG and pheromone response MAPK pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2874-86 pubmed
    ..of the pheromone response pathway: induction of a FUS1::lacZ reporter, morphological changes, and mating in ste4 and ste5 mutants...
  40. Blinder D, Jenness D. Regulation of postreceptor signaling in the pheromone response pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:3720-6 pubmed
    ..Down regulation of receptors in response to alpha-factor was independent of the signal that was generated in the scg1 mutant. ..
  41. Strickfaden S, Pryciak P. Distinct roles for two Galpha-Gbeta interfaces in cell polarity control by a yeast heterotrimeric G protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:181-97 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. ..
  42. Nakayama N, Kaziro Y, Arai K, Matsumoto K. Role of STE genes in the mating factor signaling pathway mediated by GPA1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:3777-83 pubmed
    The ste mutants (ste2, ste4, ste5, ste7, ste11, and ste12) are insensitive to mating factors and are, therefore, sterile...
  43. Shuster J. Mating-defective ste mutations are suppressed by cell division cycle start mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1982;2:1052-63 pubmed
    ..A class of mutants (carrying ste4, ste5, ste7, ste11, or ste12) which is insensitive to mating pheromone and sterile has also been described...
  44. Ongay Larios L, Saviñón Tejeda A, Williamson M, Durán Avelar M, Coria R. The Leu-132 of the Ste4(Gbeta) subunit is essential for proper coupling of the G protein with the Ste2 alpha factor receptor during the mating pheromone response in yeast. FEBS Lett. 2000;467:22-6 pubmed
    ..We generated a plasmid library containing randomly mutagenized Ste4 ORFs, followed by phenotypic selection of ste4p mutants by altered alpha pheromone response in yeast cells...
  45. Wang Y, Zhu M, Ayalew M, Ruff J. Down-regulation of Pkc1-mediated signaling by the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp3. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1954-61 pubmed
    ..Chem. 277, 15766-15772). These findings demonstrate that Ubp3 can regulate Pkc1 by facilitating its destruction and provide the initial evidence that Pkc1 plays a positive role in modulating the parallel pheromone-signaling pathway. ..
  46. Ismael A, Tian W, Waszczak N, Wang X, Cao Y, Suchkov D, et al. G? promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra38 pubmed publisher
  47. Leberer E, Dignard D, Harcus D, Thomas D, Whiteway M. The protein kinase homologue Ste20p is required to link the yeast pheromone response G-protein beta gamma subunits to downstream signalling components. EMBO J. 1992;11:4815-24 pubmed
    ..This points to a potentially new mechanism of G-protein mediated signal transduction, the activation of a protein kinase through G beta gamma. ..
  48. Conte D, Barber E, Banerjee M, Garfinkel D, Curcio M. Posttranslational regulation of Ty1 retrotransposition by mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:2502-13 pubmed
    ..epistasis analyses revealed that components of the pheromone response pathway that act upstream of Fus3, including Ste4, Ste5, Ste7, and Ste11, are required for the posttranslational suppression of Ty1 transposition by Fus3...
  49. Nomoto S, Nakayama N, Arai K, Matsumoto K. Regulation of the yeast pheromone response pathway by G protein subunits. EMBO J. 1990;9:691-6 pubmed
    The yeast GPA1, STE4, and STE18 genes encode proteins homologous to the respective alpha, beta and gamma subunits of the mammalian G protein complex which appears to mediate the response to mating pheromones...
  50. Stevenson B, Rhodes N, Errede B, Sprague G. Constitutive mutants of the protein kinase STE11 activate the yeast pheromone response pathway in the absence of the G protein. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1293-304 pubmed
    b>STE4 encodes the beta-subunit of a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) that is an early and essential component of the pheromone signal transduction pathway...
  51. Niu W, Li Z, Zhan W, Iyer V, Marcotte E. Mechanisms of cell cycle control revealed by a systematic and quantitative overexpression screen in S. cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher
    ..This work thus implicates new genes in cell cycle progression, complements previous screens, and lays the foundation for future experiments to define more precisely roles for these genes in cell cycle progression. ..
  52. Jenness D, Goldman B, Hartwell L. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants unresponsive to alpha-factor pheromone: alpha-factor binding and extragenic suppression. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:1311-9 pubmed
    ..Mutations in STE12 known to block STE2 mRNA accumulation also resulted in an absence of receptors. Mutations in STE4, 5, 7, and 11 partially reduced the number of binding sites, but this reduction was not sufficient to explain the ..
  53. Cullen P, Schultz J, Horecka J, Stevenson B, Jigami Y, Sprague G. Defects in protein glycosylation cause SHO1-dependent activation of a STE12 signaling pathway in yeast. Genetics. 2000;155:1005-18 pubmed
    ..glycosylation, activated a pheromone-response-pathway-dependent reporter (FUS1) in cells lacking a basal signal (ste4)...
  54. Wang Y, Chen W, Simpson D, Elion E. Cdc24 regulates nuclear shuttling and recruitment of the Ste5 scaffold to a heterotrimeric G protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13084-96 pubmed
    ..through interactions with Ste5, a scaffold that must shuttle through the nucleus and bind to the beta subunit (Ste4) of a G protein for Ste20 to activate the tethered MAPK cascade...
  55. Wassmann K, Ammerer G. Overexpression of the G1-cyclin gene CLN2 represses the mating pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the level of the MEKK Ste11. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13180-8 pubmed
    ..G protein-independent activation of Ste11 caused by an rga1 pbs2 mutation is resistant to high levels of Cln2 kinase. Therefore our results suggest that Cln2-dependent repression of the mating pathway occurs at the level of Ste11. ..
  56. Li E, Cismowski M, Stone D. Phosphorylation of the pheromone-responsive Gbeta protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not affect its mating-specific signaling function. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;258:608-18 pubmed
    The pheromone-responsive Gbeta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (encoded by STE4) is rapidly phosphorylated at multiple sites when yeast cells are exposed to mating pheromone...
  57. Slessareva J, Routt S, Temple B, Bankaitis V, Dohlman H. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34 by a G protein alpha subunit at the endosome. Cell. 2006;126:191-203 pubmed
    ..More remarkably, these proteins appear to comprise a preformed effector-G beta subunit assembly and function at the endosome rather than at the plasma membrane. ..
  58. Yang H, Tatebayashi K, Yamamoto K, Saito H. Glycosylation defects activate filamentous growth Kss1 MAPK and inhibit osmoregulatory Hog1 MAPK. EMBO J. 2009;28:1380-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the reciprocal inhibitory loop between Kss1 and Hog1 allows only one or the other of these MAPKs to be stably activated under various stress conditions. ..
  59. Whiteway M, Wu C, Leeuw T, Clark K, Fourest Lieuvin A, Thomas D, et al. Association of the yeast pheromone response G protein beta gamma subunits with the MAP kinase scaffold Ste5p. Science. 1995;269:1572-5 pubmed
    ..beta subunit Ste4p was also detected in a two-hybrid assay, and the product of a signaling-defective allele of STE4 was defective in this interaction...
  60. Flanary P, DiBello P, Estrada P, Dohlman H. Functional analysis of Plp1 and Plp2, two homologues of phosducin in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:18462-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that phosducin can selectively regulate early signaling events following pheromone stimulation and has an essential role in cell growth independent of its regulatory role in cell signaling. ..
  61. Smith G, Givan S, Cullen P, Sprague G. GTPase-activating proteins for Cdc42. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:469-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that the GAPs play a role in modulating specific aspects of Cdc42 function. Alternatively, the different phenotypes could reflect quantitative rather than qualitative differences in GAP activity in the mutant strains. ..
  62. Oehlen L, Cross F. Potential regulation of Ste20 function by the Cln1-Cdc28 and Cln2-Cdc28 cyclin-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:25089-97 pubmed
    ..repress FUS1 induction if the signaling pathway is activated at the level of the beta-subunit of the G-protein (STE4) but not when activated at the level of downstream kinases (STE20 and STE11) or at the level of the transcription ..
  63. Durán Avelar M, Ongay Larios L, Zentella Dehesa A, Coria R. The carboxy-terminal tail of the Ste2 receptor is involved in activation of the G protein in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-pheromone response pathway. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;197:65-71 pubmed
  64. Spain B, Bowdish K, Pacal A, Staub S, Koo D, Chang C, et al. Two human cDNAs, including a homolog of Arabidopsis FUS6 (COP11), suppress G-protein- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal transduction in yeast and mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:6698-706 pubmed
    ..For gps1, these results are consistent with the proposed function of FUS6 (COP11) as a signal transduction repressor in plants. ..
  65. Feng Y, Song L, Kincaid E, Mahanty S, Elion E. Functional binding between Gbeta and the LIM domain of Ste5 is required to activate the MEKK Ste11. Curr Biol. 1998;8:267-78 pubmed
    ..Pheromone also induces Ste5-dependent phosphorylation of Gbeta. ..
  66. Irie K, Yamaguchi K, Kawase K, Matsumoto K. The yeast MOT2 gene encodes a putative zinc finger protein that serves as a global negative regulator affecting expression of several categories of genes, including mating-pheromone-responsive genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3150-7 pubmed
    The STE4 gene encodes the beta subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein that is an essential component of the pheromone signal transduction pathway...
  67. Heenan E, Vanhooke J, Temple B, Betts L, SONDEK J, Dohlman H. Structure and function of Vps15 in the endosomal G protein signaling pathway. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that the Vps15 Gbeta-like domain serves as a scaffold to assemble Gpa1 and Atg14, whereas the kinase and intermediate domains are required for proper signaling at the endosome. ..
  68. Bar E, Ellicott A, Stone D. Gbetagamma recruits Rho1 to the site of polarized growth during mating in budding yeast. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21798-804 pubmed
    ..We also found, in a pull-down assay, that Rho1 associates with GST-Ste4 and that Rho1 is localized to the neck and tip of mating projections...