Gene Symbol: SRS2
Description: DNA helicase SRS2
Alias: HPR5, DNA helicase SRS2
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Robert T, Dervins D, Fabre F, Gangloff S. Mrc1 and Srs2 are major actors in the regulation of spontaneous crossover. EMBO J. 2006;25:2837-46 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the CO outcome in the absence of the Srs2 and Sgs1 helicases, DNA damage checkpoint proteins as well as in a mutant proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ..
  2. Schiestl R, Prakash S, Prakash L. The SRS2 suppressor of rad6 mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts by channeling DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway. Genetics. 1990;124:817-31 pubmed
    ..of the same locus and are also allelic to a previously described suppressor of the rad6-1 nonsense mutation, SRS2. We show that suppression of rad6 delta is dependent on the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway since suppression ..
  3. Papouli E, Chen S, Davies A, Huttner D, Krejci L, Sung P, et al. Crosstalk between SUMO and ubiquitin on PCNA is mediated by recruitment of the helicase Srs2p. Mol Cell. 2005;19:123-33 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a mechanism by which SUMO and ubiquitin cooperatively control the choice of pathway for the processing of DNA lesions during replication. ..
  4. Kim H, Livingston D. Suppression of a DNA polymerase delta mutation by the absence of the high mobility group protein Hmo1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2009;55:127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that hmo1Delta suppression of pol3-14 occurs by a mechanism whereby normal controls on DNA integrity are breached and lesions flow into RAD52-mediated repair and error-prone pathways. ..
  5. Broomfield S, Xiao W. Suppression of genetic defects within the RAD6 pathway by srs2 is specific for error-free post-replication repair but not for damage-induced mutagenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:732-9 pubmed
    b>srs2 was isolated during a screen for mutants that could suppress the UV-sensitive phenotype of rad6 and rad18 cells...
  6. Rong L, Klein H. Purification and characterization of the SRS2 DNA helicase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:1252-9 pubmed
    The SRS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified through mutational analysis as a suppressor of radiation-sensitive mutations in the error-prone repair pathway and by a hyper-recombination phenotype...
  7. Pfander B, Moldovan G, Sacher M, Hoege C, Jentsch S. SUMO-modified PCNA recruits Srs2 to prevent recombination during S phase. Nature. 2005;436:428-33 pubmed
    ..Here we show by genetic analysis that SUMO-modified PCNA functionally cooperates with Srs2, a helicase that blocks recombinational repair by disrupting Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments...
  8. Le Breton C, Dupaigne P, Robert T, Le Cam E, Gangloff S, Fabre F, et al. Srs2 removes deadly recombination intermediates independently of its interaction with SUMO-modified PCNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:4964-74 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 helicase plays at least two distinct functions...
  9. Ulrich H. The srs2 suppressor of UV sensitivity acts specifically on the RAD5- and MMS2-dependent branch of the RAD6 pathway. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3487-94 pubmed
    The SRS2 gene encodes a helicase that affects recombination, gene conversion and DNA damage repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

More Information


  1. Prakash R, Satory D, Dray E, Papusha A, Scheller J, Kramer W, et al. Yeast Mph1 helicase dissociates Rad51-made D-loops: implications for crossover control in mitotic recombination. Genes Dev. 2009;23:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Mph1 works independently of two other helicases-Srs2 and Sgs1-that also attenuate crossing over...
  2. Chiolo I, Saponaro M, Baryshnikova A, Kim J, Seo Y, Liberi G. The human F-Box DNA helicase FBH1 faces Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 and postreplication repair pathway roles. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7439-50 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 UvrD DNA helicase controls genome integrity by preventing unscheduled recombination events...
  3. Palladino F, Klein H. Analysis of mitotic and meiotic defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRS2 DNA helicase mutants. Genetics. 1992;132:23-37 pubmed
    The hyper-gene conversion srs2-101 mutation of the SRS2 DNA helicase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been reported to suppress the UV sensitivity of rad18 mutants. New alleles of SRS2 were recovered using this suppressor phenotype...
  4. Antony E, Tomko E, Xiao Q, Krejci L, Lohman T, Ellenberger T. Srs2 disassembles Rad51 filaments by a protein-protein interaction triggering ATP turnover and dissociation of Rad51 from DNA. Mol Cell. 2009;35:105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In yeast, the Srs2 helicase/translocase suppresses HR by clearing Rad51 polymers from single-stranded DNA...
  5. Szakal B, Branzei D. Premature Cdk1/Cdc5/Mus81 pathway activation induces aberrant replication and deleterious crossover. EMBO J. 2013;32:1155-67 pubmed publisher
  6. Veaute X, Jeusset J, Soustelle C, Kowalczykowski S, Le Cam E, Fabre F. The Srs2 helicase prevents recombination by disrupting Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. Nature. 2003;423:309-12 pubmed
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genetic data have shown that the Srs2 helicase negatively modulates recombination, and later experiments suggested that it reverses intermediate ..
  7. Gangloff S, Soustelle C, Fabre F. Homologous recombination is responsible for cell death in the absence of the Sgs1 and Srs2 helicases. Nat Genet. 2000;25:192-4 pubmed
    ..Yeast SRS2 encodes another DNA helicase involved in the maintenance of genome integrity...
  8. Branzei D, Sollier J, Liberi G, Zhao X, Maeda D, Seki M, et al. Ubc9- and mms21-mediated sumoylation counteracts recombinogenic events at damaged replication forks. Cell. 2006;127:509-22 pubmed
    ..Sumoylated PCNA binds Srs2, a helicase counteracting certain recombination events...
  9. Motegi A, Kuntz K, Majeed A, Smith S, Myung K. Regulation of gross chromosomal rearrangements by ubiquitin and SUMO ligases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1424-33 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of homologous recombination (HR) proteins or the helicase Srs2 reduces GCR rates elevated by the rad5 or rad18 mutation...
  10. Klein H. Mutations in recombinational repair and in checkpoint control genes suppress the lethal combination of srs2Delta with other DNA repair genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;157:557-65 pubmed
    The SRS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA helicase that is active in the postreplication repair pathway and homologous recombination...
  11. Smirnova M, Van Komen S, Sung P, Klein H. Effects of tumor-associated mutations on Rad54 functions. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:24081-8 pubmed
  12. Yeung M, Durocher D. Srs2 enables checkpoint recovery by promoting disassembly of DNA damage foci from chromatin. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:1213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This situation occurs in cells that are deficient in the Srs2 helicase, a protein that antagonizes Rad51...
  13. Friedl A, Liefshitz B, Steinlauf R, Kupiec M. Deletion of the SRS2 gene suppresses elevated recombination and DNA damage sensitivity in rad5 and rad18 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat Res. 2001;486:137-46 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes RAD5, RAD18, and SRS2 are proposed to act in post-replicational repair of DNA damage...
  14. Kerrest A, Anand R, Sundararajan R, Bermejo R, Liberi G, Dujon B, et al. SRS2 and SGS1 prevent chromosomal breaks and stabilize triplet repeats by restraining recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These molecules migrate similarly to reversed replication forks, and their presence is dependent on SRS2 and SGS1 but not RAD51...
  15. Mitchel K, Lehner K, Jinks Robertson S. Heteroduplex DNA position defines the roles of the Sgs1, Srs2, and Mph1 helicases in promoting distinct recombination outcomes. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003340 pubmed publisher
    The contributions of the Sgs1, Mph1, and Srs2 DNA helicases during mitotic double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast were investigated using a gap-repair assay...
  16. Burgess R, Lisby M, Altmannova V, Krejci L, Sung P, Rothstein R. Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:969-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The Srs2 "anti-recombinase" restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate ..
  17. Kats E, Enserink J, Martinez S, Kolodner R. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad6 postreplication repair and Siz1/Srs2 homologous recombination-inhibiting pathways process DNA damage that arises in asf1 mutants. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5226-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that defects in Rad6 PRR pathway and Siz1/Srs2 homologous recombination suppression (HRS) pathway genes suppressed the increased GCR rates seen in asf1 mutants, ..
  18. Armstrong A, Mohideen F, Lima C. Recognition of SUMO-modified PCNA requires tandem receptor motifs in Srs2. Nature. 2012;483:59-63 pubmed publisher
    ..for recruitment of translesion DNA polymerases, SUMO-PCNA signals for recruitment of the anti-recombinogenic DNA helicase Srs2. It remains unclear how receptors such as Srs2 specifically recognize substrates after conjugation to Ub and ..
  19. Alzu A, Bermejo R, Begnis M, Lucca C, Piccini D, Carotenuto W, et al. Senataxin associates with replication forks to protect fork integrity across RNA-polymerase-II-transcribed genes. Cell. 2012;151:835-846 pubmed publisher
  20. Soustelle C, Vernis L, Fréon K, Reynaud Angelin A, Chanet R, Fabre F, et al. A new Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a mutant Smt3-deconjugating Ulp1 protein is affected in DNA replication and requires Srs2 and homologous recombination for its viability. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5130-43 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 protein is involved in DNA repair and recombination. In order to gain better insight into the roles of Srs2, we performed a screen to identify mutations that are synthetically lethal with an srs2 deletion...
  21. Aboussekhra A, Chanet R, Adjiri A, Fabre F. Semidominant suppressors of Srs2 helicase mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae map in the RAD51 gene, whose sequence predicts a protein with similarities to procaryotic RecA proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:3224-34 pubmed
    Eleven suppressors of the radiation sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploids lacking the Srs2 helicase were analyzed and found to contain codominant mutations in the RAD51 gene known to be involved in recombinational repair and in ..
  22. Krejci L, Van Komen S, Li Y, Villemain J, Reddy M, Klein H, et al. DNA helicase Srs2 disrupts the Rad51 presynaptic filament. Nature. 2003;423:305-9 pubmed
    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SRS2 result in the yeast's sensitivity to genotoxic agents, failure to recover or adapt from DNA damage checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest, slow growth, chromosome loss, and hyper-..
  23. Sugawara N, Ira G, Haber J. DNA length dependence of the single-strand annealing pathway and the role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD59 in double-strand break repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5300-9 pubmed
    ..of single-stranded DNA when it invades a homologous DNA template, in a manner similar to that previously seen with srs2 mutants...
  24. Mullen J, Kaliraman V, Ibrahim S, Brill S. Requirement for three novel protein complexes in the absence of the Sgs1 DNA helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;157:103-18 pubmed
  25. McVey M, Kaeberlein M, Tissenbaum H, Guarente L. The short life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sgs1 and srs2 mutants is a composite of normal aging processes and mitotic arrest due to defective recombination. Genetics. 2001;157:1531-42 pubmed
    ..Mutation of SRS2, another DNA helicase, causes synthetic slow growth in an sgs1 background...
  26. Lee S, Johnson R, Yu S, Prakash L, Prakash S. Requirement of yeast SGS1 and SRS2 genes for replication and transcription. Science. 1999;286:2339-42 pubmed
    ..The SRS2 gene of yeast also encodes a DNA helicase. Simultaneous deletion of SGS1 and SRS2 is lethal in yeast...
  27. Hishida T, Hirade Y, Haruta N, Kubota Y, Iwasaki H. Srs2 plays a critical role in reversible G2 arrest upon chronic and low doses of UV irradiation via two distinct homologous recombination-dependent mechanisms in postreplication repair-deficient cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4840-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that suppression of homologous recombination (HR) in PRR-deficient cells by Srs2 and PCNA sumoylation is required for checkpoint activation and checkpoint maintenance during CLUV irradiation...
  28. Vaze M, Pellicioli A, Lee S, Ira G, Liberi G, Arbel Eden A, et al. Recovery from checkpoint-mediated arrest after repair of a double-strand break requires Srs2 helicase. Mol Cell. 2002;10:373-85 pubmed
    ..Permanent preanaphase arrest of srs2Delta cells is reversed by the addition of caffeine after cells have arrested. Thus, in addition to its roles in recombination, Srs2p appears to be needed to turn off the DNA damage checkpoint. ..
  29. Schmidt K, Kolodner R. Suppression of spontaneous genome rearrangements in yeast DNA helicase mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18196-201 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking two of the three DNA helicases Sgs1, Srs2, and Rrm3 exhibit slow growth that is suppressed by disrupting homologous recombination...
  30. Parnas O, Zipin Roitman A, Pfander B, Liefshitz B, Mazor Y, Ben Aroya S, et al. Elg1, an alternative subunit of the RFC clamp loader, preferentially interacts with SUMOylated PCNA. EMBO J. 2010;29:2611-22 pubmed publisher
    ..SUMOylated PCNA is known to recruit the helicase Srs2, and in the absence of Elg1, Srs2 and SUMOylated PCNA accumulate on chromatin...
  31. Bernstein K, Reid R, Sunjevaric I, Demuth K, Burgess R, Rothstein R. The Shu complex, which contains Rad51 paralogues, promotes DNA repair through inhibition of the Srs2 anti-recombinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in the absence of Uaf30, we find that Shu1 and Srs2, an anti-recombinase DNA helicase with which the Shu complex physically interacts, act in the same pathway ..
  32. Colavito S, Macris Kiss M, Seong C, Gleeson O, Greene E, Klein H, et al. Functional significance of the Rad51-Srs2 complex in Rad51 presynaptic filament disruption. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6754-64 pubmed publisher
    The SRS2 (Suppressor of RAD Six screen mutant 2) gene encodes an ATP-dependent DNA helicase that regulates homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  33. Huang M, de Calignon A, Nicolas A, Galibert F. POL32, a subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase delta, defines a link between DNA replication and the mutagenic bypass repair pathway. Curr Genet. 2000;38:178-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in a two-hybrid screen, we observed that Pol32 interacts with Srs2, a DNA helicase required for DNA replication and mutagenesis...
  34. Mankouri H, Craig T, Morgan A. SGS1 is a multicopy suppressor of srs2: functional overlap between DNA helicases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:1103-13 pubmed
    ..b>Srs2 is another DNA helicase that shares several phenotypic features with Sgs1 and double sgs1srs2 mutants have a severe ..
  35. Marini V, Krejci L. Unwinding of synthetic replication and recombination substrates by Srs2. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:789-98 pubmed publisher
    The budding yeast Srs2 protein possesses 3' to 5' DNA helicase activity and channels untimely recombination to post-replication repair by removing Rad51 from ssDNA...
  36. Aboussekhra A, Chanet R, Zgaga Z, Cassier Chauvat C, Heude M, Fabre F. RADH, a gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a putative DNA helicase involved in DNA repair. Characteristics of radH mutants and sequence of the gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:7211-9 pubmed
    ..coli were found. The RadH putative helicase appears to belong to the set of proteins involved in the error-prone repair mechanism, at least for UV-induced lesions, and could act in coordination with the Rev3 error-prone DNA polymerase. ..
  37. Fabre F, Chan A, Heyer W, Gangloff S. Alternate pathways involving Sgs1/Top3, Mus81/ Mms4, and Srs2 prevent formation of toxic recombination intermediates from single-stranded gaps created by DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16887-92 pubmed
    ..For example, mutations affecting both the Srs2 and Sgs1 helicases result in extremely poor growth, a phenotype suppressed by mutations in genes that govern early ..
  38. Paek A, Jones H, Kaochar S, Weinert T. The role of replication bypass pathways in dicentric chromosome formation in budding yeast. Genetics. 2010;186:1161-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, we found that siz1 mutants, which are defective for Srs2 recruitment to replication forks, and srs2 mutants had opposite effects on instability...
  39. Ball L, Zhang K, Cobb J, Boone C, Xiao W. The yeast Shu complex couples error-free post-replication repair to homologous recombination. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism appears to be conserved throughout eukaryotes. ..
  40. Karras G, Fumasoni M, Sienski G, Vanoli F, Branzei D, Jentsch S. Noncanonical role of the 9-1-1 clamp in the error-free DNA damage tolerance pathway. Mol Cell. 2013;49:536-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus reveal unexpected cooperation in the error-free pathway between the two related clamps and indicate that 9-1-1 plays a broader role in the DNA damage response than previously assumed. ..
  41. Kolesar P, Sarangi P, Altmannova V, Zhao X, Krejci L. Dual roles of the SUMO-interacting motif in the regulation of Srs2 sumoylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7831-43 pubmed publisher
    The Srs2 DNA helicase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects recombination in multiple ways...
  42. Milne G, Ho T, Weaver D. Modulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA double-strand break repair by SRS2 and RAD51. Genetics. 1995;139:1189-99 pubmed
    ..Described here is the isolation of a phenotypic null allele of SRS2 that suppressed multiple alleles of RAD52 (rad52B, rad52D, rad52-1 and KlRAD52) and RAD51 (KlRAD51) but failed to ..
  43. Krejci L, Macris M, Li Y, Van Komen S, Villemain J, Ellenberger T, et al. Role of ATP hydrolysis in the antirecombinase function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23193-9 pubmed
    Mutants of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRS2 gene are hyperrecombinogenic and sensitive to genotoxic agents, and they exhibit a synthetic lethality with mutations that compromise DNA repair or other chromosomal processes...
  44. Debrauwere H, Loeillet S, Lin W, Lopes J, Nicolas A. Links between replication and recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a hypersensitive requirement for homologous recombination in the absence of Rad27 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8263-9 pubmed
    ..weaker phenotypes in mitotic than in meiotic cells (rad50S, mre11s) and additional gene deletions (com1/sae2, srs2) exhibit synthetic lethality with rad27 Delta and that rad59 Delta exhibits synergistic effects with rad27 Delta...
  45. Schild D. Suppression of a new allele of the yeast RAD52 gene by overexpression of RAD51, mutations in srs2 and ccr4, or mating-type heterozygosity. Genetics. 1995;140:115-27 pubmed
    ..Unlike other alleles of rad52, this allele (rad52-20) is partially suppressed by an srs2 deletion; srs2 mutations normally act to suppress only rad6 and rad18 mutations...
  46. Sacher M, Pfander B, Hoege C, Jentsch S. Control of Rad52 recombination activity by double-strand break-induced SUMO modification. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1284-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data indicate that sumoylation becomes particularly relevant for those Rad52 molecules that are engaged in recombination. ..
  47. Dhar A, Lahue R. Rapid unwinding of triplet repeat hairpins by Srs2 helicase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:3366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Unwinding of a hairpin by a DNA helicase would help protect against expansions. Yeast Srs2, but not the RecQ homolog Sgs1, blocks expansions in vivo in a manner largely dependent on its helicase function...
  48. Liu J, Renault L, Veaute X, Fabre F, Stahlberg H, Heyer W. Rad51 paralogues Rad55-Rad57 balance the antirecombinase Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation. Nature. 2011;479:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae Rad51 paralogues, the Rad55-Rad57 heterodimer, counteract the antirecombination activity of the Srs2 helicase...
  49. Rong L, Palladino F, Aguilera A, Klein H. The hyper-gene conversion hpr5-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an allele of the SRS2/RADH gene. Genetics. 1991;127:75-85 pubmed
    The HPR5 gene has been defined by the mutation hpr5-1 that results in an increased rate of gene conversion...
  50. Malik P, Symington L. Rad51 gain-of-function mutants that exhibit high affinity DNA binding cause DNA damage sensitivity in the absence of Srs2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:6504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Rad51, for DNA binding, filament stability, strand exchange and interaction with the antirecombinase helicase, Srs2. These alleles were chosen because they show the highest activity in suppression of ionizing radiation sensitivity ..
  51. Fung C, Mozlin A, Symington L. Suppression of the double-strand-break-repair defect of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad57 mutant. Genetics. 2009;181:1195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of all suppressors, elevated temperature, srs2, rad51-I345T, and mating-type (MAT) heterozygosity resulted in almost complete suppression of the rad57 mutant ..
  52. Ira G, Malkova A, Liberi G, Foiani M, Haber J. Srs2 and Sgs1-Top3 suppress crossovers during double-strand break repair in yeast. Cell. 2003;115:401-11 pubmed
    ..Crossovers are rare (5%), but deleting the BLM/WRN homolog, SGS1, or the SRS2 helicase increases crossovers 2- to 3-fold...
  53. Saponaro M, Callahan D, Zheng X, Krejci L, Haber J, Klein H, et al. Cdk1 targets Srs2 to complete synthesis-dependent strand annealing and to promote recombinational repair. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000858 pubmed publisher
    Cdk1 kinase phosphorylates budding yeast Srs2, a member of UvrD protein family, displays both DNA translocation and DNA unwinding activities in vitro...
  54. Dupaigne P, Le Breton C, Fabre F, Gangloff S, Le Cam E, Veaute X. The Srs2 helicase activity is stimulated by Rad51 filaments on dsDNA: implications for crossover incidence during mitotic recombination. Mol Cell. 2008;29:243-54 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 helicase was shown to displace Rad51 in vitro upon translocation on single-stranded DNA...
  55. Chanet R, Heude M, Adjiri A, Maloisel L, Fabre F. Semidominant mutations in the yeast Rad51 protein and their relationships with the Srs2 helicase. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4782-9 pubmed
    Suppressors of the methyl methanesulfonate sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploids lacking the Srs2 helicase turned out to contain semidominant mutations in Rad5l, a homolog of the bacterial RecA protein...
  56. Psakhye I, Jentsch S. Protein group modification and synergy in the SUMO pathway as exemplified in DNA repair. Cell. 2012;151:807-820 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SUMOylation may thus often target a protein group rather than individual proteins, whereas localized modification enzymes and highly specific triggers ensure specificity. ..
  57. Mischo H, Gómez González B, Grzechnik P, Rondon A, Wei W, Steinmetz L, et al. Yeast Sen1 helicase protects the genome from transcription-associated instability. Mol Cell. 2011;41:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that R loop formation is a frequent event during transcription and a key function of Sen1 is to prevent their accumulation and associated genome instability. ..
  58. Huang D, Piening B, Paulovich A. The preference for error-free or error-prone postreplication repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to low-dose methyl methanesulfonate is cell cycle dependent. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1515-27 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when PRR is restricted to the G2 phase, cells utilize REV3-dependent translesion synthesis, which requires a MEC1-dependent delay and results in significant hypermutability. ..
  59. Kaytor M, Nguyen M, Livingston D. The complexity of the interaction between RAD52 and SRS2. Genetics. 1995;140:1441-2 pubmed