Gene Symbol: SSL1
Description: TFIIH/NER complex subunit SSL1
Alias: TFIIH/NER complex subunit SSL1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Peiró Chova L, Estruch F. Specific defects in different transcription complexes compensate for the requirement of the negative cofactor 2 repressor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;176:125-38 pubmed
  2. Estruch F, Cole C. An early function during transcription for the yeast mRNA export factor Dbp5p/Rat8p suggested by its genetic and physical interactions with transcription factor IIH components. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1664-76 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest a nuclear role for Dbp5 during the early steps of transcription. ..
  3. Yoon H, Miller S, Pabich E, Donahue T. SSL1, a suppressor of a HIS4 5'-UTR stem-loop mutation, is essential for translation initiation and affects UV resistance in yeast. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2463-77 pubmed
    The SSL1 locus was identified as a trans-acting suppressor that restores HIS4 expression despite a stem-loop structure in the 5'-UTR...
  4. Shi X, Chang M, Wolf A, Chang C, Frazer Abel A, Wade P, et al. Cdc73p and Paf1p are found in a novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex distinct from the Srbp-containing holoenzyme. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:1160-9 pubmed
    ..Our analysis suggests that there are multiple RNA polymerase II-containing complexes involved in the expression of different classes of protein-coding genes. ..
  5. Luo J, Cimermancic P, Viswanath S, Ebmeier C, Kim B, Dehecq M, et al. Architecture of the Human and Yeast General Transcription and DNA Repair Factor TFIIH. Mol Cell. 2015;59:794-806 pubmed publisher
    ..We also reveal the structural basis for defects in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy, with mutations found at the interface between the p62 Anchor region and the XPD subunit. ..
  6. Svejstrup J, Feaver W, Kornberg R. Subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIIH encoded by the CCL1 gene. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:643-5 pubmed
    ..In all likelihood, these two subunits individually form cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin dimers with Kin28 protein, a key enzyme in phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II concomitant with transcription. ..
  7. Vonarx E, Tabone E, Osmond M, Anderson H, Kunz B. Arabidopsis homologue of human transcription factor IIH/nucleotide excision repair factor p44 can function in transcription and DNA repair and interacts with AtXPD. Plant J. 2006;46:512-21 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana AtGTF2H2 and AtXPD, homologues of the essential interacting human/yeast TFIIH components p44/Ssl1 and XPD/Rad3, respectively...
  8. Akhtar M, Heidemann M, Tietjen J, Zhang D, Chapman R, Eick D, et al. TFIIH kinase places bivalent marks on the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2009;34:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These bivalent CTD marks, in concert with cues within nascent transcripts, specify the cotranscriptional engagement of the relevant RNA processing machinery. ..
  9. Søgaard T, Svejstrup J. Hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II facilitates dissociation of its complex with mediator. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14113-20 pubmed
    ..These data shed new light on mechanisms that drive the RNAPII transcription cycle and suggest a mechanism for the enhancement of CTD kinase activity by the Mediator complex. ..

More Information


  1. Kim M, Suh H, Cho E, Buratowski S. Phosphorylation of the yeast Rpb1 C-terminal domain at serines 2, 5, and 7. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The basal factor TFIIH can phosphorylate Ser-7 in vitro and is necessary for Ser-7(P) in vivo. Interestingly, deletion of the CTD Ser-5(P) phosphatase Rtr1 leads to an increase in Ser-5(P) but not Ser-7(P). ..
  2. Takagi Y, Masuda C, Chang W, Komori H, Wang D, Hunter T, et al. Ubiquitin ligase activity of TFIIH and the transcriptional response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2005;18:237-43 pubmed E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase activity, which resides, at least in part, in a RING finger (RNF) domain of the Ssl1 subunit...
  3. Svejstrup J, Feaver W, Lapointe J, Kornberg R. RNA polymerase transcription factor IIH holoenzyme from yeast. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:28044-8 pubmed
    ..By contrast, core TFIIH is inert in both C-terminal repeat domain kinase and reconstituted transcription assays. ..
  4. Kim J, Saint André C, Lim H, Hwang C, Egly J, Cho Y. Crystal structure of the Rad3/XPD regulatory domain of Ssl1/p44. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:8321-30 pubmed publisher
    The Ssl1/p44 subunit is a core component of the yeast/mammalian general transcription factor TFIIH, which is involved in transcription and DNA repair. Ssl1/p44 binds to and stimulates the Rad3/XPD helicase activity of TFIIH...
  5. Wade P, Jaehning J. Transcriptional corepression in vitro: a Mot1p-associated form of TATA-binding protein is required for repression by Leu3p. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1641-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, a mutation in the Mot1 gene leads to partial derepression of the Leu3p-dependent LEU2 promoter. These in vivo and in vitro observations define a role for Mot1p as a transcriptional corepressor. ..
  6. Warfield L, Luo J, Ranish J, Hahn S. Function of Conserved Topological Regions within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Basal Transcription Factor TFIIH. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We systematically tested the function of these regions in three TFIIH core module subunits, i.e., Ssl1, Tfb4, and Tfb2, in the DNA translocase subunit Ssl2, and in the kinase module subunit Tfb3...
  7. Estruch F, Hodge C, Gómez Navarro N, Peiró Chova L, Heath C, Cole C. Insights into mRNP biogenesis provided by new genetic interactions among export and transcription factors. BMC Genet. 2012;13:80 pubmed publisher
  8. Guzder S, Sung P, Prakash L, Prakash S. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast is mediated by sequential assembly of repair factors and not by a pre-assembled repairosome. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:8903-10 pubmed
    ..In the reconstituted NER system, a higher level of incision of UV-damaged DNA is achieved with the Rad1-Rad10-Rad14 complex, which we designate as nucleotide excision repair factor-1, NEF-1. ..
  9. Moriel Carretero M, Tous C, Aguilera A. Control of the function of the transcription and repair factor TFIIH by the action of the cochaperone Ydj1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence for a role of chaperones in NER and transcription, with implications in cancer and TFIIH-associated syndromes. ..
  10. Sung P, Guzder S, Prakash L, Prakash S. Reconstitution of TFIIH and requirement of its DNA helicase subunits, Rad3 and Rad25, in the incision step of nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10821-6 pubmed
    Yeast TFIIH is composed of six subunits: Rad3, Rad25, TFB1, SSL1, p55, and p38. In addition to TFIIH, we have purified a subassembly of the factor that lacks Rad3 and Rad25 and which we refer to as TFIIHi...
  11. Rabut G, Le Dez G, Verma R, Makhnevych T, Knebel A, Kurz T, et al. The TFIIH subunit Tfb3 regulates cullin neddylation. Mol Cell. 2011;43:488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that the conserved RING domain protein Tfb3 controls activation of a subset of cullins. ..
  12. Yang C, Khaperskyy D, Hou M, Ponticelli A. Improved methods for expression and purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIIF and TFIIH; identification of a functional Escherichia coli promoter and internal translation initiation within the N-terminal coding region of the TFIIF TFG1 subunit. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;70:172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report conditions for the efficient two-step tandem affinity purification (TAP) of holo-TFIIH, core TFIIH and TFIIK complexes from yeast whole cell extracts. ..
  13. Murakami K, Gibbons B, Davis R, Nagai S, Liu X, Robinson P, et al. Tfb6, a previously unidentified subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH, facilitates dissociation of Ssl2 helicase after transcription initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Tfb6 does not, however, dissociate Ssl2 from TFIIH in the context of a fully assembled transcription preinitiation complex. Our findings suggest a dynamic state of Ssl2, allowing its engagement in multiple cellular processes. ..
  14. Habraken Y, Sung P, Prakash S, Prakash L. Transcription factor TFIIH and DNA endonuclease Rad2 constitute yeast nucleotide excision repair factor 3: implications for nucleotide excision repair and Cockayne syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10718-22 pubmed
    ..Our findings are important for understanding the manner of assembly of the NER machinery and they have implications for Cockayne syndrome. ..
  15. Gibbons B, Brignole E, Azubel M, Murakami K, Voss N, Bushnell D, et al. Subunit architecture of general transcription factor TFIIH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistency among all the structures establishes the location of the "minimal core" subunits (Ssl1, Tfb1, Tfb2, Tfb4, and Tfb5), and additional densities can be specifically attributed to Rad3, Ssl2, and the TFIIK ..
  16. Guzder S, Habraken Y, Sung P, Prakash L, Prakash S. Reconstitution of yeast nucleotide excision repair with purified Rad proteins, replication protein A, and transcription factor TFIIH. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:12973-6 pubmed
    ..The excision DNA fragments formed as a result of dual incision are in the 24-27-nucleotide range. ..
  17. Chang W, Kornberg R. Electron crystal structure of the transcription factor and DNA repair complex, core TFIIH. Cell. 2000;102:609-13 pubmed
    ..The structure is based on a ring of three subunits, Tfb1, Tfb2, and Tfb3, to which are appended several functional moieties: Rad3, bridged to Tfb1 by SsI1; SsI2, known to interact with Tfb2; and Kin28, known to interact with Tfb3. ..
  18. Bardwell L, Bardwell A, Feaver W, Svejstrup J, Kornberg R, Friedberg E. Yeast RAD3 protein binds directly to both SSL2 and SSL1 proteins: implications for the structure and function of transcription/repair factor b. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:3926-30 pubmed
    ..We have recently demonstrated that the RAD3 gene product along with the SSL1 and TFB1 gene products are subunits of RNA polymerase II basal transcription factor b...
  19. Wang Z, Buratowski S, Svejstrup J, Feaver W, Wu X, Kornberg R, et al. The yeast TFB1 and SSL1 genes, which encode subunits of transcription factor IIH, are required for nucleotide excision repair and RNA polymerase II transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2288-93 pubmed
    The essential TFB1 and SSL1 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode two subunits of the RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIIH (factor b)...
  20. Takagi Y, Komori H, Chang W, Hudmon A, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. Revised subunit structure of yeast transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and reconciliation with human TFIIH. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43897-900 pubmed
    ..This reassignment of subunits resolves a longstanding discrepancy between yeast and human TFIIH complexes. ..
  21. Maines S, Negritto M, Wu X, Manthey G, Bailis A. Novel mutations in the RAD3 and SSL1 genes perturb genome stability by stimulating recombination between short repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1998;150:963-76 pubmed
    ..Novel alleles of the RAD3 and SSL1 genes, which code for components of a basal transcription and UV-damage-repair complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ..
  22. Sikorski T, Ficarro S, Holik J, Kim T, Rando O, Marto J, et al. Sub1 and RPA associate with RNA polymerase II at different stages of transcription. Mol Cell. 2011;44:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Sub1 and RPA interact with the nontemplate strand of RNApII complexes during initiation and elongation, respectively. ..