Gene Symbol: SPT6
Description: chromatin-remodeling histone chaperone SPT6
Alias: CRE2, SSN20, chromatin-remodeling histone chaperone SPT6
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     SPT6

Top Publications

  1. Swanson M, Winston F. SPT4, SPT5 and SPT6 interactions: effects on transcription and viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1992;132:325-36 pubmed
    The SPT4, SPT5 and SPT6 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified originally by mutations that suppress delta insertion mutations at HIS4 and LYS2...
  2. Ivanovska I, Jacques P, Rando O, Robert F, Winston F. Control of chromatin structure by spt6: different consequences in coding and regulatory regions. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:531-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt6 is a highly conserved factor required for normal transcription and chromatin structure. To gain new insights into the roles of Spt6, we measured nucleosome occupancy along Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III in an spt6 mutant...
  3. Bortvin A, Winston F. Evidence that Spt6p controls chromatin structure by a direct interaction with histones. Science. 1996;272:1473-6 pubmed
    Genetic analysis has implicated SPT6, an essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the control of chromatin structure...
  4. Malagon F, Aguilera A. Yeast spt6-140 mutation, affecting chromatin and transcription, preferentially increases recombination in which Rad51p-mediated strand exchange is dispensable. Genetics. 2001;158:597-611 pubmed
    We have shown that the spt6-140 and spt4-3 mutations, affecting chromatin structure and transcription, stimulate recombination between inverted repeats by a RAD52-dependent mechanism that is very efficient in the absence of RAD51, RAD54, ..
  5. Mayer A, Heidemann M, Lidschreiber M, Schreieck A, Sun M, Hintermair C, et al. CTD tyrosine phosphorylation impairs termination factor recruitment to RNA polymerase II. Science. 2012;336:1723-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Tyr(1) phosphorylation stimulates binding of elongation factor Spt6 and impairs recruitment of termination factors Nrd1, Pcf11, and Rtt103...
  6. Dengl S, Mayer A, Sun M, Cramer P. Structure and in vivo requirement of the yeast Spt6 SH2 domain. J Mol Biol. 2009;389:211-25 pubmed publisher
    ..domain of RNA polymerase II binds the C-terminal Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the nucleosome re-assembly factor Spt6. This SH2 domain is unusual in its specificity to bind phosphoserine, rather than phosphotyrosine and because it is ..
  7. Youdell M, Kizer K, Kisseleva Romanova E, Fuchs S, Duro E, Strahl B, et al. Roles for Ctk1 and Spt6 in regulating the different methylation states of histone H3 lysine 36. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4915-26 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, H3K36me3 requires Spt6, proline 38 on histone H3 (H3P38), the CTD of RNAPII, Ctk1, and the C-terminal SRI domain of Set2...
  8. Compagnone Post P, Osley M. Mutations in the SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 genes alter transcription of a subset of histone genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;143:1543-54 pubmed
    The SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 gene products define a class of transcriptional repressors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are thought to function through their effects on chromatin assembly or stability...
  9. Venkatesh S, Smolle M, Li H, Gogol M, Saint M, Kumar S, et al. Set2 methylation of histone H3 lysine?36 suppresses histone exchange on transcribed genes. Nature. 2012;489:452-5 pubmed publisher
    ..By suppressing spurious cryptic transcripts from initiating within ORFs, this pathway is essential to maintain the accuracy of transcription by RNA polymerase?II. ..

More Information


  1. Kaplan C, Holland M, Winston F. Interaction between transcription elongation factors and mRNA 3'-end formation at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL10-GAL7 locus. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:913-22 pubmed
    b>Spt6 is a conserved transcription factor that associates with RNA polymerase II (pol II) during elongation. Spt6 is essential for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and regulates chromatin structure during pol II transcription...
  2. Close D, Johnson S, Sdano M, McDonald S, Robinson H, Formosa T, et al. Crystal structures of the S. cerevisiae Spt6 core and C-terminal tandem SH2 domain. J Mol Biol. 2011;408:697-713 pubmed publisher
    The conserved and essential eukaryotic protein Spt6 functions in transcription elongation, chromatin maintenance, and RNA processing. Spt6 has three characterized functions...
  3. McDonald S, Close D, Xin H, Formosa T, Hill C. Structure and biological importance of the Spn1-Spt6 interaction, and its regulatory role in nucleosome binding. Mol Cell. 2010;40:725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription and mRNA processing depend upon the coordinated interactions of many proteins, including Spn1 and Spt6, which are conserved across eukaryotes, are essential for viability, and associate with each other in some of their ..
  4. Sun M, Lariviere L, Dengl S, Mayer A, Cramer P. A tandem SH2 domain in transcription elongation factor Spt6 binds the phosphorylated RNA polymerase II C-terminal repeat domain (CTD). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41597-603 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt6 is an essential transcription elongation factor and histone chaperone that binds the C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. We show here that Spt6 contains a tandem SH2 domain with a novel structure and CTD-binding mode...
  5. Zhang L, Fletcher A, Cheung V, Winston F, Stargell L. Spn1 regulates the recruitment of Spt6 and the Swi/Snf complex during transcriptional activation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1393-403 pubmed
    We investigated the timing of the recruitment of Spn1 and its partner, Spt6, to the CYC1 gene...
  6. Nourani A, Robert F, Winston F. Evidence that Spt2/Sin1, an HMG-like factor, plays roles in transcription elongation, chromatin structure, and genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1496-509 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest a direct link for Spt2 with transcription elongation, chromatin dynamics, and genome stability. ..
  7. Hartzog G, Wada T, Handa H, Winston F. Evidence that Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6 control transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1998;12:357-69 pubmed
    Previous characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6 proteins suggested that these proteins act as transcription factors that modify chromatin structure...
  8. Swanson M, Carlson M, Winston F. SPT6, an essential gene that affects transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes a nuclear protein with an extremely acidic amino terminus. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:4935-41 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the SPT6 (SSN20, CRE2) gene suppress delta insertion mutations in the 5' regions of HIS4 and LYS2 and mutations in cis- and/or ..
  9. Kaplan C, Laprade L, Winston F. Transcription elongation factors repress transcription initiation from cryptic sites. Science. 2003;301:1096-9 pubmed
    ..Here we present studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt6, a conserved protein implicated in both transcription elongation and chromatin structure...
  10. Estruch F, Peiró Chova L, Gómez Navarro N, Durbán J, Hodge C, del Olmo M, et al. A genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies new genes that interact with mex67-5, a temperature-sensitive allele of the gene encoding the mRNA export receptor. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;281:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that overexpression of the SPT6 gene alleviates the growth defects of the mex67-5 strain, together with the impairment of poly(A)(+) RNA export ..
  11. Costa P, Arndt K. Synthetic lethal interactions suggest a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation. Genetics. 2000;156:535-47 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that Rtf1 may function as a novel transcription elongation factor in yeast. ..
  12. Gómez Herreros F, Margaritis T, Rodríguez Galán O, Pelechano V, Begley V, Millán Zambrano G, et al. The ribosome assembly gene network is controlled by the feedback regulation of transcription elongation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:9302-9318 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a synthetic lethal screening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a conditional allele of SPT6, which encodes one of the factors that facilitates this process...
  13. Draper M, Salvadore C, Denis C. Identification of a mouse protein whose homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a component of the CCR4 transcriptional regulatory complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3487-95 pubmed
    ..These data imply that CAF1 is a component of the CCR4 protein complex and that this complex has retained evolutionarily conserved functions important to eukaryotic transcription. ..
  14. Du J, Nasir I, Benton B, Kladde M, Laurent B. Sth1p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf2p/Swi2p homolog, is an essential ATPase in RSC and differs from Snf/Swi in its interactions with histones and chromatin-associated proteins. Genetics. 1998;150:987-1005 pubmed
    ..These results provide a framework for understanding the ATP-dependent RSC function in modeling chromatin and its connection to the cell cycle. ..
  15. Bhat W, Boutin G, Rufiange A, Nourani A. Casein kinase 2 associates with the yeast chromatin reassembly factor Spt2/Sin1 to regulate its function in the repression of spurious transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4198-211 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that Spt2 physically interacts with the essential histone chaperone Spt6 and that this association is inhibited in vitro and in vivo by CK2-dependent phosphorylation...
  16. Bucheli M, Buratowski S. Npl3 is an antagonist of mRNA 3' end formation by RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 2005;24:2150-60 pubmed
    ..Mutations in elongation factors Spt4 and Spt6 suppress the readthrough phenotype, presumably by decreasing the amount of polymerase transcribing through the ..
  17. Wittmeyer J, Joss L, Formosa T. Spt16 and Pob3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form an essential, abundant heterodimer that is nuclear, chromatin-associated, and copurifies with DNA polymerase alpha. Biochemistry. 1999;38:8961-71 pubmed
    ..Some of the Spt16-Pob3 complex was found to copurify with the yeast DNA polymerase alpha/primase complex, further supporting a connection between Spt16-Pob3 and DNA replication. ..
  18. Jeronimo C, Robert F. Histone chaperones FACT and Spt6 prevent histone variants from turning into histone deviants. Bioessays. 2016;38:420-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Z and CenH3/CENP-A. In addition, Spt6, another histone chaperone, was also shown to be important for appropriate H2A.Z localization...
  19. Sen R, Ferdoush J, Kaja A, Bhaumik S. Fine-Tuning of FACT by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulation of Transcriptional Elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1691-703 pubmed publisher
  20. Denis C, Draper M, Liu H, Malvar T, Vallari R, Cook W. The yeast CCR4 protein is neither regulated by nor associated with the SPT6 and SPT10 proteins and forms a functionally distinct complex from that of the SNF/SWI transcription factors. Genetics. 1994;138:1005-13 pubmed
    ..required for the increased transcription at the ADH2 locus resulting from mutations in the SPT10 (CRE1) and SPT6 (CRE2) genes and is also required for the expression of ADH2 and other genes under non-fermentative growth ..
  21. Denis C. Identification of new genes involved in the regulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II. Genetics. 1984;108:833-44 pubmed
    Recessive mutations in two negative control elements, CRE1 and CRE2, have been obtained that allow the glucose-repressible alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHII) of yeast to escape repression by glucose...
  22. Adkins M, Tyler J. Transcriptional activators are dispensable for transcription in the absence of Spt6-mediated chromatin reassembly of promoter regions. Mol Cell. 2006;21:405-16 pubmed
    ..We identify the histone H3-H4 chaperone Spt6 as the factor that mediates nucleosome reassembly onto the PHO5, PHO8, ADH2, ADY2, and SUC2 promoters during ..
  23. Morillo Huesca M, Maya D, Muñoz Centeno M, Singh R, Oreal V, Reddy G, et al. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000964 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the dysfunction of chromatin reassembly factors, like FACT or Spt6, down-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the cyclin that modulates the G1 length (CLN3) in START by ..
  24. Beckouët F, Mariotte Labarre S, Peyroche G, Nogi Y, Thuriaux P. Rpa43 and its partners in the yeast RNA polymerase I transcription complex. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-hybrid data and other genetic evidence suggest that Rpa43 directly bind Spt5, an RNAPI elongation factor also acting in RNAPII-dependent transcription, and may also interact with the nucleosomal chaperone Spt6.
  25. Burugula B, Jeronimo C, Pathak R, Jones J, Robert F, Govind C. Histone deacetylases and phosphorylated polymerase II C-terminal domain recruit Spt6 for cotranscriptional histone reassembly. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:4115-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II)...
  26. Sdano M, Fulcher J, Palani S, Chandrasekharan M, Parnell T, Whitby F, et al. A novel SH2 recognition mechanism recruits Spt6 to the doubly phosphorylated RNA polymerase II linker at sites of transcription. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    We determined that the tandem SH2 domain of S. cerevisiae Spt6 binds the linker region of the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb1 rather than the expected sites in its heptad repeat domain...
  27. Malvar T, Biron R, Kaback D, Denis C. The CCR4 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a leucine-rich repeat region which is required for its control of ADH2 gene expression. Genetics. 1992;132:951-62 pubmed
    ..also suppress the transcription at the ADH2 and his4-912delta loci caused by defects in the SPT10 (CRE1) and SPT6 (CRE2) genes...
  28. Liu J, Zhang J, Gong Q, Xiong P, Huang H, Wu B, et al. Solution structure of tandem SH2 domains from Spt6 protein and their binding to the phosphorylated RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29218-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt6 is a highly conserved transcription elongation factor and histone chaperone. It binds directly to the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (RNAPII CTD) through its C-terminal region that recognizes RNAPII CTD phosphorylation...
  29. Madison J, Dudley A, Winston F. Identification and analysis of Mot3, a zinc finger protein that binds to the retrotransposon Ty long terminal repeat (delta) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1879-90 pubmed
    ..Grishin, M. Rothenberg, M. A. Downs, and K. J. Blumer, Genetics, in press), suggest that this protein plays a varied role in gene expression that may be largely redundant with other factors. ..
  30. Klopf E, Paskova L, Sole C, Mas G, Petryshyn A, Posas F, et al. Cooperation between the INO80 complex and histone chaperones determines adaptation of stress gene transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4994-5007 pubmed publisher
    ..data, however, suggest that Asf1 and Rtt109 function in parallel with INO80 to restore histone homeostasis, whereas Spt6 seems to have a function that overlaps that of the chromatin remodeler...
  31. Hainer S, Pruneski J, Mitchell R, Monteverde R, Martens J. Intergenic transcription causes repression by directing nucleosome assembly. Genes Dev. 2011;25:29-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Repression by SRG1 transcription is dependent on the Spt6 and Spt16 transcription elongation factors...
  32. McCullough L, Connell Z, Petersen C, Formosa T. The Abundant Histone Chaperones Spt6 and FACT Collaborate to Assemble, Inspect, and Maintain Chromatin Structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2015;201:1031-45 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt6 protein is a conserved chromatin factor with several distinct functional domains, including a natively unstructured 30-residue N-terminal region that binds competitively with Spn1 or nucleosomes...
  33. Engel K, French S, Viktorovskaya O, Beyer A, Schneider D. Spt6 Is Essential for rRNA Synthesis by RNA Polymerase I. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:2321-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt6 (suppressor of Ty6) has many roles in transcription initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II. These effects are mediated through interactions with histones, transcription factors, and the RNA polymerase...
  34. Prather D, Krogan N, Emili A, Greenblatt J, Winston F. Identification and characterization of Elf1, a conserved transcription elongation factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10122-35 pubmed
    ..mutations that cause lethality when combined with mutations in the genes encoding the elongation factors TFIIS and Spt6. This screen identified a mutation in YKL160W, hereafter named ELF1 (elongation factor 1)...
  35. Kuryan B, Kim J, Tran N, Lombardo S, Venkatesh S, Workman J, et al. Histone density is maintained during transcription mediated by the chromatin remodeler RSC and histone chaperone NAP1 in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1931-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This work has implications toward understanding the mechanism of pol II elongation on chromatin. ..
  36. Jeronimo C, Watanabe S, Kaplan C, Peterson C, Robert F. The Histone Chaperones FACT and Spt6 Restrict H2A.Z from Intragenic Locations. Mol Cell. 2015;58:1113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..and biochemical evidence that the RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) elongation-associated histone chaperones FACT and Spt6 both contribute to restricting H2A.Z from intragenic regions...
  37. Braun M, Costa P, Crisucci E, Arndt K. Identification of Rkr1, a nuclear RING domain protein with functional connections to chromatin modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2800-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify a new participant in a protein ubiquitylation pathway within the nucleus that acts to modulate chromatin function and transcription. ..
  38. Cui P, Jin H, Vutukuru M, Kaplan C. Relationships Between RNA Polymerase II Activity and Spt Elongation Factors to Spt- Phenotype and Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:2489-504 pubmed publisher
    ..and antagonistic genetic interactions between Pol II alleles and alleles of elongation factors SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 We find that cryptic transcription at FLO8 and STE11 is distinct from that at lys2-128?, though all show ..
  39. Neigeborn L, Rubin K, Carlson M. Suppressors of SNF2 mutations restore invertase derepression and cause temperature-sensitive lethality in yeast. Genetics. 1986;112:741-53 pubmed
    ..These revertants all carried suppressor mutations at a single locus, designated SSN20 (suppressor of snf2)...
  40. Laurent B, Treitel M, Carlson M. Functional interdependence of the yeast SNF2, SNF5, and SNF6 proteins in transcriptional activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:2687-91 pubmed
    ..An spt6 mutation, which suppresses transcriptional defects caused by snf2, restored activation by LexA-SNF5 in a snf2 ..
  41. Silva A, Cavero S, Begley V, Sole C, Böttcher R, Chávez S, et al. Regulation of transcription elongation in response to osmostress. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007090 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the direct regulation of Spt4 upon environmental insults serves to stimulate RNA Pol II elongation efficiency. ..
  42. Dronamraju R, Strahl B. A feed forward circuit comprising Spt6, Ctk1 and PAF regulates Pol II CTD phosphorylation and transcription elongation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:870-81 pubmed publisher
    ..One such factor is Spt6, which couples transcription elongation with histone chaperone activity and the regulation of H3 lysine 36 ..
  43. Howard S, Hester A, Herman P. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway may control RNA polymerase II elongation via the Spt4p/Spt5p complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2003;165:1059-70 pubmed
    ..These data point out the interesting possibility that signal transduction pathways might directly influence the elongation step of RNA polymerase II transcription. ..
  44. Murray S, Udupa R, Yao S, Hartzog G, Prelich G. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by the Bur1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4089-96 pubmed
    ..These results identify Bur1 as a fourth S. cerevisiae CTD kinase and provide striking functional similarities between Bur1 and metazoan P-TEFb. ..