Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: SMT3
Description: SUMO family protein SMT3
Alias: SUMO family protein SMT3
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
- Chen X, Ding B, Lejeune D, Ruggiero C, Li S. Rpb1 sumoylation in response to UV radiation or transcriptional impairment in yeast. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5267 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate a novel covalent modification of Rpb1 in response to UV induced DNA damage or transcriptional impairment, and unravel an important link between the modification and the DNA damage checkpoint response. ..
- D Amours D, Stegmeier F, Amon A. Cdc14 and condensin control the dissolution of cohesin-independent chromosome linkages at repeated DNA. Cell. 2004;117:455-69 pubmed..This dual role of the FEAR network in initiating mitotic exit and promoting chromosome segregation ensures that exit from mitosis is coupled to the completion of chromosome segregation. ..
- Ihara M, Koyama H, Uchimura Y, Saitoh H, Kikuchi A. Noncovalent binding of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protease to SUMO is necessary for enzymatic activities and cell growth. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:16465-75 pubmed..and yeast Ulp1) show different preferences for noncovalent binding to various SUMOs (SUMO-1, -2, -3, and yeast Smt3) and that the hydrolase and isopeptidase activities of SUMO proteases are dependent on their binding to SUMOs ..
- Alonso A, D Silva S, Rahman M, Meluh P, Keeling J, Meednu N, et al. The yeast homologue of the microtubule-associated protein Lis1 interacts with the sumoylation machinery and a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4552-66 pubmed publisher..Pac1p modification is also altered by Kar9p and the dynein regulator She1p. This work has implications for the regulation of dynein's interaction with various cargoes, including its off-loading to the cortex. ..
- Elmore Z, Donaher M, Matson B, Murphy H, Westerbeck J, Kerscher O. Sumo-dependent substrate targeting of the SUMO protease Ulp1. BMC Biol. 2011;9:74 pubmed publisher..cerevisiae, the essential small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease Ulp1 is responsible for both removing SUMO/Smt3 from specific target proteins and for processing precursor SUMO into its conjugation-competent form...
- Arakawa H, Moldovan G, Saribasak H, Saribasak N, Jentsch S, Buerstedde J. A role for PCNA ubiquitination in immunoglobulin hypermutation. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e366 pubmed..This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that vertebrates exploit the PCNA-ubiquitin pathway for immunoglobulin hypermutation, most likely through the recruitment of error-prone DNA polymerases. ..
- Cremona C, Sarangi P, Yang Y, Hang L, Rahman S, Zhao X. Extensive DNA damage-induced sumoylation contributes to replication and repair and acts in addition to the mec1 checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2012;45:422-32 pubmed publisher..We also show that DNA damage-induced sumoylation does not require Mec1 checkpoint signaling, and the presence of both enables optimal DNA damage resistance. ..
- Stead K, Aguilar C, Hartman T, Drexel M, Meluh P, Guacci V. Pds5p regulates the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion and is sumoylated to promote the dissolution of cohesion. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:729-41 pubmed..These data provide the first link between a protein required for cohesion, Pds5p, and sumoylation, and suggest that Pds5p sumoylation promotes the dissolution of cohesion. ..
- Wang Y, Abu Irqeba A, Ayalew M, Suntay K. Sumoylation of transcription factor Tec1 regulates signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in yeast. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7456 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings provide evidence for regulated sumoylation as a mechanism to modulate the activity of Tec1 and validate Ubc9 fusion-directed sumoylation as a useful approach for studying protein sumoylation. ..
- Uzunova K, Göttsche K, Miteva M, Weisshaar S, Glanemann C, Schnellhardt M, et al. Ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic control of SUMO conjugates. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34167-75 pubmed..Simultaneous inhibition of both mechanisms leads to severe phenotypic defects. ..
- Cheng C, Lo Y, Liang S, Ti S, Lin F, Yeh C, et al. SUMO modifications control assembly of synaptonemal complex and polycomplex in meiosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2067-81 pubmed..Our results also suggest that at early meiotic prophase, Zip1 interacts with Zip3-independent Smt3 conjugates (e.g., Top2) to promote nonhomologous centromere coupling...
- Bylebyl G, Belichenko I, Johnson E. The SUMO isopeptidase Ulp2 prevents accumulation of SUMO chains in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44113-20 pubmed..Our data suggest that SUMO can form chains in vivo in yeast but demonstrate conclusively that chain formation is not required for the essential functions of SUMO in S. cerevisiae. ..
- Ho C, Chen H, Hwang J. UBC9 autosumoylation negatively regulates sumoylation of septins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21826-34 pubmed publisher..Our study elucidates a regulatory mechanism that utilizes automodification of the E2 enzyme of the sumoylation machinery to control substrate sumoylation. ..
- Hoege C, Pfander B, Moldovan G, Pyrowolakis G, Jentsch S. RAD6-dependent DNA repair is linked to modification of PCNA by ubiquitin and SUMO. Nature. 2002;419:135-41 pubmed..We demonstrate that these modifications differentially affect resistance to DNA damage, and that damage-induced PCNA ubiquitination is elementary for DNA repair and occurs at the same conserved residue in yeast and humans. ..
- Schwienhorst I, Johnson E, Dohmen R. SUMO conjugation and deconjugation. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:771-86 pubmed..Ulp2p is predominantly located within the nucleus, whereas Ulp1p colocalizes with nuclear pore complex proteins, indicating that the apparently distinct functions of the two SUMO deconjugating enzymes are spatially separated. ..
- Ulrich H, Davies A. In vivo detection and characterization of sumoylation targets in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;497:81-103 pubmed publisher..Two well-studied model substrates, the septin Cdc3 and the replication clamp protein PCNA, are used as examples, but the protocol can easily be adapted to other targets and organisms. ..
- Leisner C, Kammerer D, Denoth A, Britschi M, Barral Y, Liakopoulos D. Regulation of mitotic spindle asymmetry by SUMO and the spindle-assembly checkpoint in yeast. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1249-55 pubmed publisher..Hence, the two seemingly independent spindle domains, kinetochores and astral microtubules, function in a tightly coordinated fashion. ..
- Armstrong A, Mohideen F, Lima C. Recognition of SUMO-modified PCNA requires tandem receptor motifs in Srs2. Nature. 2012;483:59-63 pubmed publisherUbiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers such as SUMO (also known as Smt3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mediate signal transduction through post-translational modification of substrate proteins in pathways that control ..
- Ii T, Mullen J, Slagle C, Brill S. Stimulation of in vitro sumoylation by Slx5-Slx8: evidence for a functional interaction with the SUMO pathway. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:1679-91 pubmed..Physical interactions between the Slx5-8 complex and both Ubc9 and Smt3 were identified and characterized...
- Johnson E, Blobel G. Cell cycle-regulated attachment of the ubiquitin-related protein SUMO to the yeast septins. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:981-94 pubmed..This mutant has a striking defect in disassembly of septin rings, resulting in accumulation of septin rings marking previous division sites. Thus, SUMO conjugation plays a role in regulating septin ring dynamics during the cell cycle. ..
- Takahashi Y, Kikuchi Y. Yeast PIAS-type Ull1/Siz1 is composed of SUMO ligase and regulatory domains. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35822-8 pubmedSUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)/Smt3 (suppressor of mif two) is a member of the ubiquitin-related protein family and is known to conjugate with many proteins...
- Mullen J, Das M, Brill S. Genetic evidence that polysumoylation bypasses the need for a SUMO-targeted Ub ligase. Genetics. 2011;187:73-87 pubmed publisher..In support of this latter possibility we find that the WSS1 isopeptidase is required for suppression by ulp2?. ..
- Takahashi Y, Toh e A, Kikuchi Y. Comparative analysis of yeast PIAS-type SUMO ligases in vivo and in vitro. J Biochem. 2003;133:415-22 pubmedSUMO/Smt3, a ubiquitin-like modifier, is known to conjugate other proteins and modulate their functions in various processes. Recently, Ull1/Siz1 was discovered as a novel PIAS-type E3 required for septin sumoylation in yeast...
- Takahashi Y, Kahyo T, Toh e A, Yasuda H, Kikuchi Y. Yeast Ull1/Siz1 is a novel SUMO1/Smt3 ligase for septin components and functions as an adaptor between conjugating enzyme and substrates. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:48973-7 pubmedSUMO1/Smt3, a ubiquitin-like protein modifier, is known to conjugate to other proteins and modulate their functions in various important processes...
- Mossessova E, Lima C. Ulp1-SUMO crystal structure and genetic analysis reveal conserved interactions and a regulatory element essential for cell growth in yeast. Mol Cell. 2000;5:865-76 pubmed..a covalent thiohemiacetal transition state complex between a Ulp1 C-terminal fragment and its cellular substrate Smt3, the yeast SUMO homolog...
- Takahashi Y, Dulev S, Liu X, Hiller N, Zhao X, Strunnikov A. Cooperation of sumoylated chromosomal proteins in rDNA maintenance. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000215 pubmed publisher..In addition, binding of cohesin and condensin to rDNA is altered in the mms21-CH E3-deficient mutant. ..
- Zhou W, Ryan J, Zhou H. Global analyses of sumoylated proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Induction of protein sumoylation by cellular stresses. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32262-8 pubmed..Taken together, these results show that protein sumoylation is broadly involved in many cellular functions and this mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach is useful in studying the regulation of protein sumoylation in the cells. ..
- Papouli E, Chen S, Davies A, Huttner D, Krejci L, Sung P, et al. Crosstalk between SUMO and ubiquitin on PCNA is mediated by recruitment of the helicase Srs2p. Mol Cell. 2005;19:123-33 pubmed..Our findings suggest a mechanism by which SUMO and ubiquitin cooperatively control the choice of pathway for the processing of DNA lesions during replication. ..
- Schwarz S, Matuschewski K, Liakopoulos D, Scheffner M, Jentsch S. The ubiquitin-like proteins SMT3 and SUMO-1 are conjugated by the UBC9 E2 enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:560-4 pubmedThe ubiquitin-like protein SMT3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and SUMO-1, its mammalian homolog, can be covalently attached to other proteins posttranslationally...
- Johnson E, Blobel G. Ubc9p is the conjugating enzyme for the ubiquitin-like protein Smt3p. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:26799-802 pubmed..cerevisiae. These results suggest that, like ubiquitination, Smt3p conjugation may be a critical modification in cell cycle regulation. ..
- Wang Z, Jones G, Prelich G. Genetic analysis connects SLX5 and SLX8 to the SUMO pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;172:1499-509 pubmed
- Sacher M, Pfander B, Hoege C, Jentsch S. Control of Rad52 recombination activity by double-strand break-induced SUMO modification. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1284-90 pubmed..Furthermore, our data indicate that sumoylation becomes particularly relevant for those Rad52 molecules that are engaged in recombination. ..
- Kolesar P, Sarangi P, Altmannova V, Zhao X, Krejci L. Dual roles of the SUMO-interacting motif in the regulation of Srs2 sumoylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7831-43 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest a potential mechanism for the equilibrium of sumoylated and PCNA-bound pools of Srs2 in cells. ..
- Duda D, van Waardenburg R, Borg L, McGarity S, Nourse A, Waddell M, et al. Structure of a SUMO-binding-motif mimic bound to Smt3p-Ubc9p: conservation of a non-covalent ubiquitin-like protein-E2 complex as a platform for selective interactions within a SUMO pathway. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:619-30 pubmed..The results imply that non-covalent ubiquitin-like protein-E2 complexes are conserved platforms, which function as parts of larger assemblies involved in many protein post-translational regulatory pathways. ..
- Yunus A, Lima C. Structure of the Siz/PIAS SUMO E3 ligase Siz1 and determinants required for SUMO modification of PCNA. Mol Cell. 2009;35:669-82 pubmed publisher..Mutational analysis of Siz1 and PCNA revealed surfaces on both proteins that are required for efficient SUMO modification of PCNA in vitro and in vivo. ..
- Silver H, Nissley J, Reed S, Hou Y, Johnson E. A role for SUMO in nucleotide excision repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:1243-51 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these results suggest that SIZ-dependent sumoylation may modulate the activity of multiple proteins to promote efficient NER. ..
- Biggins S, Bhalla N, Chang A, Smith D, Murray A. Genes involved in sister chromatid separation and segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;159:453-70 pubmed..PDS1, ESP1, and YCS4, are required for sister chromatid separation and three other LOC genes, CSE4, IPL1, and SMT3, are required for chromosome segregation...
- Johnson E, Schwienhorst I, Dohmen R, Blobel G. The ubiquitin-like protein Smt3p is activated for conjugation to other proteins by an Aos1p/Uba2p heterodimer. EMBO J. 1997;16:5509-19 pubmedb>SMT3 is an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a 11.5 kDa protein similar to the mammalian ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1...
- Vigasová D, Sarangi P, Kolesar P, Vlasáková D, Slezakova Z, Altmannova V, et al. Lif1 SUMOylation and its role in non-homologous end-joining. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:5341-53 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings suggest that SUMOylation of Lif1 represents a new regulatory mechanism that downregulates NHEJ in a cell cycle phase-independent manner. ..
- Bachant J, Alcasabas A, Blat Y, Kleckner N, Elledge S. The SUMO-1 isopeptidase Smt4 is linked to centromeric cohesion through SUMO-1 modification of DNA topoisomerase II. Mol Cell. 2002;9:1169-82 pubmedIn S. cerevisiae, posttranslational modification by the ubiquitin-like Smt3/SUMO-1 protein is essential for survival, but functions and cellular targets for this modification are largely unknown...
- Parnas O, Zipin Roitman A, Pfander B, Liefshitz B, Mazor Y, Ben Aroya S, et al. Elg1, an alternative subunit of the RFC clamp loader, preferentially interacts with SUMOylated PCNA. EMBO J. 2010;29:2611-22 pubmed publisher..Strains carrying mutations in both ELG1 and SRS2 exhibit a synthetic fitness defect that depends on PCNA modification. Our results underscore the importance of Elg1, Srs2 and SUMOylated PCNA in the maintenance of genomic stability. ..
- Mullen J, Chen C, Brill S. Wss1 is a SUMO-dependent isopeptidase that interacts genetically with the Slx5-Slx8 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3737-48 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that Wss1 is a SUMO-dependent isopeptidase that acts on sumoylated substrates as they undergo proteasomal degradation. ..
- Wohlschlegel J, Johnson E, Reed S, Yates J. Global analysis of protein sumoylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45662-8 pubmed..Additionally, our global analysis has revealed a number of interesting biological patterns in the list of SUMO targets including a clustering of sumoylation targets within macromolecular complexes. ..
- Denison C, Rudner A, Gerber S, Bakalarski C, Moazed D, Gygi S. A proteomic strategy for gaining insights into protein sumoylation in yeast. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:246-54 pubmed..These data combine with recent works to further our understanding of the breadth and impact of protein sumoylation in a diverse array of biological processes. ..
- Takahashi Y, Yong Gonzalez V, Kikuchi Y, Strunnikov A. SIZ1/SIZ2 control of chromosome transmission fidelity is mediated by the sumoylation of topoisomerase II. Genetics. 2006;172:783-94 pubmedThe Smt3 (SUMO) protein is conjugated to substrate proteins through a cascade of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. In budding yeast, the E3 step in sumoylation is largely controlled by Siz1p and Siz2p...
- Eichinger C, Jentsch S. Synaptonemal complex formation and meiotic checkpoint signaling are linked to the lateral element protein Red1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11370-5 pubmed publisher..Thus, Red1, in addition to its structural role in the SC, is a crucial coordinator of meiosis by coupling checkpoint signaling to SC formation...
- Zhao X, Blobel G. A SUMO ligase is part of a nuclear multiprotein complex that affects DNA repair and chromosomal organization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4777-82 pubmed..We propose that Mms21 sumoylates proteins involved in these diverse processes and that the other members of the complex, particularly Smc5/6, facilitate proper substrate sumoylation by localizing Mms21 to specific chromosomal regions. ..
- Xie Y, Kerscher O, Kroetz M, McConchie H, Sung P, Hochstrasser M. The yeast Hex3.Slx8 heterodimer is a ubiquitin ligase stimulated by substrate sumoylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34176-84 pubmed..Our data reveal a novel mechanism of substrate targeting in which sumoylation of a protein can help trigger its subsequent ubiquitination by recruiting a SUMO-binding ubiquitin ligase. ..
- Bergink S, Ammon T, Kern M, Schermelleh L, Leonhardt H, Jentsch S. Role of Cdc48/p97 as a SUMO-targeted segregase curbing Rad51-Rad52 interaction. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:526-32 pubmed publisher..We propose that Cdc48, through its ability to associate with co-factors that have affinities for ubiquitin and SUMO, connects the two modification pathways for protein degradation or other regulatory purposes. ..
- Bustard D, Menolfi D, Jeppsson K, Ball L, Dewey S, Shirahige K, et al. During replication stress, non-SMC element 5 (NSE5) is required for Smc5/6 protein complex functionality at stalled forks. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11374-83 pubmed publisher..Overall, these data support the premise that Nse5 is important for vital interactions between components within the Smc5/6 complex, and for its functionality during replication stress. ..
- Xie Y, Rubenstein E, Matt T, Hochstrasser M. SUMO-independent in vivo activity of a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase toward a short-lived transcription factor. Genes Dev. 2010;24:893-903 pubmed publisher..We suggest that alpha2, and presumably other proteins, have surface features that mimic SUMO, and therefore can directly recruit STUbLs without prior SUMO conjugation. ..
- Wang Z, Prelich G. Quality control of a transcriptional regulator by SUMO-targeted degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1694-706 pubmed publisher..These results therefore demonstrate that Mot1 is an in vivo STUbL target in yeast and suggest a role for SUMO-targeted degradation in protein quality control. ..
- Meednu N, Hoops H, D Silva S, Pogorzala L, Wood S, Farkas D, et al. The spindle positioning protein Kar9p interacts with the sumoylation machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008;180:2033-55 pubmed publisher..yeast SUMO Smt3p, the E2 enzyme Ubc9p, an E3 Nfi1p, as well as Wss1p, a weak suppressor of a temperature-sensitive smt3 allele. The physical interaction between Kar9p and Ubc9p was confirmed by in vitro binding assays...
- Takahashi Y, Iwase M, Konishi M, Tanaka M, Toh e A, Kikuchi Y. Smt3, a SUMO-1 homolog, is conjugated to Cdc3, a component of septin rings at the mother-bud neck in budding yeast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;259:582-7 pubmedb>SMT3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an essential gene encoding a ubiquitin-like protein similar to mammalian SUMO-1...
- Windecker H, Ulrich H. Architecture and assembly of poly-SUMO chains on PCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:221-31 pubmed
- Mahajan R, Delphin C, Guan T, Gerace L, Melchior F. A small ubiquitin-related polypeptide involved in targeting RanGAP1 to nuclear pore complex protein RanBP2. Cell. 1997;88:97-107 pubmed..Inhibition of nuclear protein import resulting from antibodies directed at NPC-associated RanGAP1 cannot be overcome by soluble cytosolic RanGAP1, indicating that GTP hydrolysis by Ran at RanBP2 is required for nuclear protein import. ..