Gene Symbol: SPT5
Description: transcription elongation factor SPT5
Alias: transcription elongation factor SPT5
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Shen Z, St Denis A, Chartrand P. Cotranscriptional recruitment of She2p by RNA pol II elongation factor Spt4-Spt5/DSIF promotes mRNA localization to the yeast bud. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1914-26 pubmed publisher
    ..in vivo with the elongating forms of RNA polymerase II (pol II) via the transcription elongation factor Spt4-Spt5. Mutations in either SPT4 or SPT5 reduce the cotranscriptional recruitment of She2p on the ASH1 gene, disrupt the ..
  2. Swanson M, Malone E, Winston F. SPT5, an essential gene important for normal transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes an acidic nuclear protein with a carboxy-terminal repeat. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:3009-19 pubmed
    Mutations in the SPT5 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated previously as suppressors of delta insertion mutations at HIS4 and LYS2...
  3. Keogh M, Podolny V, Buratowski S. Bur1 kinase is required for efficient transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7005-18 pubmed
    ..to the drugs 6-azauracil and mycophenolic acid and interact genetically with the elongation factors Ctk1 and Spt5. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Bur1 and its cyclin partner Bur2 are recruited to ..
  4. Hartzog G, Wada T, Handa H, Winston F. Evidence that Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6 control transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1998;12:357-69 pubmed
    Previous characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6 proteins suggested that these proteins act as transcription factors that modify chromatin structure...
  5. Schneider D, French S, Osheim Y, Bailey A, Vu L, Dodd J, et al. RNA polymerase II elongation factors Spt4p and Spt5p play roles in transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I and rRNA processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12707-12 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Spt4p, Spt5p, and, potentially, other regulators of Pol I transcription elongation play important roles in coupling rRNA transcription to its processing and ribosome assembly. ..
  6. Swanson M, Winston F. SPT4, SPT5 and SPT6 interactions: effects on transcription and viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1992;132:325-36 pubmed
    The SPT4, SPT5 and SPT6 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified originally by mutations that suppress delta insertion mutations at HIS4 and LYS2...
  7. Liu Y, Warfield L, Zhang C, Luo J, Allen J, Lang W, et al. Phosphorylation of the transcription elongation factor Spt5 by yeast Bur1 kinase stimulates recruitment of the PAF complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4852-63 pubmed publisher
    ..wherein Bur1 kinase was engineered to be regulated by a specific inhibitor, we found that Bur1 phosphorylates the Spt5 C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) both in vivo and in isolated elongation complexes in vitro...
  8. Vasiljeva L, Buratowski S. Nrd1 interacts with the nuclear exosome for 3' processing of RNA polymerase II transcripts. Mol Cell. 2006;21:239-48 pubmed
    ..Since Nrd1 is known to bind RNA polymerase II and be important for sn/snoRNA 3' end processing, Nrd1 may link transcription and RNA 3' end formation with surveillance by the exosome. ..
  9. Braun M, Costa P, Crisucci E, Arndt K. Identification of Rkr1, a nuclear RING domain protein with functional connections to chromatin modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2800-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify a new participant in a protein ubiquitylation pathway within the nucleus that acts to modulate chromatin function and transcription. ..

More Information


  1. Squazzo S, Costa P, Lindstrom D, Kumer K, Simic R, Jennings J, et al. The Paf1 complex physically and functionally associates with transcription elongation factors in vivo. EMBO J. 2002;21:1764-74 pubmed
    We are using biochemical and genetic approaches to study Rtf1 and the Spt4-Spt5 complex, which independently have been implicated in transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. Here, we report a remarkable convergence of these studies...
  2. Guo M, Xu F, Yamada J, Egelhofer T, Gao Y, Hartzog G, et al. Core structure of the yeast spt4-spt5 complex: a conserved module for regulation of transcription elongation. Structure. 2008;16:1649-58 pubmed publisher
    The Spt4-Spt5 complex is an essential RNA polymerase II elongation factor found in all eukaryotes and important for gene regulation. We report here the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt4 bound to the NGN domain of Spt5...
  3. Zhou K, Kuo W, Fillingham J, Greenblatt J. Control of transcriptional elongation and cotranscriptional histone modification by the yeast BUR kinase substrate Spt5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6956-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that BUR kinase is important for the phosphorylation in vivo of Spt5, a subunit of the essential yeast RNAPII elongation factor Spt4/Spt5, whose human orthologue is DRB sensitivity-..
  4. Martinez Rucobo F, Sainsbury S, Cheung A, Cramer P. Architecture of the RNA polymerase-Spt4/5 complex and basis of universal transcription processivity. EMBO J. 2011;30:1302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The universal conservation of the transcription machinery extends to a single RNAP-associated factor, Spt5 (or NusG in bacteria), which renders RNAP processive and may have arisen early to permit evolution of long genes...
  5. Viktorovskaya O, Appling F, Schneider D. Yeast transcription elongation factor Spt5 associates with RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase II directly. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18825-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt5 is a transcription factor conserved in all three domains of life. Spt5 homologues from bacteria and archaea bind the largest subunit of their respective RNA polymerases...
  6. Ding B, Lejeune D, Li S. The C-terminal repeat domain of Spt5 plays an important role in suppression of Rad26-independent transcription coupled repair. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Spt4, a transcription elongation factor that forms a complex with Spt5, has been shown to suppress TCR in rad26Delta cells...
  7. Drouin S, Laramée L, Jacques P, Forest A, Bergeron M, Robert F. DSIF and RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation coordinate the recruitment of Rpd3S to actively transcribed genes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001173 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data support a model where Set2-dependent histone H3 methylation is required for the activation of Rpd3S following its recruitment to the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. ..
  8. Qiu H, Hu C, Gaur N, Hinnebusch A. Pol II CTD kinases Bur1 and Kin28 promote Spt5 CTR-independent recruitment of Paf1 complex. EMBO J. 2012;31:3494-505 pubmed publisher
    Paf1 complex (Paf1C) is a transcription elongation factor whose recruitment is stimulated by Spt5 and the CDKs Kin28 and Bur1, which phosphorylate the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) on Serines 2, 5, and 7...
  9. Xiao Y, Yang Y, Burckin T, Shiue L, Hartzog G, Segal M. Analysis of a splice array experiment elucidates roles of chromatin elongation factor Spt4-5 in splicing. PLoS Comput Biol. 2005;1:e39 pubmed
    ..used splicing-sensitive DNA microarrays to identify specific sets of genes that are mis-spliced in ceg1, spt4, and spt5 mutants...
  10. Brewster N, Johnston G, Singer R. A bipartite yeast SSRP1 analog comprised of Pob3 and Nhp6 proteins modulates transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3491-502 pubmed
    ..impairment in combination with mutations impairing the Swi-Snf chromatin-remodeling complex and the DSIF (Spt4 plus Spt5) elongation regulator, and sensitizes cells to 6-azauracil, characteristic of elongation effects...
  11. Lindstrom D, Hartzog G. Genetic interactions of Spt4-Spt5 and TFIIS with the RNA polymerase II CTD and CTD modifying enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;159:487-97 pubmed
    ..We investigated relationships between three classes of these factors: (1) transcription elongation factors Spt4-Spt5, TFIIS, and Spt16; (2) the C-terminal heptapeptide repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II; and (3) protein ..
  12. Quan T, Hartzog G. Histone H3K4 and K36 methylation, Chd1 and Rpd3S oppose the functions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt4-Spt5 in transcription. Genetics. 2010;184:321-34 pubmed publisher
    Spt4-Spt5, a general transcription elongation factor for RNA polymerase II, also has roles in chromatin regulation. However, the relationships between these functions are not clear...
  13. Formosa T, Eriksson P, Wittmeyer J, Ginn J, Yu Y, Stillman D. Spt16-Pob3 and the HMG protein Nhp6 combine to form the nucleosome-binding factor SPN. EMBO J. 2001;20:3506-17 pubmed
    ..These complexes have altered electrophoretic mobility and a distinct pattern of enhanced sensitivity to DNase I. These results suggest that Spt16-Pob3 and Nhp6 cooperate to function as a novel nucleosome reorganizing factor. ..
  14. Verma R, Oania R, Fang R, Smith G, Deshaies R. Cdc48/p97 mediates UV-dependent turnover of RNA Pol II. Mol Cell. 2011;41:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal an intimate coupling of function between proteasomes and Cdc48 that we suggest is necessary to sustain processive degradation of unstable subunits of some macromolecular protein complexes. ..
  15. Durand A, Bonnet J, Fournier M, Chavant V, Schultz P. Mapping the deubiquitination module within the SAGA complex. Structure. 2014;22:1553-9 pubmed
    ..A flexible protein arm brings both subunits close enough to interact simultaneously with TBP. ..
  16. O Neill B, Szyjka S, Lis E, Bailey A, Yates J, Aparicio O, et al. Pph3-Psy2 is a phosphatase complex required for Rad53 dephosphorylation and replication fork restart during recovery from DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9290-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Rad53 regulates replication fork restart and initiation of late firing origins independently and that regulation of these processes is mediated by specific Rad53 phosphatases. ..
  17. Wolffe A, Pruss D. Hanging on to histones. Chromatin. Curr Biol. 1996;6:234-7 pubmed
  18. Lidschreiber M, Leike K, Cramer P. Cap completion and C-terminal repeat domain kinase recruitment underlie the initiation-elongation transition of RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3805-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the early Pol II elongation factor Spt5 contributes to stable recruitment of the mRNA capping enzymes Cet1, Ceg1, and Abd1...
  19. Crickard J, Fu J, Reese J. Biochemical Analysis of Yeast Suppressor of Ty 4/5 (Spt4/5) Reveals the Importance of Nucleic Acid Interactions in the Prevention of RNA Polymerase II Arrest. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:9853-70 pubmed publisher
    ..NusG/Spt5 is the only elongation factor conserved in all domains of life...
  20. Anderson S, Sikes M, Zhang Y, French S, Salgia S, Beyer A, et al. The transcription elongation factor Spt5 influences transcription by RNA polymerase I positively and negatively. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18816-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe two new, partially active mutations in SPT5 and use these mutant strains to characterize the effect of Spt5p on Pol I transcription...
  21. Bennett C, Westmoreland T, Verrier C, Blanchette C, Sabin T, Phatnani H, et al. Yeast screens identify the RNA polymerase II CTD and SPT5 as relevant targets of BRCA1 interaction. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1448 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes delineate a metabolic mRNA pathway that temporally links transcription elongation (SPT4, SPT5, CTK1, DEF1) to nucleopore-mediated mRNA export (ASM4, MLP1, MLP2, NUP2, NUP53, NUP120, NUP133, NUP170, NUP188, ..
  22. Stevens J, O Donnell A, Perry T, Benjamin J, Barnes C, Johnston G, et al. FACT, the Bur kinase pathway, and the histone co-repressor HirC have overlapping nucleosome-related roles in yeast transcription elongation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25644 pubmed publisher
    ..to show that certain Spt16 activities collaborate with histone acetylation and the activities of a Bur-kinase/Spt4-Spt5/Paf1C pathway that facilitate transcription elongation...
  23. Schäfer T, Strauss D, Petfalski E, Tollervey D, Hurt E. The path from nucleolar 90S to cytoplasmic 40S pre-ribosomes. EMBO J. 2003;22:1370-80 pubmed
    ..Our data provide an initial biochemical map of the pre-40S ribosomal subunit on its path from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. This pathway involves fewer changes in composition than seen during 60S biogenesis. ..
  24. Blythe A, Gunasekara S, Walshe J, Mackay J, Hartzog G, Vrielink A. Ubiquitin fusion constructs allow the expression and purification of multi-KOW domain complexes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription elongation factor Spt4/5. Protein Expr Purif. 2014;100:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Spt4/5's mechanism of action remains elusive. Spt5 is an essential protein and the only universally-conserved RNAP-associated transcription elongation factor...
  25. Duan R, Rhie B, Ryu H, Ahn S. The RNA polymerase II Rpb4/7 subcomplex regulates cellular lifespan through an mRNA decay process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;: pubmed publisher
  26. Cui P, Jin H, Vutukuru M, Kaplan C. Relationships Between RNA Polymerase II Activity and Spt Elongation Factors to Spt- Phenotype and Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:2489-504 pubmed publisher
    ..cooperating and antagonistic genetic interactions between Pol II alleles and alleles of elongation factors SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 We find that cryptic transcription at FLO8 and STE11 is distinct from that at lys2-128?, though all show ..
  27. Moore M, Schwartzfarb E, Silver P, Yu M. Differential recruitment of the splicing machinery during transcription predicts genome-wide patterns of mRNA splicing. Mol Cell. 2006;24:903-15 pubmed
    ..Broadly, our results provide mechanistic insights into the coordinated regulation of transcription, mRNA processing, and nuclear export in executing complex gene expression programs. ..
  28. Mueller C, Jaehning J. Ctr9, Rtf1, and Leo1 are components of the Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1971-80 pubmed
    ..We suggest that lack of Paf1 results in a defective complex and a block in transcription, which is relieved by removal of Leo1 or Rtf1. ..
  29. Han J, Li Q, McCullough L, Kettelkamp C, Formosa T, Zhang Z. Ubiquitylation of FACT by the cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 connects FACT to DNA replication. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Rtt101 also reduces binding of FACT to MCM, but not the association of FACT with Leo1 and Spt5, two proteins involved in transcription...
  30. Wu X, Rossettini A, Hanes S. The ESS1 prolyl isomerase and its suppressor BYE1 interact with RNA pol II to inhibit transcription elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2003;165:1687-702 pubmed
    ..In this way, Ess1 might regulate the transition between multiple steps of transcription. ..
  31. Lenstra T, Tudek A, Clauder S, Xu Z, Pachis S, van Leenen D, et al. The role of Ctk1 kinase in termination of small non-coding RNAs. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80495 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Ctk1p and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation have a wide impact in termination of small non-coding RNAs but only affect a subset of mRNA coding genes...
  32. Costa P, Arndt K. Synthetic lethal interactions suggest a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation. Genetics. 2000;156:535-47 pubmed
    ..view, we show that RTF1 functionally interacts with genes that encode known elongation factors, including SPT4, SPT5, SPT16, and PPR2...
  33. Shetty A, Kallgren S, Demel C, Maier K, Spatt D, Alver B, et al. Spt5 Plays Vital Roles in the Control of Sense and Antisense Transcription Elongation. Mol Cell. 2017;66:77-88.e5 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt5 is an essential and conserved factor that functions in transcription and co-transcriptional processes. However, many aspects of the requirement for Spt5 in transcription are poorly understood...
  34. Garcia A, Collin A, Calvo O. Sub1 associates with Spt5 and influences RNA polymerase II transcription elongation rate. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4297-312 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with the gene encoding the elongation factor Spt5, that Sub1 influences Spt5 phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNAPII largest subunit by the kinase ..
  35. Murray S, Udupa R, Yao S, Hartzog G, Prelich G. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by the Bur1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4089-96 pubmed
    ..These results identify Bur1 as a fourth S. cerevisiae CTD kinase and provide striking functional similarities between Bur1 and metazoan P-TEFb. ..
  36. Baranes Bachar K, Baranes Bacher K, Khalaila I, Ivantsiv Y, Lavut A, Voloshin O, et al. New interacting partners of the F-box protein Ufo1 of yeast. Yeast. 2008;25:733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We show directly that the UIMs are crucial for Ufo1 ubiquitylation in vivo, indicating that they facilitate turnover of SCF Ufo1 complexes. This allows recycling of the core subunits of the SCF complex and cell cycle progression. ..
  37. Mayekar M, Gardner R, Arndt K. The recruitment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Paf1 complex to active genes requires a domain of Rtf1 that directly interacts with the Spt4-Spt5 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3259-73 pubmed publisher
    ..is necessary and sufficient for mediating a physical interaction between Rtf1 and the essential transcription elongation factor Spt5. Mutations that alter this Rtf1 domain or delete the Spt5 C-terminal repeat domain (CTR) disrupt ..
  38. Blair L, Liu Z, Labitigan R, Wu L, Zheng D, Xia Z, et al. KDM5 lysine demethylases are involved in maintenance of 3'UTR length. Sci Adv. 2016;2:e1501662 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, both KDM5A and KDM5B are involved in the lengthening of DICER1. Our findings suggest both a novel role for this family of demethylases and a novel targetable mechanism for 3'UTR processing. ..
  39. Beckouët F, Mariotte Labarre S, Peyroche G, Nogi Y, Thuriaux P. Rpa43 and its partners in the yeast RNA polymerase I transcription complex. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-hybrid data and other genetic evidence suggest that Rpa43 directly bind Spt5, an RNAPI elongation factor also acting in RNAPII-dependent transcription, and may also interact with the ..
  40. Blythe A, Yazar Klosinski B, Webster M, Chen E, Vandevenne M, Bendak K, et al. The yeast transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein. Protein Sci. 2016;25:1710-21 pubmed publisher
    The heterodimeric transcription elongation factor Spt4/Spt5 (Spt4/5) tightly associates with RNAPII to regulate both transcriptional elongation and co-transcriptional pre-mRNA processing; however, the mechanisms by which Spt4/5 acts are ..
  41. Mayer A, Schreieck A, Lidschreiber M, Leike K, Martin D, Cramer P. The spt5 C-terminal region recruits yeast 3' RNA cleavage factor I. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1321-31 pubmed publisher
    During transcription elongation, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binds the general elongation factor Spt5. Spt5 contains a repetitive C-terminal region (CTR) that is required for cotranscriptional recruitment of the Paf1 complex (D. L...
  42. Cheng Y, Chen R. Assembly and quality control of the protein phosphatase 1 holoenzyme involves the Cdc48-Shp1 chaperone. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:1180-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Cdc48-Shp1 functions as a molecular chaperone for the structural integrity of PP1 complex in general and that it specifically promotes the assembly of Glc7-Sds22-Ypi1 for nuclear import. ..
  43. Santisteban M, Hang M, Smith M. Histone variant H2A.Z and RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1848-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that dominant mutations in the elongation genes SPT5 and SPT16 suppress the hypersensitivity of htz1? strains to drugs that inhibit elongation, indicating that Htz1 ..
  44. Duan R, Rhie B, Ryu H, Ahn S. The RNA polymerase II Rpb4/7 subcomplex regulates cellular lifespan through an mRNA decay process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:266-70 pubmed
  45. Li W, Giles C, Li S. Insights into how Spt5 functions in transcription elongation and repressing transcription coupled DNA repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:7069-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Spt5, a transcription elongation factor, and Rpb4, a subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) that forms a subcomplex with Rpb7, play important roles in transcription elongation and repression of transcription coupled DNA repair (TCR) in ..
  46. Prather D, Krogan N, Emili A, Greenblatt J, Winston F. Identification and characterization of Elf1, a conserved transcription elongation factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10122-35 pubmed
    ..between an elf1Delta mutation and mutations in genes encoding several known elongation factors, including Spt4, Spt5, Spt6, and members of the Paf1 complex...
  47. Crickard J, Lee J, Lee T, Reese J. The elongation factor Spt4/5 regulates RNA polymerase II transcription through the nucleosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:6362-6374 pubmed publisher
  48. Gomar Alba M, del Olmo M. Hot1 factor recruits co-activator Sub1 and elongation complex Spt4/5 to osmostress genes. Biochem J. 2016;473:3065-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, other data presented herein indicate a key function of the Hot1 transcription factor in the recruitment of these proteins to the promoter or the 5'-coding region of the genes under its control. ..
  49. Silva A, Cavero S, Begley V, Sole C, Böttcher R, Chávez S, et al. Regulation of transcription elongation in response to osmostress. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007090 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the direct regulation of Spt4 upon environmental insults serves to stimulate RNA Pol II elongation efficiency. ..
  50. Silver H, Nissley J, Reed S, Hou Y, Johnson E. A role for SUMO in nucleotide excision repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that SIZ-dependent sumoylation may modulate the activity of multiple proteins to promote efficient NER. ..
  51. Kvint K, Uhler J, Taschner M, Sigurdsson S, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. Reversal of RNA polymerase II ubiquitylation by the ubiquitin protease Ubp3. Mol Cell. 2008;30:498-506 pubmed publisher
    ..is consistent with a role in elongation, and Ubp3 can be purified with RNAPII, Def1, and the elongation factors Spt5 and TFIIF...
  52. Keogh M, Kim J, Downey M, Fillingham J, Chowdhury D, Harrison J, et al. A phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates gammaH2AX regulates DNA damage checkpoint recovery. Nature. 2006;439:497-501 pubmed
    ..The dephosphorylation of gammaH2AX by the HTP-C is necessary for efficient recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint. ..
  53. Meyer P, Li S, Zhang M, Yamada K, Takagi Y, Hartzog G, et al. Structures and Functions of the Multiple KOW Domains of Transcription Elongation Factor Spt5. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3354-69 pubmed publisher
    The eukaryotic Spt4-Spt5 heterodimer forms a higher-order complex with RNA polymerase II (and I) to regulate transcription elongation...
  54. Leporé N, Lafontaine D. A functional interface at the rDNA connects rRNA synthesis, pre-rRNA processing and nucleolar surveillance in budding yeast. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24962 pubmed publisher
    ..We report in budding yeast that, in vivo, the interaction between the transcription elongation factor Spt5 and Rpa190, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase (Pol) I, requires the Spt5 C-terminal region (CTR)..
  55. Denis C, Chiang Y, Cui Y, Chen J. Genetic evidence supports a role for the yeast CCR4-NOT complex in transcriptional elongation. Genetics. 2001;158:627-34 pubmed
    ..as well as overexpression of the NOT1 gene specifically suppressed the cold-sensitive phenotype associated with the spt5-242 allele...
  56. Simic R, Lindstrom D, Tran H, Roinick K, Costa P, Johnson A, et al. Chromatin remodeling protein Chd1 interacts with transcription elongation factors and localizes to transcribed genes. EMBO J. 2003;22:1846-56 pubmed
    ..co-immunoprecipitation studies that Chd1 also interacts with components of two essential elongation factors, Spt4-Spt5 and Spt16-Pob3...
  57. Howard S, Hester A, Herman P. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway may control RNA polymerase II elongation via the Spt4p/Spt5p complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2003;165:1059-70 pubmed
    ..First, the growth of spt4 and spt5 mutants was found to be very sensitive to changes in Ras/PKA signaling activity...
  58. Martínez Fernández V, Garrido Godino A, Mirón García M, Begley V, Fernández Pévida A, de la Cruz J, et al. Rpb5 modulates the RNA polymerase II transition from initiation to elongation by influencing Spt5 association and backtracking. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018;1861:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..and is linked to differences in the phosphorylation state of the RNA polymerase II and reduced recruitment of Spt5 to transcribe chromatin, thus influencing its anti-backtracking activity...
  59. Compagnone Post P, Osley M. Mutations in the SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 genes alter transcription of a subset of histone genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;143:1543-54 pubmed
    The SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 gene products define a class of transcriptional repressors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are thought to function through their effects on chromatin assembly or stability...
  60. Reyes Reyes M, Hampsey M. Role for the Ssu72 C-terminal domain phosphatase in RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:926-36 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, deletion of SPT4, which encodes a subunit of the Spt4-Spt5 early elongation complex, also suppresses ssu72-2, whereas the spt5-242 allele is suppressed by rpb2-1001...