SNF1

Summary

Gene Symbol: SNF1
Description: AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase catalytic subunit SNF1
Alias: CAT1, CCR1, GLC2, HAF3, PAS14, AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase catalytic subunit SNF1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     SNF1

Top Publications

  1. Treitel M, Kuchin S, Carlson M. Snf1 protein kinase regulates phosphorylation of the Mig1 repressor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6273-80 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the role of Mig1 in regulating repression and the role of the Snf1 protein kinase in regulating Mig1 function...
  2. Usaite R, Nielsen J, Olsson L. Physiological characterization of glucose repression in the strains with SNF1 and SNF4 genes deleted. J Biotechnol. 2008;133:73-81 pubmed
    We investigated the effect of Snf1 kinase and its regulatory subunit Snf4 on the regulation of glucose and galactose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by physiologically characterizing Deltasnf1, Deltasnf4 and ..
  3. Bertram P, Choi J, Carvalho J, Chan T, Ai W, Zheng X. Convergence of TOR-nitrogen and Snf1-glucose signaling pathways onto Gln3. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1246-52 pubmed
    ..study, we show that glucose also regulates Gln3 phosphorylation and subcellular localization, which is mediated by Snf1, the yeast homolog of AMP-dependent protein kinase and a cytoplasmic glucose sensor...
  4. Dubacq C, Chevalier A, Mann C. The protein kinase Snf1 is required for tolerance to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2560-72 pubmed
    The Snf1/AMP-activated kinases are involved in a wide range of stress responses in eukaryotic cells. We discovered a novel role for the Snf1 kinase in the cellular response to genotoxic stress in yeast...
  5. Rubenstein E, McCartney R, Schmidt M. Regulatory domains of Snf1-activating kinases determine pathway specificity. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:620-7 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 kinase can be activated by any one of three upstream kinases, Sak1, Tos3, or Elm1...
  6. Sanz P, Alms G, Haystead T, Carlson M. Regulatory interactions between the Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase and the Snf1 protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1321-8 pubmed
    ..Previous studies showed that Reg1 regulates the Snf1 protein kinase in response to glucose. Here, we explore the functional relationships between Reg1, Glc7, and Snf1...
  7. Mayor T, Graumann J, Bryan J, MacCoss M, Deshaies R. Quantitative profiling of ubiquitylated proteins reveals proteasome substrates and the substrate repertoire influenced by the Rpn10 receptor pathway. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1885-95 pubmed
    ..This approach illustrates the feasibility of systems-level quantitative analysis to map enzyme-substrate networks in the UPS. ..
  8. Ruiz A, Xu X, Carlson M. Roles of two protein phosphatases, Reg1-Glc7 and Sit4, and glycogen synthesis in regulation of SNF1 protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6349-54 pubmed publisher
    The SNF1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase family, which is essential for metabolic control, energy homeostasis, and stress responses in eukaryotes...
  9. Hardy T, Huang D, Roach P. Interactions between cAMP-dependent and SNF1 protein kinases in the control of glycogen accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:27907-13 pubmed
    ..Mutants defective in the SNF1 gene, which encodes a protein kinase important in glucose repression mechanisms, are known not to accumulate ..

More Information

Publications64

  1. Elbing K, Rubenstein E, McCartney R, Schmidt M. Subunits of the Snf1 kinase heterotrimer show interdependence for association and activity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26170-80 pubmed
    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian orthologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), function as heterotrimers composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma...
  2. Woods A, Munday M, Scott J, Yang X, Carlson M, Carling D. Yeast SNF1 is functionally related to mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase and regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:19509-15 pubmed
    The product of the SNF1 gene is a protein kinase whose activity is essential for transcriptional activation of glucose repressed genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  3. Rubenstein E, McCartney R, Zhang C, Shokat K, Shirra M, Arndt K, et al. Access denied: Snf1 activation loop phosphorylation is controlled by availability of the phosphorylated threonine 210 to the PP1 phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:222-30 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 kinase activation loop is determined by the integration of two reaction rates: the rate of phosphorylation by upstream kinases and the rate of dephosphorylation by Glc7...
  4. Ye T, Elbing K, Hohmann S. The pathway by which the yeast protein kinase Snf1p controls acquisition of sodium tolerance is different from that mediating glucose regulation. Microbiology. 2008;154:2814-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Snf1p appears to be part of a wider functional network than previously anticipated and the full complexity of this network remains to be elucidated. ..
  5. Orlova M, Ozcetin H, Barrett L, Kuchin S. Roles of the Snf1-activating kinases during nitrogen limitation and pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:208-14 pubmed publisher
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Snf1 protein kinase is important for growth on carbon sources that are less preferred than glucose...
  6. Kuchin S, Treich I, Carlson M. A regulatory shortcut between the Snf1 protein kinase and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7916-20 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence for a "shortcut" mechanism in which the Snf1 protein kinase of the glucose signaling pathway directly regulates transcription by the yeast holoenzyme...
  7. Busnelli S, Tripodi F, Nicastro R, Cirulli C, Tedeschi G, Pagliarin R, et al. Snf1/AMPK promotes SBF and MBF-dependent transcription in budding yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:3254-3264 pubmed publisher
    b>Snf1, the yeast AMP-activated kinase homolog, regulates the expression of several genes involved in adaptation to glucose limitation and in response to cellular stresses...
  8. Orlova M, Kanter E, Krakovich D, Kuchin S. Nitrogen availability and TOR regulate the Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1831-7 pubmed
    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 protein kinase of the Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family regulates a wide range of responses to stress caused by glucose deprivation...
  9. Zhou H, Winston F. NRG1 is required for glucose repression of the SUC2 and GAL genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BMC Genet. 2001;2:5 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae. Thus, three repressors, Nrg1, Mig1, and Mig2, are involved as the downstream targets of the glucose signaling in S. cerevisiae. ..
  10. Ohdate T, Izawa S, Kita K, Inoue Y. Regulatory mechanism for expression of GPX1 in response to glucose starvation and Ca in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: involvement of Snf1 and Ras/cAMP pathway in Ca signaling. Genes Cells. 2010;15:59-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ras/cAMP pathway is also involved in the expression of GPX1. We found that Snf1, a Ser/Thr protein kinase, is involved in the glucose starvation- and Ca(2+)-induced expression of GPX1...
  11. Smith F, Davies S, Wilson W, Carling D, Hardie D. The SNF1 kinase complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphorylates the transcriptional repressor protein Mig1p in vitro at four sites within or near regulatory domain 1. FEBS Lett. 1999;453:219-23 pubmed
    ..On removal of medium glucose, gene repression is relieved via a mechanism that requires the SNF1 protein kinase complex...
  12. Carlson M, Osmond B, Neigeborn L, Botstein D. A suppressor of SNF1 mutations causes constitutive high-level invertase synthesis in yeast. Genetics. 1984;107:19-32 pubmed
    The SNF1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required to derepress expression of many glucose-repressible genes, including the SUC2 structural gene for invertase...
  13. Vallier L, Carlson M. Synergistic release from glucose repression by mig1 and ssn mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1994;137:49-54 pubmed
    ..We report that mig1 partially restores SUC2 expression in mutants lacking the SNF1 protein kinase and show that mig1 is allelic to ssn1, a mutation selected as a suppressor of snf1...
  14. Soontorngun N, Larochelle M, Drouin S, Robert F, Turcotte B. Regulation of gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by activator and repressor functions of Rds2. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7895-905 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that upon a shift to ethanol, Rds2 activation is correlated with its hyperphosphorylation by the Snf1 kinase. In summary, we have characterized Rds2 as a novel major regulator of gluconeogenesis.
  15. Hedbacker K, Carlson M. Regulation of the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Snf1-Gal83 protein kinase. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1950-6 pubmed
    b>Snf1 protein kinase containing the beta subunit Gal83 is localized in the cytoplasm during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in abundant glucose and accumulates in the nucleus in response to glucose limitation...
  16. Portillo F, Mulet J, Serrano R. A role for the non-phosphorylated form of yeast Snf1: tolerance to toxic cations and activation of potassium transport. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:512-6 pubmed
    The Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinases play a key role in stress responses of eukaryotic cells...
  17. Casamayor A, Serrano R, Platara M, Casado C, Ruiz A, Arino J. The role of the Snf1 kinase in the adaptive response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alkaline pH stress. Biochem J. 2012;444:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain mutants in the glucose-sensing and -response pathways, such as those lacking the Snf1 kinase, are sensitive to alkalinization...
  18. Sutherland C, Hawley S, McCartney R, Leech A, Stark M, Schmidt M, et al. Elm1p is one of three upstream kinases for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 complex. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1299-305 pubmed
    The yeast SNF1 protein kinase and the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase are highly conserved heterotrimeric complexes that are "metabolic master switches" involved in the switch from fermentative/anaerobic to oxidative ..
  19. Estruch F, Carlson M. Two homologous zinc finger genes identified by multicopy suppression in a SNF1 protein kinase mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:3872-81 pubmed
    The MSN2 gene was selected as a multicopy suppressor in a temperature-sensitive SNF1 protein kinase mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  20. Jiang R, Carlson M. The Snf1 protein kinase and its activating subunit, Snf4, interact with distinct domains of the Sip1/Sip2/Gal83 component in the kinase complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2099-106 pubmed
    The Snf1 protein kinase plays a central role in the response to glucose starvation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  21. Ludin K, Jiang R, Carlson M. Glucose-regulated interaction of a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 with the Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6245-50 pubmed
    The Snf1 protein kinase family has been conserved in eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Snf1 is essential for transcription of glucose-repressed genes in response to glucose starvation...
  22. Vyas V, Kuchin S, Carlson M. Interaction of the repressors Nrg1 and Nrg2 with the Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;158:563-72 pubmed
    The Snf1 protein kinase is essential for the transcription of glucose-repressed genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified Nrg2 as a protein that interacts with Snf1 in the two-hybrid system...
  23. Liu Y, Xu X, Kuo M. Snf1p regulates Gcn5p transcriptional activity by antagonizing Spt3p. Genetics. 2010;184:91-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutating four residues in the Gcn5p catalytic domain, T203, S204, T211, and Y212 (TSTY), phenocopies snf1 null cells, including Gcn5p hypophosphorylation, hypoacetylation at the HIS3 promoter, and transcriptional defects ..
  24. Usaite R, Jewett M, Oliveira A, Yates J, Olsson L, Nielsen J. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:319 pubmed publisher
    ..To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite levels in ..
  25. Amodeo G, Rudolph M, Tong L. Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1. Nature. 2007;449:492-5 pubmed
    ..The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems to ..
  26. Pessina S, Tsiarentsyeva V, Busnelli S, Vanoni M, Alberghina L, Coccetti P. Snf1/AMPK promotes S-phase entrance by controlling CLB5 transcription in budding yeast. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:2189-200 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 protein kinase has been reported to be required for adaptation to glucose limitation and for growth on non-fermentable carbon sources...
  27. Karunanithi S, Cullen P. The filamentous growth MAPK Pathway Responds to Glucose Starvation Through the Mig1/2 transcriptional repressors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2012;192:869-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Mig1 and Mig2 coregulated the filamentous growth pathway in response to glucose limitation, as did the AMP kinase Snf1. In addition to associating with Opy2, Mig1 and Mig2 interacted with other regulators of the filamentous growth ..
  28. Fields S, Song O. A novel genetic system to detect protein-protein interactions. Nature. 1989;340:245-6 pubmed
    ..We have tested this system using two yeast proteins that are known to interact--SNF1 and SNF4. High transcriptional activity is obtained only when both hybrids are present in a cell...
  29. Liu Y, Xu X, Singh Rodriguez S, Zhao Y, Kuo M. Histone H3 Ser10 phosphorylation-independent function of Snf1 and Reg1 proteins rescues a gcn5- mutant in HIS3 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10566-79 pubmed
    ..Reg1 protein is a major regulator of Snf1 kinase that phosphorylates Ser10 of histone H3...
  30. De Wever V, Reiter W, Ballarini A, Ammerer G, Brocard C. A dual role for PP1 in shaping the Msn2-dependent transcriptional response to glucose starvation. EMBO J. 2005;24:4115-23 pubmed
    ..Apart from PKA, the protein kinase Snf1 can also directly modify one of the Msn2 phosphorylation sites (S582) and thereby repress Msn2 function...
  31. Mayor T, Lipford J, Graumann J, Smith G, Deshaies R. Analysis of polyubiquitin conjugates reveals that the Rpn10 substrate receptor contributes to the turnover of multiple proteasome targets. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:741-51 pubmed
  32. Harkness T, Shea K, Legrand C, Brahmania M, Davies G. A functional analysis reveals dependence on the anaphase-promoting complex for prolonged life span in yeast. Genetics. 2004;168:759-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that APC-dependent genomic stability is linked to prolonged longevity by the antagonistic regulation of the PKA and Snf1p pathways. ..
  33. Ashrafi K, Lin S, Manchester J, Gordon J. Sip2p and its partner snf1p kinase affect aging in S. cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1872-85 pubmed
    ..Sip2p and Snf1p provide new molecular links between the regulation of cellular energy utilization and aging. ..
  34. Shinoda J, Kikuchi Y. Rod1, an arrestin-related protein, is phosphorylated by Snf1-kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:258-63 pubmed
    ..We found that Rod1 interacted with Snf4, a subunit of Snf1-kinase complex...
  35. Lo W, Duggan L, Emre N, Belotserkovskya R, Lane W, Shiekhattar R, et al. Snf1--a histone kinase that works in concert with the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 to regulate transcription. Science. 2001;293:1142-6 pubmed
    ..a histone H3 serine-10 kinase complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have identified its catalytic subunit as Snf1. The Snf1/AMPK family of kinases function in conserved signal transduction pathways...
  36. Ratnakumar S, Young E. Snf1 dependence of peroxisomal gene expression is mediated by Adr1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:10703-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The AMP-activated protein kinase regulates this process in mammalian cells, and its homolog Snf1, together with the transcription factors Adr1, Oaf1, and Pip2, regulates peroxisome proliferation and beta-..
  37. Shirra M, McCartney R, Zhang C, Shokat K, Schmidt M, Arndt K. A chemical genomics study identifies Snf1 as a repressor of GCN4 translation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35889-98 pubmed publisher
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 kinase plays a critical role in recalibrating cellular metabolism in response to glucose depletion. Hundreds of genes show changes in expression levels when the SNF1 gene is deleted...
  38. Schüller H, Entian K. Extragenic suppressors of yeast glucose derepression mutants leading to constitutive synthesis of several glucose-repressible enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:2045-52 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulatory genes CAT1 and CAT3 constitute a positive control circuit necessary for derepression of gluconeogenic and disaccharide-utilizing enzymes...
  39. Neigeborn L, Carlson M. Genes affecting the regulation of SUC2 gene expression by glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1984;108:845-58 pubmed
    ..These mutations included five new snf1 (sucrose nonfermenting) alleles and also defined five new complementation groups, designated snf2, snf3, snf4, snf5,..
  40. Wilson M, Koutelou E, Hirsch C, Akdemir K, Schibler A, Barton M, et al. Ubp8 and SAGA regulate Snf1 AMP kinase activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..a proteomics approach, we determined that the SAGA complex also deubiquitinates nonhistone proteins, including Snf1, an AMP-activated kinase...
  41. Carlson M. Glucose repression in yeast. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999;2:202-7 pubmed
    The Snf1 protein kinase is a central component of the signaling pathway for glucose repression in yeast...
  42. Cullen P, Sprague G. Glucose depletion causes haploid invasive growth in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13619-24 pubmed
    ..We tested glucose control proteins for a role in invasion and found that Snf1, a protein required for derepression of glucose-repressed genes, was required for invasive growth...
  43. Vincent O, Townley R, Kuchin S, Carlson M. Subcellular localization of the Snf1 kinase is regulated by specific beta subunits and a novel glucose signaling mechanism. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1104-14 pubmed
    The Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase family has broad roles in transcriptional, metabolic, and developmental regulation in response to stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Snf1 is required for the response to glucose limitation...
  44. McCartney R, Schmidt M. Regulation of Snf1 kinase. Activation requires phosphorylation of threonine 210 by an upstream kinase as well as a distinct step mediated by the Snf4 subunit. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36460-6 pubmed
    The yeast Snf1 kinase and its metazoan orthologues, the AMP-activated protein kinases, are activated in response to nutrient limitation...
  45. Shirra M, Patton Vogt J, Ulrich A, Liuta Tehlivets O, Kohlwein S, Henry S, et al. Inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase activity restores expression of the INO1 gene in a snf1 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5710-22 pubmed
    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 gene affect a number of cellular processes, including the expression of genes involved in carbon source utilization and phospholipid biosynthesis...
  46. Young E, Kacherovsky N, Van Riper K. Snf1 protein kinase regulates Adr1 binding to chromatin but not transcription activation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38095-103 pubmed
    ..The yeast homolog of the AMP-activated protein kinase, Snf1, promotes Adr1 chromatin binding in the absence of glucose, and the protein phosphatase complex, Glc7...
  47. Hong S, Carlson M. Regulation of snf1 protein kinase in response to environmental stress. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:16838-45 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 protein kinase, a member of the Snf1/AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) family, has important roles in metabolic control, particularly in response to nutrient stress...
  48. Ahuatzi D, Riera A, Pelaez R, Herrero P, Moreno F. Hxk2 regulates the phosphorylation state of Mig1 and therefore its nucleocytoplasmic distribution. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:4485-93 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that Snf1 interacts constitutively with the Hxk2 component of the repressor complex at high and low glucose conditions...
  49. Nayak V, Zhao K, Wyce A, Schwartz M, Lo W, Berger S, et al. Structure and dimerization of the kinase domain from yeast Snf1, a member of the Snf1/AMPK protein family. Structure. 2006;14:477-85 pubmed
    The Snf1/AMPK kinases are intracellular energy sensors, and the AMPK pathway has been implicated in a variety of metabolic human disorders...
  50. Kuchin S, Vyas V, Carlson M. Snf1 protein kinase and the repressors Nrg1 and Nrg2 regulate FLO11, haploid invasive growth, and diploid pseudohyphal differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3994-4000 pubmed
    The Snf1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for many cellular responses to glucose limitation, including haploid invasive growth...
  51. Becuwe M, Vieira N, Lara D, Gomes Rezende J, Soares Cunha C, Casal M, et al. A molecular switch on an arrestin-like protein relays glucose signaling to transporter endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, Rod1 was a direct target of the glucose signaling pathway composed of the AMPK homologue Snf1 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7/Reg1...
  52. Denis C. The effects of ADR1 and CCR1 gene dosage on the regulation of the glucose-repressible alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1987;208:101-6 pubmed
    ..Under glucose-repressed conditions the activator CCR1 was not required for ADR1 activity...
  53. Adhikari H, Cullen P. Metabolic respiration induces AMPK- and Ire1p-dependent activation of the p38-Type HOG MAPK pathway. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004734 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an evolutionarily conserved regulatory axis links metabolic respiration and AMPK to Ire1p, which regulates a differentiation response involving the modulated activity of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways. ..
  54. Vincent O, Carlson M. Gal83 mediates the interaction of the Snf1 kinase complex with the transcription activator Sip4. EMBO J. 1999;18:6672-81 pubmed
    The Snf1/AMPK protein kinase family is widely conserved in eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 kinase is an essential element of the glucose response pathway and has diverse regulatory roles...
  55. Launay J, Birraux G, Bondoux D, Callebert J, Choi D, Loric S, et al. Ras involvement in signal transduction by the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:3141-7 pubmed