Gene Symbol: SPA2
Description: Spa2p
Alias: FUS6, PEA1, PPF1, Spa2p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Philips J, Herskowitz I. Identification of Kel1p, a kelch domain-containing protein involved in cell fusion and morphology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:375-89 pubmed
    ..cell fusion that was exacerbated by activated alleles of Pkc1p or loss of FUS1, FUS2, or FPS1, but not by loss of SPA2. kel1Delta mutants form cells that are elongated and heterogeneous in shape, indicating that Kel1p is also required ..
  2. Snyder M. The SPA2 protein of yeast localizes to sites of cell growth. J Cell Biol. 1989;108:1419-29 pubmed
    A yeast gene, SPA2, was isolated with human anti-spindle pole autoantibodies. The SPA2 gene was fused to the Escherichia coli trpE gene, and polyclonal antibodies were prepared to the fusion protein...
  3. Chenevert J, Valtz N, Herskowitz I. Identification of genes required for normal pheromone-induced cell polarization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1994;136:1287-96 pubmed
    ..Another class of mutants forms bilobed, peanut-like shapes when treated with pheromone and defines two genes, PEA1 and PEA2. PEA1 is identical to SPA2. A third class forms normally shaped but tiny shmoos and defines the gene TNY1...
  4. Dorer R, Boone C, Kimbrough T, Kim J, Hartwell L. Genetic analysis of default mating behavior in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1997;146:39-55 pubmed
    ..We previously demonstrated that this default pathway requires the SPA2 gene...
  5. Sagot I, Klee S, Pellman D. Yeast formins regulate cell polarity by controlling the assembly of actin cables. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:42-50 pubmed
    ..A requirement for formins in constructing specific actin structures might be the basis for the diverse activities of formins in development. ..
  6. Madden K, Sheu Y, Baetz K, Andrews B, Snyder M. SBF cell cycle regulator as a target of the yeast PKC-MAP kinase pathway. Science. 1997;275:1781-4 pubmed
    ..These studies provide evidence for a direct role of the PKC1 pathway in the regulation of the yeast cell cycle and cell growth and indicate that conserved signaling pathways can act to control key regulators of cell division. ..
  7. Shih J, Reck Peterson S, Newitt R, Mooseker M, Aebersold R, Herskowitz I. Cell polarity protein Spa2P associates with proteins involved in actin function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4595-608 pubmed
    b>Spa2p is a nonessential protein that regulates yeast cell polarity. It localizes early to the presumptive bud site and remains at sites of growth throughout the cell cycle...
  8. Loewen C, Young B, Tavassoli S, Levine T. Inheritance of cortical ER in yeast is required for normal septin organization. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:467-83 pubmed
    ..This perturbation leads to a delay in the transition through G2, activating the Saccharomyces wee1 kinase (Swe1) and the morphogenesis checkpoint. Thus, we identify a mechanism involved in sensing the distribution of ER. ..
  9. Gammie A, Brizzio V, Rose M. Distinct morphological phenotypes of cell fusion mutants. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:1395-410 pubmed
    ..Dosage suppression analysis showed that Fus1p and Fus2p act downstream or parallel to Rvs161p and Spa2p. Second, electron microscopic analysis was used to define the mutant defects in cell fusion...

More Information


  1. Li X, Du Y, Siegel S, Ferro Novick S, Novick P. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, Slt2p, at bud tips blocks a late stage of endoplasmic reticulum inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1772-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The pool of Slt2p that controls ER inheritance requires the CWI pathway scaffold, Spa2p, for its retention at the bud tip, and a mutation within Slt2p that prevents its association with the bud tip ..
  2. Sheu Y, Santos B, Fortin N, Costigan C, Snyder M. Spa2p interacts with cell polarity proteins and signaling components involved in yeast cell morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4053-69 pubmed
    The yeast protein Spa2p localizes to growth sites and is important for polarized morphogenesis during budding, mating, and pseudohyphal growth...
  3. Arkowitz R, Lowe N. A small conserved domain in the yeast Spa2p is necessary and sufficient for its polarized localization. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:17-36 pubmed
    ..The dynamics and requirements for Spa2p localization in living cells are examined using Spa2p green fluorescent protein fusions...
  4. Tcheperegine S, Gao X, Bi E. Regulation of cell polarity by interactions of Msb3 and Msb4 with Cdc42 and polarisome components. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8567-80 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Rab GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) Msb3 and Msb4 interact directly with Spa2, a scaffold protein of the "polarisome" that also interacts with the formin Bni1...
  5. Flescher E, Madden K, Snyder M. Components required for cytokinesis are important for bud site selection in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1993;122:373-86 pubmed
    ..The SPA2 gene of yeast encodes a nonessential protein that localizes to sites of cell growth and to the site of cytokinesis...
  6. Bidlingmaier S, Snyder M. Large-scale identification of genes important for apical growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by directed allele replacement technology (DART) screening. Funct Integr Genomics. 2002;1:345-56 pubmed
    ..We identified 29 insertion alleles, containing mutations in 17 different genes ( SMY1, SPA2, PAN1, SLA1, SLA2, CBK1, SEC22, FAB1, VPS36, VID22, RAS2, ECM33, OPI3, API1/YDR372c, API2/YDR525w, API3/YKR020w, ..
  7. Costigan C, Gehrung S, Snyder M. A synthetic lethal screen identifies SLK1, a novel protein kinase homolog implicated in yeast cell morphogenesis and cell growth. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:1162-78 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPA2 protein localizes at sites involved in polarized cell growth in budding cells and mating cells. spa2 mutants have defects in projection formation during mating but are healthy during vegetative growth...
  8. Kadota J, Yamamoto T, Yoshiuchi S, Bi E, Tanaka K. Septin ring assembly requires concerted action of polarisome components, a PAK kinase Cla4p, and the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5329-45 pubmed
    ..Bni1p, a formin family protein, is a member of the polarisome complex with Spa2p, Bud6p, and Pea2p...
  9. Miller R, Matheos D, Rose M. The cortical localization of the microtubule orientation protein, Kar9p, is dependent upon actin and proteins required for polarization. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:963-75 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Kar9p's function is specific for cytoplasmic microtubule orientation and that Kar9p's role in nuclear positioning is to coordinate the interactions between the actin and microtubule networks. ..
  10. Valtz N, Herskowitz I. Pea2 protein of yeast is localized to sites of polarized growth and is required for efficient mating and bipolar budding. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:725-39 pubmed
    ..all cell types and is localized to sites of polarized growth in budding and mating cells in a pattern similar to Spa2p, Pea2p and Spa2p exhibit interdependent localization: Spa2p is produced in pea2 mutants but fails to localize ..
  11. Fujiwara T, Tanaka K, Mino A, Kikyo M, Takahashi K, Shimizu K, et al. Rho1p-Bni1p-Spa2p interactions: implication in localization of Bni1p at the bud site and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:1221-33 pubmed
    ..This protein, Spa2p, was known to be localized at the bud tip and to be implicated in the establishment of cell polarity...
  12. Pruyne D, Bretscher A. Polarization of cell growth in yeast. I. Establishment and maintenance of polarity states. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 3):365-75 pubmed
    ..Given that many of these signaling pathways are present in both fungi and animals, they are probably ancient and conserved mechanisms for regulating polarity. ..
  13. Roemer T, Madden K, Chang J, Snyder M. Selection of axial growth sites in yeast requires Axl2p, a novel plasma membrane glycoprotein. Genes Dev. 1996;10:777-93 pubmed
    b>Spa2p and Cdc10p both participate in bud site selection and cell morphogenesis in yeast, and spa2delta cdc10-10 cells are inviable...
  14. van Drogen F, Peter M. Spa2p functions as a scaffold-like protein to recruit the Mpk1p MAP kinase module to sites of polarized growth. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1698-703 pubmed
    ..between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and both Mpk1p and Mkk1p localize to sites of polarized growth in a Spa2p-dependent manner...
  15. Roemer T, Vallier L, Sheu Y, Snyder M. The Spa2-related protein, Sph1p, is important for polarized growth in yeast. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 4):479-94 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Sph1p is both structurally and functionally related to the polarity protein, Spa2p. Sph1p and Spa2p are predicted to share three 100-amino acid domains each exceeding 30% sequence identity, and the ..
  16. Mösch H, Fink G. Dissection of filamentous growth by transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1997;145:671-84 pubmed
    ..pathway, and we thereby identified 16 different genes, CDC39, STE12, TEC1, WHI3, NAB1, DBR1, CDC55, SRV2, TPM1, SPA2, BNI1, DFG5, DFG9, DFG10, BUD8 and DFG16, mutations that block filamentous growth...
  17. Motizuki M, Xu Z. Importance of polarisome proteins in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton at low pH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 2009;146:705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of the scaffolding protein, Spa2p, or the Spa2p-interacting protein Pea2p, markedly inhibited the depolarization, and further deletion of the formin ..
  18. Tessarz P, Schwarz M, Mogk A, Bukau B. The yeast AAA+ chaperone Hsp104 is part of a network that links the actin cytoskeleton with the inheritance of damaged proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3738-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking a candidate approach, we identified Spa2, a member of the polarisome complex, as an Hsp104 substrate...
  19. Kim J, Hirsch J. A nucleolar protein that affects mating efficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by altering the morphological response to pheromone. Genetics. 1998;149:795-805 pubmed
    ..SSF1 overexpression preferentially increased the mating efficiency of a strain containing a null allele of SPA2, a gene that functions specifically in cell morphology...
  20. Chao J, Wong A, Tavassoli S, Young B, Chruscicki A, Fang N, et al. Polarization of the endoplasmic reticulum by ER-septin tethering. Cell. 2014;158:620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..ER-septin tethering polarizes the ER into separate mother and bud domains, one function of which is to position the spindle in the mother until M phase by confining the spindle capture protein Num1 to the mother ER. ..
  21. Varela E, Shimada K, Laroche T, Leroy D, Gasser S. Lte1, Cdc14 and MEN-controlled Cdk inactivation in yeast coordinate rDNA decompaction with late telophase progression. EMBO J. 2009;28:1562-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This may argue that different levels of Cdk inactivation control spindle disassembly and chromatin decompaction. Mutation of lte1 also impaired rotation of the nucleus in early G1. ..
  22. Neller J, Dünkler A, Rösler R, Johnsson N. A protein complex containing Epo1p anchors the cortical endoplasmic reticulum to the yeast bud tip. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:71-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis therefore identifies Epo1p as a novel and important component of the polarisome that promotes cER tethering at sites of polarized growth. ..
  23. Costigan C, Kolodrubetz D, Snyder M. NHP6A and NHP6B, which encode HMG1-like proteins, are candidates for downstream components of the yeast SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:2391-403 pubmed
    ..Slk1p has an important role in morphogenesis and growth control, and deletions of the SLK1 gene are lethal in a spa2-delta mutant background...
  24. Bidlingmaier S, Snyder M. Regulation of polarized growth initiation and termination cycles by the polarisome and Cdc42 regulators. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:207-18 pubmed
    ..We found that the polarisome components Spa2, Pea2, and Bni1 and the Cdc42 regulators Cdc24 and Bem3 control the timing and frequency of projection formation...
  25. Mino A, Tanaka K, Kamei T, Umikawa M, Fujiwara T, Takai Y. Shs1p: a novel member of septin that interacts with spa2p, involved in polarized growth in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;251:732-6 pubmed
    ..We have shown that Bni1p, a potential target of Rho1p, interacts with Spa2p and that Spa2p is required for the localization of Bni1p at the growth sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  26. Fitch P, Gammie A, Lee D, de Candal V, Rose M. Lrg1p Is a Rho1 GTPase-activating protein required for efficient cell fusion in yeast. Genetics. 2004;168:733-46 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Lrg1p is a Rho1p-GAP involved in cell fusion and speculate that it acts to locally inhibit cell wall synthesis to aid in the close apposition of the plasma membranes of mating cells. ..
  27. Song Q, Johnson C, Wilson T, Kumar A. Pooled segregant sequencing reveals genetic determinants of yeast pseudohyphal growth. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004570 pubmed publisher
    ..of a Kss1p MAPK pathway reporter, decreased unipolar budding, and diminished binding of the polarisome protein Spa2p. Variation between SK1 and S288C in the mitochondrial inner membrane protein Mdm32p at residues 182 and 262 ..
  28. Liu W, Santiago Tirado F, Bretscher A. Yeast formin Bni1p has multiple localization regions that function in polarized growth and spindle orientation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..second (residues 334-821) covers the Diaphanous inhibitory-dimerization-coiled coil domains, and the third is the Spa2p-binding domain. The fourth region encompasses the formin homology 1-formin homology 2-COOH region of the protein...
  29. Li X, Ferro Novick S, Novick P. Different polarisome components play distinct roles in Slt2p-regulated cortical ER inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..complex affects cER inheritance through its effects on Slt2p, with different components playing distinct roles: Spa2p and Pea2p are required for Slt2p retention at the bud tip, whereas Bni1p, Bud6p, and Sph1p affect the level of ..
  30. Santos B, Snyder M. Sbe2p and sbe22p, two homologous Golgi proteins involved in yeast cell wall formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:435-52 pubmed
    ..identified and characterized two homologous yeast proteins, Sbe2p and Sbe22p, through their suppression of a chs5 spa2 mutant strain defective in chitin synthesis and cell morphogenesis...
  31. Rida P, Surana U. Cdc42-dependent localization of polarisome component Spa2 to the incipient bud site is independent of the GDP/GTP exchange factor Cdc24. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:939-49 pubmed the establishment of bud site prior to START by catalyzing the translocation of bud-site components such as Spa2 to the cell cortex...
  32. Nelson B, Parsons A, Evangelista M, Schaefer K, Kennedy K, Ritchie S, et al. Fus1p interacts with components of the Hog1p mitogen-activated protein kinase and Cdc42p morphogenesis signaling pathways to control cell fusion during yeast mating. Genetics. 2004;166:67-77 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Fus1p acts as a scaffold for the assembly of a cell surface complex involved in polarized secretion of septum-degrading enzymes and inhibition of HOG pathway signaling to promote cell fusion. ..
  33. Sheu Y, Barral Y, Snyder M. Polarized growth controls cell shape and bipolar bud site selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5235-47 pubmed
    ..We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth...
  34. Santos B, Snyder M. Specific protein targeting during cell differentiation: polarized localization of Fus1p during mating depends on Chs5p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:821-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Chs5p is also essential for the polarized targeting of Fus1p, but not of other cell fusion proteins, to the membrane during mating. ..
  35. Jaquenoud M, Peter M. Gic2p may link activated Cdc42p to components involved in actin polarization, including Bni1p and Bud6p (Aip3p). Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6244-58 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Gic2p displayed multiple genetic interactions with Bni1p, Bud6p (Aip3p), and Spa2p, suggesting that Gic2p may regulate their function in vivo...
  36. Noma S, Iida K, Iida H. Polarized morphogenesis regulator Spa2 is required for the function of putative stretch-activated Ca2+-permeable channel component Mid1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1353-63 pubmed
    ..suppressor that rescues the mid1-1 mutant from mating pheromone-induced death and found that it encodes a truncated Spa2 protein lacking an amino-terminal region responsible for interaction with components of the mitogen-activated ..
  37. Yuzyuk T, Amberg D. Actin recovery and bud emergence in osmotically stressed cells requires the conserved actin interacting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase Ssk2p/MTK1 and the scaffold protein Spa2p. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3013-26 pubmed
    ..neck required the septin Shs1p, whereas localization to the bud cortex depended on the polarity scaffold protein Spa2p. spa2delta cells, like ssk2delta cells, were defective for actin recovery from osmotic stress...
  38. Dodgson J, Chessel A, Yamamoto M, Vaggi F, Cox S, Rosten E, et al. Spatial segregation of polarity factors into distinct cortical clusters is required for cell polarity control. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1834 pubmed publisher
    ..We observe similar clusters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans cells, indicating this could be a universal regulatory feature. ..