Gene Symbol: SSD1
Description: mRNA-binding translational repressor SSD1
Alias: CLA1, MCS1, RLT1, SRK1, mRNA-binding translational repressor SSD1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Jorgensen P, Nelson B, Robinson M, Chen Y, Andrews B, Tyers M, et al. High-resolution genetic mapping with ordered arrays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. Genetics. 2002;162:1091-9 pubmed
    ..SGA mapping (SGAM) was used to locate this W303-specific suppressor to the SSD1 locus, which contains a known polymorphism that appears to compromise SSD1 function...
  2. Li L, Lu Y, Qin L, Bar Joseph Z, Werner Washburne M, Breeden L. Budding yeast SSD1-V regulates transcript levels of many longevity genes and extends chronological life span in purified quiescent cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3851-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Ssd1 is an RNA-binding protein that affects literally hundreds of different processes and is polymorphic in both wild and lab yeast strains...
  3. Ohyama Y, Kasahara K, Kokubo T. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ssd1p promotes CLN2 expression by binding to the 5'-untranslated region of CLN2 mRNA. Genes Cells. 2010;15:1169-88 pubmed publisher not because of differences in taf1 alleles in the previous experiments but because of allelic differences at the SSD1 locus in the host strains. Specifically, ssd1-d reduces CLN2 expression when combined with taf1...
  4. Kurischko C, Kuravi V, Herbert C, Luca F. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Ssd1 defines the destiny of its bound mRNAs. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:831-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA-binding protein Ssd1 has been implicated in mRNA processing, ageing, stress response and maintenance of cell integrity...
  5. Kaeberlein M, Andalis A, Liszt G, Fink G, Guarente L. Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSD1-V confers longevity by a Sir2p-independent mechanism. Genetics. 2004;166:1661-72 pubmed
    The SSD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a polymorphic locus that affects diverse cellular processes including cell integrity, cell cycle progression, and growth at high temperature...
  6. Vincent K, Wang Q, Jay S, Hobbs K, Rymond B. Genetic interactions with CLF1 identify additional pre-mRNA splicing factors and a link between activators of yeast vesicular transport and splicing. Genetics. 2003;164:895-907 pubmed
    ..In addition to the splicing factors, SSD1, BTS1, and BET4 were identified as dosage suppressors of clf1Delta2 or selected slc mutants...
  7. Phatnani H, Jones J, Greenleaf A. Expanding the functional repertoire of CTD kinase I and RNA polymerase II: novel phosphoCTD-associating proteins in the yeast proteome. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15702-19 pubmed
    ..identified the phosphoCTD-interacting domains of a number of these PCAPs, and in several test cases (namely, Set2, Ssd1, and Hrr25) adduced evidence that phosphoCTD binding is functionally important in vivo...
  8. Wojda I, Bebelman J, Jakubowicz T, Siderius M. Thermosensitivity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpp1gpp2 double deletion strain can be reduced by overexpression of genes involved in cell wall maintenance. Arch Microbiol. 2007;188:175-84 pubmed
    ..Sensitivity to Zymolyase was rescued by overexpression of SSD1, while CFW sensitivity was rescued by SSD1, FLO8 and WSC3-genes isolated as multicopy suppressors of the gpp1gpp2 ..
  9. Kurischko C, Kim H, Kuravi V, Pratzka J, Luca F. The yeast Cbk1 kinase regulates mRNA localization via the mRNA-binding protein Ssd1. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:583-98 pubmed publisher
    The mRNA-binding protein Ssd1 is a substrate for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LATS/NDR orthologue Cbk1, which controls polarized growth, cell separation, and cell integrity...

More Information


  1. Evans D, Stark M. Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A protein phosphatase catalytic subunit reveal roles in cell wall integrity, actin cytoskeleton organization and mitosis. Genetics. 1997;145:227-41 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, the multiple defects of Ts- pph22 mutant cells were suppressed by a viable allele (SSD1-v1) of the polymorphic SSD1 gene.
  2. Uesono Y, Toh e A, Kikuchi Y. Ssd1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae associates with RNA. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:16103-9 pubmed
    The SSD1 gene has been isolated as a single copy suppressor of many mutants, such as sit4, slk1/bck1, pde2, and rpc31, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  3. Jansen J, Wanless A, Seidel C, Weiss E. Cbk1 regulation of the RNA-binding protein Ssd1 integrates cell fate with translational control. Curr Biol. 2009;19:2114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Cbk1 is essential in cells expressing functional Ssd1, an RNA-binding protein of unknown function [9-11]. We show here that Cbk1 inhibits Ssd1 in vivo...
  4. Mir S, Fiedler D, Cashikar A. Ssd1 is required for thermotolerance and Hsp104-mediated protein disaggregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:187-200 pubmed publisher
    ..the yeast gene deletion library for mutants unable to survive an aggregation-inducing heat stress, we find that SSD1 is required for Hsp104-mediated protein disaggregation...
  5. Bourens M, Panozzo C, Nowacka A, Imbeaud S, Mucchielli M, Herbert C. Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinase Cbk1p lead to a fertility defect that can be suppressed by the absence of Brr1p or Mpt5p (Puf5p), proteins involved in RNA metabolism. Genetics. 2009;183:161-73 pubmed publisher
    ..RAM and SSD1 play a role in the maintenance of cell integrity...
  6. Kurischko C, Weiss G, Ottey M, Luca F. A role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulation of Ace2 and polarized morphogenesis signaling network in cell integrity. Genetics. 2005;171:443-55 pubmed
    ..It was recently demonstrated that RAM genes are essential in strains containing functional SSD1 (SSD1-v), which encodes a protein of unknown function that binds the RAM Cbk1p kinase...
  7. Racki W, Becam A, Nasr F, Herbert C. Cbk1p, a protein similar to the human myotonic dystrophy kinase, is essential for normal morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 2000;19:4524-32 pubmed
  8. Moriya H, Isono K. Analysis of genetic interactions between DHH1, SSD1 and ELM1 indicates their involvement in cellular morphology determination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1999;15:481-96 pubmed
    ..CDC28, ELM1 and SSD1 were thus found to be such candidates and we subsequently analysed their interactions...
  9. Avrahami Moyal L, Braun S, Engelberg D. Overexpression of PDE2 or SSD1-V in Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A strain renders it ethanol-tolerant. FEMS Yeast Res. 2012;12:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In the second genomic fragment, it was the N-terminal region of the SSD1 gene that carried the ethanol-tolerant phenotype...
  10. Kaeberlein M, Guarente L. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPT5 and SSD1 function in parallel pathways to promote cell wall integrity. Genetics. 2002;160:83-95 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we find that mutation of MPT5, in the absence of SSD1-V, is lethal in combination with loss of either Ccr4p or Swi4p...
  11. Du L, Novick P. Pag1p, a novel protein associated with protein kinase Cbk1p, is required for cell morphogenesis and proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:503-14 pubmed
    ..pag1 and cbk1 mutants share a common set of suppressors, including the disruption of SSD1, a gene encoding an RNA binding protein, and the overexpression of Sim1p, an extracellular protein...
  12. López Mirabal H, Winther J, Kielland Brandt M. Oxidant resistance in a yeast mutant deficient in the Sit4 phosphatase. Curr Genet. 2008;53:275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A relation between actin homeostasis and DPS resistance of sit4-110 cannot be ruled out, but our results suggest that unknown pathways might be involved in DPS resistance through mechanisms involving the Sit4p and/or Tap42p function(s). ..
  13. Wanless A, Lin Y, Weiss E. Cell morphogenesis proteins are translationally controlled through UTRs by the Ndr/LATS target Ssd1. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e85212 pubmed publisher
    ..In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the RNA binding protein Ssd1 helps control cell wall remodeling by repressing translation of proteins involved in wall expansion...
  14. Wilson R, Brenner A, White T, Engler M, Gaughran J, Tatchell K. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRK1 gene, a suppressor of bcy1 and ins1, may be involved in protein phosphatase function. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:3369-73 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRK1 gene, when expressed on a low-copy shuttle vector, partially suppresses the phenotype associated with elevated levels of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity and suppresses the temperature-..
  15. Lorenz M, Heitman J. Regulators of pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified through multicopy suppressor analysis in ammonium permease mutant strains. Genetics. 1998;150:1443-57 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of SRK1 (SSD1), URE2, DAL80, MEP1, or MEP3 suppressed only the growth defect of the Deltamep1/Deltamep1 Deltamep2/Deltamep2 ..
  16. Puts C, Lenoir G, Krijgsveld J, Williamson P, Holthuis J. A P4-ATPase protein interaction network reveals a link between aminophospholipid transport and phosphoinositide metabolism. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that aminophospholipid transport and phosphoinositide metabolism are interconnected at the Golgi. ..
  17. Doseff A, Arndt K. LAS1 is an essential nuclear protein involved in cell morphogenesis and cell surface growth. Genetics. 1995;141:857-71 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutations that cause a requirement for SSD1-v for viability were isolated, yielding one new gene, LAS1, and three previously identified genes, SIT4, BCK1/SLK1, and SMP3...
  18. Briand J, Navarro F, Rematier P, Boschiero C, Labarre S, Werner M, et al. Partners of Rpb8p, a small subunit shared by yeast RNA polymerases I, II and III. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6056-65 pubmed
    ..A ygr089-Delta null mutant has no detectable growth defect but aggravates the conditional growth defect of rpb8 mutants, suggesting that the interaction with Rpb8p may be physiologically relevant. ..
  19. Sutton A, Immanuel D, Arndt K. The SIT4 protein phosphatase functions in late G1 for progression into S phase. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:2133-48 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have identified a polymorphic gene, SSD1, that in some versions can suppress the lethality due to a deletion of SIT4 and can also partially suppress the ..
  20. Euskirchen G. Nnf1p, Dsn1p, Mtw1p, and Nsl1p: a new group of proteins important for chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:229-40 pubmed
    ..Based on the colocalization of these four proteins, the minichromosome instability and the spindle defects seen in nnf1 mutants, I propose that Nnf1p is part of a new group of proteins necessary for chromosome segregation. ..
  21. Ito W, Li X, Irie K, Mizuno T, Irie K. RNA-binding protein Khd1 and Ccr4 deadenylase play overlapping roles in the cell wall integrity pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1340-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results presented here suggest that Khd1 and Ccr4 modulate a signal from Rho1 in the CWI pathway by regulating the expression of RhoGEF and RhoGAP. ..
  22. Stettler S, Chiannilkulchai N, Hermann Le Denmat S, Lalo D, Lacroute F, Sentenac A, et al. A general suppressor of RNA polymerase I, II and III mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;239:169-76 pubmed
    ..All these clones harbored a complete copy of the SSD1 gene...
  23. Vannier D, Damay P, Shore D. A role for Sds3p, a component of the Rpd3p/Sin3p deacetylase complex, in maintaining cellular integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:560-8 pubmed
    ..swi6 strain, as does overexpression of SKT5/ CHS4, which encodes a regulatory subunit of chitin synthase III, and SSD1, a gene previously implicated in ensuring cell-cycle progression and cellular integrity...
  24. Cardon C, Beck T, Hall M, Rutter J. PAS kinase promotes cell survival and growth through activation of Rho1. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to phosphorylated Ugp1, this complex contained Rom2, a Rho1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and Ssd1, an mRNA-binding protein...
  25. Kosodo Y, Imai K, Hirata A, Noda Y, Takatsuki A, Adachi H, et al. Multicopy suppressors of the sly1 temperature-sensitive mutation in the ER-Golgi vesicular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2001;18:1003-14 pubmed
    ..The suppressor genes obtained were classified as: (1) those that encode a multifunctional suppressor, SSD1; (2) heat shock proteins, SSB1 and SSB2; (3) cell surface proteins, WSC1, WSC2 and MID2; (4) ER-Golgi transport ..
  26. Gógl G, Schneider K, Yeh B, Alam N, Nguyen Ba A, Moses A, et al. The Structure of an NDR/LATS Kinase-Mob Complex Reveals a Novel Kinase-Coactivator System and Substrate Docking Mechanism. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002146 pubmed publisher
  27. Zanelli C, Valentini S. Pkc1 acts through Zds1 and Gic1 to suppress growth and cell polarity defects of a yeast eIF5A mutant. Genetics. 2005;171:1571-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data strongly support the correlated involvement of Pkc1 and eIF5A in establishing actin polarity, which is essential for bud formation and G1/S transition in S. cerevisiae. ..
  28. Keogh M, Kim J, Downey M, Fillingham J, Chowdhury D, Harrison J, et al. A phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates gammaH2AX regulates DNA damage checkpoint recovery. Nature. 2006;439:497-501 pubmed
    ..The dephosphorylation of gammaH2AX by the HTP-C is necessary for efficient recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint. ..
  29. Li B, Warner J. Genetic interaction between YPT6 and YPT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1998;14:915-22 pubmed
    ..Conversely, SSD1, isolated as a suppressor of ypt6 ts, can suppress the growth defect of a ypt1 ts allele...
  30. Jablonowski D, Täubert J, Bär C, Stark M, Schaffrath R. Distinct subsets of Sit4 holophosphatases are required for inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth by rapamycin and zymocin. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1637-47 pubmed publisher
  31. Costigan C, Gehrung S, Snyder M. A synthetic lethal screen identifies SLK1, a novel protein kinase homolog implicated in yeast cell morphogenesis and cell growth. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:1162-78 pubmed
    ..The different slk1 mutant defects are partially rescued by an extra copy of the SSD1/SRK1 gene...
  32. Li L, Miles S, Melville Z, Prasad A, Bradley G, Breeden L. Key events during the transition from rapid growth to quiescence in budding yeast require posttranscriptional regulators. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3697-709 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ssd1 speeds Q-cell wall assembly and enables mother cells to enter this state...
  33. Li B, Warner J. Mutation of the Rab6 homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, YPT6, inhibits both early Golgi function and ribosome biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:16813-9 pubmed
  34. Leung A, Cajigas I, Jia P, Ezhkova E, Brickner J, Zhao Z, et al. Histone H2B ubiquitylation and H3 lysine 4 methylation prevent ectopic silencing of euchromatic loci important for the cellular response to heat. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2741-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that H2B ubiquitylation/H3K4 methylation play an important role in limiting ectopic association of silencing proteins with euchromatic genes important for cell wall integrity and the response to heat. ..
  35. Strunnikov A, Aravind L, Koonin E. Saccharomyces cerevisiae SMT4 encodes an evolutionarily conserved protease with a role in chromosome condensation regulation. Genetics. 2001;158:95-107 pubmed
    ..The SIZ1 gene disruption is synthetically lethal with the SIZ2 deletion. We propose that SMT4, SIZ1, and SIZ2 are involved in a novel pathway of chromosome maintenance. ..
  36. Toh e A, Oguchi T. Genetic characterization of genes encoding enzymes catalyzing addition of phospho-ethanolamine to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Genet Syst. 2002;77:309-22 pubmed
    ..Las21 did not show preference for the metabolic pathway to produce phosphatidylethanolamine. ..
  37. Rosenwald A, Rhodes M, Van Valkenburgh H, Palanivel V, Chapman G, Boman A, et al. ARL1 and membrane traffic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2002;19:1039-56 pubmed
    ..Allelic variation at the SSD1 locus accounted for differences between strains. Strains lacking ARL1 exhibited several defects in membrane traffic...
  38. O Donnell A, Stevens J, Kepkay R, Barnes C, Johnston G, Singer R. New mutant versions of yeast FACT subunit Spt16 affect cell integrity. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;282:487-502 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitivity, altered sensitivity to detergent, and abnormal morphologies, and are further inhibited by the ssd1-d mutation...
  39. Rempola B, Kaniak A, Migdalski A, Rytka J, Slonimski P, di Rago J. Functional analysis of RRD1 (YIL153w) and RRD2 (YPL152w), which encode two putative activators of the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity of PP2A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;262:1081-92 pubmed
    ..The synthetic lethality was also suppressed by the "viable" allele (SSD1-v1) of the SSD1 gene.
  40. Chen G, Kim Y, Chan C. The Cdc42 GTPase-associated proteins Gic1 and Gic2 are required for polarized cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2958-71 pubmed
    ..The ability of Gic1 to associate with Cdc42 is important for its function but is apparently not essential for its subcellular localization. ..
  41. Tsuchiya E, Matsuzaki G, Kurano K, Fukuchi T, Tsukao A, Miyakawa T. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSD1 gene is involved in the tolerance to high concentration of Ca2+ with the participation of HST1/NRC1/BFR1. Gene. 1996;176:35-8 pubmed
    The SSD1 gene of Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae is a polymorphic gene involved in many aspects of the yeast cell growth (Sutton et al., 1991)...
  42. Scrimale T, Didone L, de Mesy Bentley K, Krysan D. The unfolded protein response is induced by the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and is required for cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the cellular responses to ER and cell wall stress are coordinated to buffer the cell against these two related cellular stresses. ..
  43. McDonald H, Helfant A, Mahony E, Khosla S, Goetsch L. Mutational analysis reveals a role for the C terminus of the proteasome subunit Rpt4p in spindle pole body duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;162:705-20 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we describe a genetic interaction between RPT4 and the naturally polymorphic gene SSD1, which in wild-type form modifies the rpt4-145 phenotype such that cells arrest in G2 of the first cycle with ..
  44. Kikuchi Y, Oka Y, Kobayashi M, Uesono Y, Toh e A, Kikuchi A. A new yeast gene, HTR1, required for growth at high temperature, is needed for recovery from mating pheromone-induced G1 arrest. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;245:107-16 pubmed
    ..A single-copy suppressor that alleviated the temperature-sensitive defects in both strains was identified as MCS1/SSD1. The wild-type strains W303 and YPH are known to carry defective MCS1/SSD1 alleles; hence HTR1 may function ..
  45. Fortes P, Kufel J, Fornerod M, Polycarpou Schwarz M, Lafontaine D, Tollervey D, et al. Genetic and physical interactions involving the yeast nuclear cap-binding complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6543-53 pubmed
    ..Mutants lacking yCBC were found to be defective in rRNA processing. Analysis of the yCBC deletion phenotype suggests that this is likely to be due to a defect in the splicing of a subset of ribosomal protein mRNA precursors. ..
  46. Igual J, Toone W, Johnston L. A genetic screen reveals a role for the late G1-specific transcription factor Swi4p in diverse cellular functions including cytokinesis. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 14):1647-54 pubmed
    ..As overexpression or ectopic expression of CLN did not suppress the rsf1 swi4delta mutant phenotype, Swi4p must control some other gene(s) involved in cytokinesis. ..
  47. Alarcon C, Heitman J, Cardenas M. Protein kinase activity and identification of a toxic effector domain of the target of rapamycin TOR proteins in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:2531-46 pubmed
  48. Reinke A, Anderson S, McCaffery J, Yates J, Aronova S, Chu S, et al. TOR complex 1 includes a novel component, Tco89p (YPL180w), and cooperates with Ssd1p to maintain cellular integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14752-62 pubmed
    ..i) rapamycin-hypersensitivity and (ii) decreased cellular integrity, both of which correlate with the presence of SSD1-d, an allele of SSD1 previously associated with defects in cellular integrity...
  49. Ohkuni K, Okuda A, Kikuchi A. Yeast Nap1-binding protein Nbp2p is required for mitotic growth at high temperatures and for cell wall integrity. Genetics. 2003;165:517-29 pubmed
  50. Kim Y, Francisco L, Chen G, Marcotte E, Chan C. Control of cellular morphogenesis by the Ip12/Bem2 GTPase-activating protein: possible role of protein phosphorylation. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1381-94 pubmed
    ..bem2 mutant phenotypes also can be suppressed by the SSD1-vl (also known as SRK1) mutation, which was shown previously to suppress mutations in the protein phosphatase-encoding SIT4 gene...
  51. Zhang C, Wang X, Park S, Chiang Y, Xi W, Laue T, et al. Only a subset of the PAB1-mRNP proteome is present in mRNA translation complexes. Protein Sci. 2014;23:1036-49 pubmed publisher
    ..factors but found that only five of these proteins were present in the 77S translation complex: eRF1, SLF1, SSD1, PUB1, and SBP1...
  52. Luukkonen B, Seraphin B. A conditional U5 snRNA mutation affecting pre-mRNA splicing and nuclear pre-mRNA retention identifies SSD1/SRK1 as a general splicing mutant suppressor. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:3455-65 pubmed
    ..The SSD1/SRK1 gene was identified as a multi-copy suppressor of the U5AI snRNA mutant...
  53. Yanamoto T, Miyamoto A, Ikeda K, Hatano T, Matsuzaki H. The relationship between chromosomal positioning within the nucleus and the SSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:1713-21 pubmed
    ..This mutant also displayed defects in cell integrity at high temperature. The SSD1 gene was perhaps responsible for this defect...