Gene Symbol: SPT16
Description: chromatin-remodeling protein SPT16
Alias: CDC68, SSF1, chromatin-remodeling protein SPT16
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Takahata S, Yu Y, Stillman D. FACT and Asf1 regulate nucleosome dynamics and coactivator binding at the HO promoter. Mol Cell. 2009;34:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The Swi/Snf, SAGA, and Mediator coactivators bind first to the far upstream promoter region and subsequently to a promoter proximal region, and FACT and Asf1 are both required for this coactivator re-recruitment. ..
  2. O Donnell A, Brewster N, Kurniawan J, Minard L, Johnston G, Singer R. Domain organization of the yeast histone chaperone FACT: the conserved N-terminal domain of FACT subunit Spt16 mediates recovery from replication stress. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5894-906 pubmed
    ..FACT, which indicated the apparent dispensability of conserved sequences at the N terminus of the FACT subunit Cdc68/Spt16, prompted genetic and biochemical studies reported here that suggest the domain organization for Spt16 and ..
  3. Jamai A, Puglisi A, Strubin M. Histone chaperone spt16 promotes redeposition of the original h3-h4 histones evicted by elongating RNA polymerase. Mol Cell. 2009;35:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that inactivation of histone chaperone Spt16 in yeast results in rapid loss of H2B and H3 from transcribed genes but also from inactive genes...
  4. McCullough L, Rawlins R, Olsen A, Xin H, Stillman D, Formosa T. Insight into the mechanism of nucleosome reorganization from histone mutants that suppress defects in the FACT histone chaperone. Genetics. 2011;188:835-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutating the gene that encodes the Spt16 subunit of FACT causes phenotypes associated with defects in transcription and replication, and we identify ..
  5. Schlesinger M, Formosa T. POB3 is required for both transcription and replication in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;155:1593-606 pubmed
    b>Spt16 and Pob3 form stable heterodimers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and homologous proteins have also been purified as complexes from diverse eukaryotes...
  6. Evans D, Brewster N, Xu Q, Rowley A, Altheim B, Johnston G, et al. The yeast protein complex containing cdc68 and pob3 mediates core-promoter repression through the cdc68 N-terminal domain. Genetics. 1998;150:1393-405 pubmed
    ..by chromatin depend on the CP complex, a recently described abundant yeast nuclear complex of the Pob3 and Cdc68/Spt16 proteins...
  7. Brewster N, Johnston G, Singer R. Characterization of the CP complex, an abundant dimer of Cdc68 and Pob3 proteins that regulates yeast transcriptional activation and chromatin repression. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:21972-9 pubmed
    The Cdc68 protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an essential nuclear protein that has been shown to be necessary for the trans-activation of many genes as well as for the maintenance of chromatin-mediated repression in the ..
  8. Xu Q, Johnston G, Singer R. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc68 transcription activator is antagonized by San1, a protein implicated in transcriptional silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:7553-65 pubmed
    The CDC68 gene (also called SPT16) encodes a transcription factor for the expression of a diverse set of genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  9. Myers C, Berner G, Holthoff J, Martinez Fonts K, Harper J, Alford S, et al. Mutant versions of the S. cerevisiae transcription elongation factor Spt16 define regions of Spt16 that functionally interact with histone H3. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20847 pubmed publisher
    ..yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we provide evidence that the middle domain of the FACT subunit Spt16--the Spt16-M domain--is involved in functional interactions with histone H3...

More Information


  1. Rhoades A, Ruone S, Formosa T. Structural features of nucleosomes reorganized by yeast FACT and its HMG box component, Nhp6. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3907-17 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt16/Cdc68, Pob3, and Nhp6 proteins (SPN or yFACT) bind to and alter nucleosomes in vitro, providing a potential explanation for their importance in both transcription and replication in vivo...
  2. Lycan D, Mikesell G, Bunger M, Breeden L. Differential effects of Cdc68 on cell cycle-regulated promoters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:7455-65 pubmed
    ..SSF1 is allelic with CDC68 (SPT16)...
  3. Squazzo S, Costa P, Lindstrom D, Kumer K, Simic R, Jennings J, et al. The Paf1 complex physically and functionally associates with transcription elongation factors in vivo. EMBO J. 2002;21:1764-74 pubmed
    ..Further analysis revealed allele-specific genetic interactions between Paf1 complex members, Spt4-Spt5, and Spt16-Pob3, the yeast counterpart of the human elongation factor FACT...
  4. Ransom M, Williams S, Dechassa M, Das C, Linger J, Adkins M, et al. FACT and the proteasome promote promoter chromatin disassembly and transcriptional initiation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we rule out the possibility that the proteasome or ATPase cap is driving chromatin disassembly via a potential ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity. ..
  5. VanDemark A, Xin H, McCullough L, Rawlins R, Bentley S, Heroux A, et al. Structural and functional analysis of the Spt16p N-terminal domain reveals overlapping roles of yFACT subunits. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5058-68 pubmed
    yFACT (heterodimers of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt16-Pob3 combined with Nhp6) binds to and alters the properties of nucleosomes...
  6. Takahata S, Yu Y, Stillman D. The E2F functional analogue SBF recruits the Rpd3(L) HDAC, via Whi5 and Stb1, and the FACT chromatin reorganizer, to yeast G1 cyclin promoters. EMBO J. 2009;28:3378-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SBF recruits complexes to promoters that either enhance (FACT) or repress (Rpd3L) accessibility to chromatin, and also recruits the kinase that activates START. ..
  7. Biswas D, Takahata S, Xin H, Dutta Biswas R, Yu Y, Formosa T, et al. A role for Chd1 and Set2 in negatively regulating DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008;178:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The pob3 defect in S-phase progression is suppressed by set2 or chd1 mutations, suggesting that Set2 and Chd1 have specific roles in negatively regulating DNA replication. ..
  8. Wittmeyer J, Formosa T. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit interacts with Cdc68/Spt16 and with Pob3, a protein similar to an HMG1-like protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4178-90 pubmed
    ..bound to the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase alpha (Pol1 protein) are encoded by the essential genes CDC68/SPT16 and POB3...
  9. John S, Howe L, Tafrov S, Grant P, Sternglanz R, Workman J. The something about silencing protein, Sas3, is the catalytic subunit of NuA3, a yTAF(II)30-containing HAT complex that interacts with the Spt16 subunit of the yeast CP (Cdc68/Pob3)-FACT complex. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1196-208 pubmed
    ..Sas3 mediates interaction of the NuA3 complex with Spt16 both in vivo and in vitro...
  10. Kang S, Kuzuhara T, Horikoshi M. Functional interaction of general transcription initiation factor TFIIE with general chromatin factor SPT16/CDC68. Genes Cells. 2000;5:251-63 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal part of human SPT16/CDC68 directly interacts with TFIIE, and ySpt16p/Cdc68p also interacts with yTFIIE (Tfa1p/Tfa2p), thus indicating the ..
  11. Rowley A, Singer R, Johnston G. CDC68, a yeast gene that affects regulation of cell proliferation and transcription, encodes a protein with a highly acidic carboxyl terminus. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:5718-26 pubmed
    ..Cells bearing the cdc68-1 mutation (J. A. Prendergast, L. E. Murray, A. Rowley, D. R. Carruthers, R. A. Singer, and G. C...
  12. Duina A, Rufiange A, Bracey J, Hall J, Nourani A, Winston F. Evidence that the localization of the elongation factor Spt16 across transcribed genes is dependent upon histone H3 integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;177:101-12 pubmed
    ..is impaired at the level of transcription elongation, likely by altered interactions with the conserved factor Spt16, a subunit of the transcription elongation complex yFACT...
  13. Biswas D, Dutta Biswas R, Mitra D, Shibata Y, Strahl B, Formosa T, et al. Opposing roles for Set2 and yFACT in regulating TBP binding at promoters. EMBO J. 2006;25:4479-89 pubmed
    Previous work links histone methylation by Set2 with transcriptional elongation. yFACT (Spt16-Pob3 and Nhp6) reorganizes nucleosomes and functions in both transcriptional initiation and elongation...
  14. VanDemark A, Blanksma M, Ferris E, Heroux A, Hill C, Formosa T. The structure of the yFACT Pob3-M domain, its interaction with the DNA replication factor RPA, and a potential role in nucleosome deposition. Mol Cell. 2006;22:363-74 pubmed
    ..These results support the model that the FACT family has an essential role in constructing nucleosomes during DNA replication, and suggest that RPA contributes to this process. ..
  15. Xin H, Takahata S, Blanksma M, McCullough L, Stillman D, Formosa T. yFACT induces global accessibility of nucleosomal DNA without H2A-H2B displacement. Mol Cell. 2009;35:365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that yFACT promotes a reversible transition between two nucleosomal forms, and that this activity contributes to the establishment and maintenance of the chromatin barrier as well as to overcoming it. ..
  16. Gardner R, Nelson Z, Gottschling D. Degradation-mediated protein quality control in the nucleus. Cell. 2005;120:803-15 pubmed
    ..We propose that San1p-mediated degradation acts as the last line of proteolytic defense against the deleterious accumulation of aberrant proteins in the nucleus and that analogous systems exist in other eukaryotes. ..
  17. Ruone S, Rhoades A, Formosa T. Multiple Nhp6 molecules are required to recruit Spt16-Pob3 to form yFACT complexes and to reorganize nucleosomes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45288-95 pubmed
    ..nucleosomal DNA became more sensitive to DNase I at specific sites, and the nucleosomes became competent to bind Spt16-Pob3 to form yFACT.nucleosome complexes...
  18. Formosa T, Eriksson P, Wittmeyer J, Ginn J, Yu Y, Stillman D. Spt16-Pob3 and the HMG protein Nhp6 combine to form the nucleosome-binding factor SPN. EMBO J. 2001;20:3506-17 pubmed
    Yeast Spt16/Cdc68 and Pob3 form a heterodimer that acts in both DNA replication and transcription. This is supported by studies of new alleles of SPT16 described here...
  19. O Donnell A, Stevens J, Kepkay R, Barnes C, Johnston G, Singer R. New mutant versions of yeast FACT subunit Spt16 affect cell integrity. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;282:487-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Using reporter genes we have identified new mutant versions of the Spt16 subunit of yeast FACT with dominant negative effects on the fidelity of transcription initiation...
  20. Brewster N, Johnston G, Singer R. A bipartite yeast SSRP1 analog comprised of Pob3 and Nhp6 proteins modulates transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3491-502 pubmed
    The FACT complex of vertebrate cells, comprising the Cdc68 (Spt16) and SSRP1 proteins, facilitates transcription elongation on a nucleosomal template and modulates the elongation-inhibitory effects of the DSIF complex in vitro...
  21. Biswas D, Yu Y, Prall M, Formosa T, Stillman D. The yeast FACT complex has a role in transcriptional initiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5812-22 pubmed
    ..The SPT16 gene encodes a subunit of yFACT, and we show that certain spt16 mutations are synthetically lethal with TBP ..
  22. Formosa T, Ruone S, Adams M, Olsen A, Eriksson P, Yu Y, et al. Defects in SPT16 or POB3 (yFACT) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause dependence on the Hir/Hpc pathway: polymerase passage may degrade chromatin structure. Genetics. 2002;162:1557-71 pubmed
    b>Spt16/Cdc68, Pob3, and Nhp6 collaborate in vitro and in vivo as the yeast factor SPN, which is homologous to human FACT...
  23. Braun M, Costa P, Crisucci E, Arndt K. Identification of Rkr1, a nuclear RING domain protein with functional connections to chromatin modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2800-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify a new participant in a protein ubiquitylation pathway within the nucleus that acts to modulate chromatin function and transcription. ..
  24. Biswas D, Dutta Biswas R, Stillman D. Chd1 and yFACT act in opposition in regulating transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6279-87 pubmed
    ..Deletion of CHD1 suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth defect caused by mutations in either SPT16 or POB3, which encode subunits of the yFACT chromatin-reorganizing complex...
  25. McCullough L, Connell Z, Petersen C, Formosa T. The Abundant Histone Chaperones Spt6 and FACT Collaborate to Assemble, Inspect, and Maintain Chromatin Structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2015;201:1031-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these observations in terms of different potential roles for chaperones in both promoting the assembly of nucleosomes and monitoring their quality. ..
  26. Stevens J, O Donnell A, Perry T, Benjamin J, Barnes C, Johnston G, et al. FACT, the Bur kinase pathway, and the histone co-repressor HirC have overlapping nucleosome-related roles in yeast transcription elongation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25644 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we focus on a novel mutant version of the yeast FACT subunit Spt16 that supplies essential Spt16 activities but impairs transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly in dominant ..
  27. Tessarz P, Santos Rosa H, Robson S, Sylvestersen K, Nelson C, Nielsen M, et al. Glutamine methylation in histone H2A is an RNA-polymerase-I-dedicated modification. Nature. 2014;505:564-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data identify glutamine methylation of H2A as the first histone epigenetic mark dedicated to a specific RNA polymerase and define its function as a regulator of FACT interaction with nucleosomes. ..
  28. Xu Q, Singer R, Johnston G. Sug1 modulates yeast transcription activation by Cdc68. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6025-35 pubmed
    The Cdc68 protein is required for the transcription of a variety of genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  29. Annan R, Lee A, Reid I, Sayad A, Whiteway M, Hallett M, et al. A biochemical genomics screen for substrates of Ste20p kinase enables the in silico prediction of novel substrates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8279 pubmed publisher
  30. Costa P, Arndt K. Synthetic lethal interactions suggest a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation. Genetics. 2000;156:535-47 pubmed
    ..we show that RTF1 functionally interacts with genes that encode known elongation factors, including SPT4, SPT5, SPT16, and PPR2...
  31. Ferdous A, Gonzalez F, Sun L, Kodadek T, Johnston S. The 19S regulatory particle of the proteasome is required for efficient transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2001;7:981-91 pubmed
    ..Finally, Cdc68, a known elongation factor, coimmunoprecipitates with the 19S complex, indicating a physical interaction...
  32. Liu S, Xu Z, Leng H, Zheng P, Yang J, Chen K, et al. RPA binds histone H3-H4 and functions in DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly. Science. 2017;355:415-420 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that RPA functions as a platform for targeting histone deposition to replication fork, through which RPA couples nucleosome assembly with ongoing DNA replication. ..
  33. Sun L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Physical association of the APIS complex and general transcription factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:991-9 pubmed
    ..APIS complex is physically associated with many general transcription factors, including components of yeast FACT (Cdc68/Pob3), TFIID, TFIIH, and the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme...
  34. Johnson J, French S, Osheim Y, Li M, Hall L, Beyer A, et al. Rpd3- and spt16-mediated nucleosome assembly and transcriptional regulation on yeast ribosomal DNA genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The Spt16 subunit of FACT, however, was specifically required for H2B deposition, suggesting specificity for the H2A/H2B ..
  35. Erkina T, ERKINE A. ASF1 and the SWI/SNF complex interact functionally during nucleosome displacement, while FACT is required for nucleosome reassembly at yeast heat shock gene promoters during sustained stress. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2015;20:355-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The depletion of Spt16, which is a major subunit of the FACT histone chaperone complex, leads to a severe growth defect phenotype ..
  36. Yang J, Zhang X, Feng J, Leng H, Li S, Xiao J, et al. The Histone Chaperone FACT Contributes to DNA Replication-Coupled Nucleosome Assembly. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1128-1141 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transactions), consisting of Spt16 and Pob3, promotes newly synthesized histone H3-H4 deposition...
  37. Herrera Moyano E, Mergui X, Garc a Rubio M, Barroso S, Aguilera A. The yeast and human FACT chromatin-reorganizing complexes solve R-loop-mediated transcription-replication conflicts. Genes Dev. 2014;28:735-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a key function of FACT in the resolution of R-loop-mediated transcription-replication conflicts, likely associated with a specific chromatin organization...
  38. Hainer S, Martens J. Regulation of chaperone binding and nucleosome dynamics by key residues within the globular domain of histone H3. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2016;9:17 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that histone H3 K122, Q120, and R49 are required for Spt2, Spt6, and Spt16 occupancies at genomic locations where transcription rates are high, but not over regions of low transcription ..
  39. Feng J, Gan H, Eaton M, Zhou H, Li S, Belsky J, et al. Noncoding Transcription Is a Driving Force for Nucleosome Instability in spt16 Mutant Cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1856-67 pubmed publisher
    FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) consists of two essential subunits, Spt16 and Pob3, and functions as a histone chaperone. Mutation of spt16 results in a global loss of nucleosomes as well as aberrant transcription...
  40. Zheng S, Crickard J, Srikanth A, Reese J. A highly conserved region within H2B is important for FACT to act on nucleosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We have uncovered a previously unappreciated role for the HBR domain in regulating chromatin structure and have provided insight into how FACT acts on nucleosomes. ..
  41. Mayekar M, Gardner R, Arndt K. The recruitment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Paf1 complex to active genes requires a domain of Rtf1 that directly interacts with the Spt4-Spt5 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3259-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results provide molecular insight into a key attachment point between Paf1C and the RNA polymerase II elongation machinery...
  42. Sen R, Kaja A, Ferdoush J, Lahudkar S, Barman P, Bhaumik S. An mRNA Capping Enzyme Targets FACT to the Active Gene To Enhance the Engagement of RNA Polymerase II into Transcriptional Elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
  43. Gradolatto A, Rogers R, Lavender H, Taverna S, Allis C, Aitchison J, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yta7 regulates histone gene expression. Genetics. 2008;179:291-304 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that one protein copurifying with Yta7 is the yFACT member Spt16. Epistasis analyses revealed a link between Yta7, Spt16, and other previously identified members of the histone ..
  44. Venkatesh S, Smolle M, Li H, Gogol M, Saint M, Kumar S, et al. Set2 methylation of histone H3 lysine?36 suppresses histone exchange on transcribed genes. Nature. 2012;489:452-5 pubmed publisher
    ..By suppressing spurious cryptic transcripts from initiating within ORFs, this pathway is essential to maintain the accuracy of transcription by RNA polymerase?II. ..
  45. Wittmeyer J, Joss L, Formosa T. Spt16 and Pob3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form an essential, abundant heterodimer that is nuclear, chromatin-associated, and copurifies with DNA polymerase alpha. Biochemistry. 1999;38:8961-71 pubmed
    Previously we showed that the yeast proteins Spt16 (Cdc68) and Pob3 are physically associated, and interact physically and genetically with the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase alpha, Pol1 [Wittmeyer and Formosa (1997) Mol. Cell. Biol...
  46. Han J, Li Q, McCullough L, Kettelkamp C, Formosa T, Zhang Z. Ubiquitylation of FACT by the cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 connects FACT to DNA replication. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that ubiquitylation of the Spt16 subunit of FACT by Rtt101, the cullin subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, links FACT to ..
  47. Morillo Huesca M, Maya D, Muñoz Centeno M, Singh R, Oreal V, Reddy G, et al. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000964 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast mutants affected in the SPT16 gene, which encodes one of the FACT subunits, alter the expression of G1 cyclins and exhibit defects in the G1/S ..
  48. Russell S, Johnston S. Evidence that proteolysis of Gal4 cannot explain the transcriptional effects of proteasome ATPase mutations. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9825-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the 19S regulatory complex may play a more direct role in transcription. ..
  49. Kemble D, Whitby F, Robinson H, McCullough L, Formosa T, Hill C. Structure of the Spt16 middle domain reveals functional features of the histone chaperone FACT. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a crystal structure of the middle domain of the large subunit of FACT (Spt16-M) to reveal a double pleckstrin homology architecture...
  50. True J, Muldoon J, Carver M, Poorey K, Shetty S, Bekiranov S, et al. The Modifier of Transcription 1 (Mot1) ATPase and Spt16 Histone Chaperone Co-regulate Transcription through Preinitiation Complex Assembly and Nucleosome Organization. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:15307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spt16 is also essential and functions globally in transcriptional regulation as a component of the facilitates chromatin ..
  51. Denis C, Chiang Y, Cui Y, Chen J. Genetic evidence supports a role for the yeast CCR4-NOT complex in transcriptional elongation. Genetics. 2001;158:627-34 pubmed
    ..resulted in severe synthetic effects with mutations or deletions in the known elongation factors RPB2, TFIIS, and SPT16. Third, the ccr4 deletion displayed allele-specific interactions with rpb1 alleles that are thought to be ..
  52. Howe L, Kusch T, Muster N, Chaterji R, Yates J, Workman J. Yng1p modulates the activity of Sas3p as a component of the yeast NuA3 Hhistone acetyltransferase complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5047-53 pubmed
  53. Tackett A, Dilworth D, Davey M, O DONNELL M, Aitchison J, Rout M, et al. Proteomic and genomic characterization of chromatin complexes at a boundary. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:35-47 pubmed
    ..proteins, including DNA pol epsilon, the Isw2-Itc1 and Top2 chromatin remodeling proteins, the Sas3-Spt16 chromatin modifying complex, and Yta7, a bromodomain-containing AAA ATPase...
  54. Kemble D, McCullough L, Whitby F, Formosa T, Hill C. FACT Disrupts Nucleosome Structure by Binding H2A-H2B with Conserved Peptide Motifs. Mol Cell. 2015;60:294-306 pubmed publisher
    FACT, a heterodimer of Spt16 and Pob3, is an essential histone chaperone. We show that the H2A-H2B binding activity that is central to FACT function resides in short acidic regions near the C termini of each subunit...
  55. Prather D, Krogan N, Emili A, Greenblatt J, Winston F. Identification and characterization of Elf1, a conserved transcription elongation factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10122-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, purification of Elf1 suggests an association with casein kinase II, previously implicated in roles in transcription. Together, these results suggest an important role for Elf1 in the regulation of transcription elongation. ..
  56. Jeronimo C, Watanabe S, Kaplan C, Peterson C, Robert F. The Histone Chaperones FACT and Spt6 Restrict H2A.Z from Intragenic Locations. Mol Cell. 2015;58:1113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, chaperone-mediated H2A.Z confinement is crucial for restricting the chromatin signature of gene promoters that otherwise may license or promote cryptic transcription. ..
  57. Schwabish M, Struhl K. The Swi/Snf complex is important for histone eviction during transcriptional activation and RNA polymerase II elongation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6987-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that Swi/Snf is important for histone eviction at enhancers and that it also functions as a Pol II elongation factor. ..
  58. Deyter G, Biggins S. The FACT complex interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Psh1 to prevent ectopic localization of CENP-A. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1815-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The Spt16 subunit of the FACT complex binds to Psh1 (Pob3/Spt16/histone), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CENP-A(Cse4) ..
  59. Liu H, Luo K, Zhou Z, Mu Y, Wan Y. Histone chaperone Chz1 facilitates the disfavouring property of Spt16 to H2A.Z-containing genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2014;460:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Z that substitutes for H2A. Spt16 (suppressor of Ty) functions in transcription elongation and also possesses a histone chaperone activity...
  60. Smart S, Mackintosh S, Edmondson R, Taverna S, Tackett A. Mapping the local protein interactome of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase. Protein Sci. 2009;18:1987-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel, physical associations with yFACT, RSC, and Nap1 provide insight into the mechanism of NuA3-associated transcription and chromatin regulation. ..
  61. Gradolatto A, Smart S, Byrum S, Blair L, Rogers R, Kolar E, et al. A noncanonical bromodomain in the AAA ATPase protein Yta7 directs chromosomal positioning and barrier chromatin activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4604-11 pubmed publisher
    ..to be necessary for barrier activity at HMR and to have overlapping functions with histone regulators (Asf1 and Spt16)...
  62. Rosenfeld L, Culotta V. Phosphate disruption and metal toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of RAD23 and the histone chaperone HPC2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two classes of suppressors were isolated, including the histone chaperones SPT16 and HPC2, and RAD23, a well-conserved protein involved in DNA repair and proteosomal degradation...
  63. Farnung L, Vos S, Wigge C, Cramer P. Nucleosome-Chd1 structure and implications for chromatin remodelling. Nature. 2017;550:539-542 pubmed publisher
    ..Translocation may involve ratcheting of the two lobes of the ATPase, which is trapped in a pre- or post-translocation state in the absence or presence, respectively, of transition state-mimicking compounds. ..