Gene Symbol: SLT2
Description: mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase SLT2
Alias: BYC2, LYT2, MPK1, SLK2, mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase SLT2
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Lee K, Irie K, Gotoh Y, Watanabe Y, Araki H, Nishida E, et al. A yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog (Mpk1p) mediates signalling by protein kinase C. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:3067-75 pubmed
    ..the isolation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a functional analog of mammalian MAP kinases, designated MPK1 (for MAP kinase)...
  2. Martin H, Rodríguez Pachón J, Ruiz C, Nombela C, Molina M. Regulatory mechanisms for modulation of signaling through the cell integrity Slt2-mediated pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:1511-9 pubmed
    Signal transduction mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Slt2 pathway is essential to maintain the cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  3. Kim K, Truman A, Levin D. Yeast Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase activates transcription through Swi4/Swi6 by a noncatalytic mechanism that requires upstream signal. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the MAPK of this pathway (Mpk1) and its pseudokinase paralog (Mlp1) use a noncatalytic mechanism to activate transcription of the FKS2 gene...
  4. Babour A, Bicknell A, Tourtellotte J, Niwa M. A surveillance pathway monitors the fitness of the endoplasmic reticulum to control its inheritance. Cell. 2010;142:256-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that ER stress in S. cerevisiae activates the MAP kinase Slt2 in a new ER stress surveillance (ERSU) pathway, independent of the unfolded protein response...
  5. Du Y, Walker L, Novick P, Ferro Novick S. Ptc1p regulates cortical ER inheritance via Slt2p. EMBO J. 2006;25:4413-22 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that Ptc1p and Nbp2p regulate ER inheritance through the CWI MAPK pathway by modulating the MAPK, Slt2p. ..
  6. Cherkasova V, Lyons D, Elion E. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Genetics. 1999;151:989-1004 pubmed
    ..Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition. ..
  7. Mizunuma M, Hirata D, Miyahara K, Tsuchiya E, Miyakawa T. Role of calcineurin and Mpk1 in regulating the onset of mitosis in budding yeast. Nature. 1998;392:303-6 pubmed
    ..In the presence of high calcium levels, cells lacking Zds1 are delayed in entering mitosis. Calcineurin and Mpk1 regulate Swel activation at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, respectively, and both are required ..
  8. Manjithaya R, Jain S, Farre J, Subramani S. A yeast MAPK cascade regulates pexophagy but not other autophagy pathways. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that pexophagy requires the simultaneous activation of this MAPK pathway and a hexose-sensing mechanism acting through protein kinase A and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. ..
  9. Scrimale T, Didone L, de Mesy Bentley K, Krysan D. The unfolded protein response is induced by the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and is required for cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the cellular responses to ER and cell wall stress are coordinated to buffer the cell against these two related cellular stresses. ..

More Information


  1. Torres J, Di Como C, Herrero E, De La Torre Ruiz M. Regulation of the cell integrity pathway by rapamycin-sensitive TOR function in budding yeast. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43495-504 pubmed
    ..protein kinase pathway is regulated by TOR function because upon specific Tor1 and Tor2 inhibition by rapamycin, Mpk1 is activated rapidly in a process mediated by Sit4 and Tap42...
  2. Ketela T, Green R, Bussey H. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mid2p is a potential cell wall stress sensor and upstream activator of the PKC1-MPK1 cell integrity pathway. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3330-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have identified an open reading frame, MTL1, which encodes a protein with both structural and functional similarity to Mid2p. ..
  3. Krasley E, Cooper K, Mallory M, Dunbrack R, Strich R. Regulation of the oxidative stress response through Slt2p-dependent destruction of cyclin C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;172:1477-86 pubmed
    ..This destruction pathway is important as deleting cyclin C suppresses the hypersensitivity of slt2 mutants to oxidative damage...
  4. Kim K, Cosano I, Levin D, Molina M, Martín H. Dissecting the transcriptional activation function of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase. Yeast. 2007;24:335-42 pubmed
    ..b>Slt2 and its mammalian orthologue ERK5 are unusual among MAP kinases, in that they possess the ability to activate ..
  5. Philips J, Herskowitz I. Osmotic balance regulates cell fusion during mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:961-74 pubmed
    ..Unlike fps1 mutants, fus1 and fus2 mutants are not influenced by expression of GPD1 or by 1 M sorbitol. Their fusion defect is thus unlikely to result from altered osmotic balance. ..
  6. Hahn J, Thiele D. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slt2 kinase pathway by the stress-inducible Sdp1 dual specificity phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21278-84 pubmed
    The Slt2/Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell integrity pathway is involved in maintenance of cell shape and integrity during vegetative growth and mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  7. Ho H, Shiau Y, Chen M. Saccharomyces cerevisiaeTSC11/AVO3 participates in regulating cell integrity and functionally interacts with components of the Tor2 complex. Curr Genet. 2005;47:273-88 pubmed
  8. Zarzov P, Mazzoni C, Mann C. The SLT2(MPK1) MAP kinase is activated during periods of polarized cell growth in yeast. EMBO J. 1996;15:83-91 pubmed
    The SLT2(MPK1) mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pa thway has been implicated in several biological processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the regulation of cytoskeletal and cell wall structure, polarized cell ..
  9. Madden K, Sheu Y, Baetz K, Andrews B, Snyder M. SBF cell cycle regulator as a target of the yeast PKC-MAP kinase pathway. Science. 1997;275:1781-4 pubmed
    ..In the budding yeast, PKC1 functions to activate the SLT2(MPK1) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, which is required for the maintenance of cell integrity ..
  10. Palacios L, Dickinson R, Sacristán Reviriego A, Didmon M, Marin M, Martín H, et al. Distinct docking mechanisms mediate interactions between the Msg5 phosphatase and mating or cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42037-50 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, the yeast dual specificity phosphatase Msg5 dephosphorylates the Fus3 and Slt2 MAPKs operating in the mating and cell wall integrity pathways, respectively...
  11. Nonaka H, Tanaka K, Hirano H, Fujiwara T, Kohno H, Umikawa M, et al. A downstream target of RHO1 small GTP-binding protein is PKC1, a homolog of protein kinase C, which leads to activation of the MAP kinase cascade in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1995;14:5931-8 pubmed
    ..MKK1 and MPK1 encode MAP kinase kinase and MAP kinase homologs, respectively, and function downstream of PKC1...
  12. Li X, Du Y, Siegel S, Ferro Novick S, Novick P. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, Slt2p, at bud tips blocks a late stage of endoplasmic reticulum inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1772-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The PI4P5-kinase, Mss4p, is an upstream activator of this pool of Slt2p. Ptc1p-dependant inactivation of Slt2p is also needed for mitochondrial inheritance; however, in this case, the relevant pool of Slt2p is not at the bud tip. ..
  13. Ray A, Hector R, Roy N, Song J, Berkner K, Runge K. Sir3p phosphorylation by the Slt2p pathway effects redistribution of silencing function and shortened lifespan. Nat Genet. 2003;33:522-6 pubmed
    ..Lifespan extension occurs by a mechanism that is independent of suppressing rDNA recombination. Thus, Slt2p is an enzymatic regulator of silencing function that couples commitment to cell growth and shorter lifespan. ..
  14. Truman A, Millson S, Nuttall J, King V, Mollapour M, Prodromou C, et al. Expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human ERK5 is a client of the Hsp90 chaperone that complements loss of the Slt2p (Mpk1p) cell integrity stress-activated protein kinase. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1914-24 pubmed
    ..Complementation of the slt2Delta yeast defect by ERK5 expression establishes a new tool with which to screen for novel agonists and antagonists of ERK5 signaling as well as for isolating mutant forms of ERK5. ..
  15. Jimenez Sanchez M, Cid V, Molina M. Retrophosphorylation of Mkk1 and Mkk2 MAPKKs by the Slt2 MAPK in the yeast cell integrity pathway. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31174-85 pubmed
    ..of the Rho1 small GTPase and protein kinase C Pkc1 and consists of MAPKKK Bck1, MAPKKs Mkk1 and Mkk2, and the Slt2 MAPK...
  16. Soulard A, Cremonesi A, Moes S, Schutz F, Jeno P, Hall M. The rapamycin-sensitive phosphoproteome reveals that TOR controls protein kinase A toward some but not all substrates. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3475-86 pubmed publisher
    ..T129 phosphorylation by phosphorylating and activating the S6K homolog SCH9 that in turn inhibits the MAP kinase MPK1. MPK1 phosphorylates BCY1 T129 directly...
  17. Flandez M, Cosano I, Nombela C, Martín H, Molina M. Reciprocal regulation between Slt2 MAPK and isoforms of Msg5 dual-specificity protein phosphatase modulates the yeast cell integrity pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11027-34 pubmed
    ..that the N-terminal non-catalytic region of this phosphatase was responsible for binding to the kinase domain of Slt2, the MAPK that operates in this pathway...
  18. Zhao C, Jung U, Garrett Engele P, Roe T, Cyert M, Levin D. Temperature-induced expression of yeast FKS2 is under the dual control of protein kinase C and calcineurin. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1013-22 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that FKS2 expression is induced as cells enter stationary phase through a SNF1-, calcineurin-, and cell integrity signaling-independent pathway. ..
  19. Mao K, Wang K, Zhao M, Xu T, Klionsky D. Two MAPK-signaling pathways are required for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Slt2 and Hog1, are required for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  20. Kim K, Levin D. Mpk1 MAPK association with the Paf1 complex blocks Sen1-mediated premature transcription termination. Cell. 2011;144:745-56 pubmed publisher
    The Mpk1 MAPK of the yeast cell wall integrity pathway uses a noncatalytic mechanism to activate transcription of stress-induced genes by recruitment of initiation factors to target promoters...
  21. Watanabe Y, Irie K, Matsumoto K. Yeast RLM1 encodes a serum response factor-like protein that may function downstream of the Mpk1 (Slt2) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:5740-9 pubmed
    The MPK1 (SLT2) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase that is regulated by a kinase cascade whose known elements are Pkc1 (a homolog of protein kinase C), Bck1 (Slk1) (a homolog of MEK kinase), and ..
  22. Schmelzle T, Helliwell S, Hall M. Yeast protein kinases and the RHO1 exchange factor TUS1 are novel components of the cell integrity pathway in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1329-39 pubmed
    ..ypk mutants display random distribution of the actin cytoskeleton and severely reduced activation of the MAP kinase MPK1. Upregulation of the RHO1 GTPase switch or the PKC1 effector MAP kinase pathway suppresses the growth and actin ..
  23. Collister M, Didmon M, MacIsaac F, Stark M, MacDonald N, Keyse S. YIL113w encodes a functional dual-specificity protein phosphatase which specifically interacts with and inactivates the Slt2/Mpk1p MAP kinase in S. cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2002;527:186-92 pubmed
    ..In support of this we find that Yil113p specifically interacts with the stress-activated Slt2/Mpk1p MAP kinase of S. cerevisiae...
  24. Gray J, Ogas J, Kamada Y, Stone M, Levin D, Herskowitz I. A role for the Pkc1 MAP kinase pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bud emergence and identification of a putative upstream regulator. EMBO J. 1997;16:4924-37 pubmed
    The protein kinase C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pkc1, regulates a MAP kinase, Mpk1, whose activity is stimulated at the G1-S transition of the cell cycle and by perturbations to the cell surface, e.g. induced by heat shock...
  25. Kim K, Truman A, Caesar S, Schlenstedt G, Levin D. Yeast Mpk1 cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Swi6 transcriptional regulator. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1609-19 pubmed publisher
    ..SBF serves a second function in the transcriptional response to cell wall stress in which activated Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway forms a complex with Swi4, the DNA ..
  26. Bermejo C, Rodriguez E, Garcia R, Rodríguez Peña J, Rodríguez de la Concepción M, Rivas C, et al. The sequential activation of the yeast HOG and SLT2 pathways is required for cell survival to cell wall stress. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1113-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The MAPKs Slt2/Mpk1 and Hog1 regulate transcriptional responses of adaptation to cell wall and osmotic stresses, respectively...
  27. Truman A, Kim K, Levin D. Mechanism of Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase binding to the Swi4 transcription factor and its regulation by a novel caffeine-induced phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6449-61 pubmed publisher
    The Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway uses a noncatalytic mechanism to activate the SBF (Swi4/Swi6) transcription factor...
  28. Mazzoni C, Zarov P, Rambourg A, Mann C. The SLT2 (MPK1) MAP kinase homolog is involved in polarized cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:1821-33 pubmed
    ..J., and S. I. Reed. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:1305-1320). We isolated slt2-1 as a mutation that enhances the division defect of cdc28 mutants with defects at Start...
  29. Harrison J, Bardes E, Ohya Y, Lew D. A role for the Pkc1p/Mpk1p kinase cascade in the morphogenesis checkpoint. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:417-20 pubmed
    ..The G2 delay involves stabilization of Swe1p in response to various actin perturbations, although this alone is insufficient to produce a long G2 delay. ..
  30. van Drogen F, Peter M. Spa2p functions as a scaffold-like protein to recruit the Mpk1p MAP kinase module to sites of polarized growth. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1698-703 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Spa2p functions as a scaffold-like protein for the cell wall integrity pathway during polarized growth. ..
  31. Jung U, Levin D. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression regulated by the yeast cell wall integrity signalling pathway. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:1049-57 pubmed
    ..We conducted a genome-wide survey of genes whose expression was altered in response to activation of Mpk1/Slt2, the MAP kinase, under the control of cell integrity signalling...
  32. Reinke A, Anderson S, McCaffery J, Yates J, Aronova S, Chu S, et al. TOR complex 1 includes a novel component, Tco89p (YPL180w), and cooperates with Ssd1p to maintain cellular integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14752-62 pubmed
    ..Together, these results define a novel connection between TORC1 and Ssd1p-mediated maintenance of cellular integrity. ..
  33. Huang K, Symington L. Suppressors of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae pkc1 mutation identify alleles of the phosphatase gene PTC1 and of a novel gene encoding a putative basic leucine zipper protein. Genetics. 1995;141:1275-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the ptc1 deletion mutation is synthetically lethal in combination with a mutation in MPK1, which encodes a MAPK homologue proposed to act in the PKC1 pathway...
  34. Marin M, Flandez M, Bermejo C, Arroyo J, Martín H, Molina M. Different modulation of the outputs of yeast MAPK-mediated pathways by distinct stimuli and isoforms of the dual-specificity phosphatase Msg5. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;281:345-59 pubmed publisher two isoforms of different length, dephosphorylates the MAPKs of mating and cell integrity pathways, Fus3 and Slt2, respectively, but its action on the MAPK Kss1 is unclear...
  35. Baetz K, Moffat J, Haynes J, Chang M, Andrews B. Transcriptional coregulation by the cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 and the cell cycle regulator Swi4. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6515-28 pubmed gene expression but also with highly polarized cell growth; the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Slt2 is required to maintain cell wall integrity during periods of polarized growth and cell wall stress...
  36. Watanabe Y, Takaesu G, Hagiwara M, Irie K, Matsumoto K. Characterization of a serum response factor-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rlm1, which has transcriptional activity regulated by the Mpk1 (Slt2) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2615-23 pubmed
    The Mpk1 (Slt2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase has been implicated in several biological processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  37. Liu M, Huang C, Polu S, Schneiter R, Chang A. Regulation of sphingolipid synthesis through Orm1 and Orm2 in yeast. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sphingolipid synthesis and the UPR are coordinately regulated. ..
  38. Ugbogu E, Wang K, Schweizer L, Schweizer M. Metabolic gene products have evolved to interact with the cell wall integrity pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2016;16: pubmed
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that Prs1 interacts with the CWI MAPK pathway, only when Slt2 has been phosphorylated by Mkk1/2...
  39. Wang Y, Zhu M, Ayalew M, Ruff J. Down-regulation of Pkc1-mediated signaling by the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp3. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1954-61 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the UBP3 gene leads to an enhanced activation of the cell wall integrity pathway MAPK Slt2 when cells are challenged with a variety of pathway activation agents such as pheromone and Congo red...
  40. Nehil M, Tamble C, Combs D, Kellogg D, Lokey R. Uncovering genetic relationships using small molecules that selectively target yeast cell cycle mutants. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2007;69:258-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an approach for combining chemical synthetic lethality and chemical genomic screens to uncover novel genetic interactions that can be applied to other eukaryotic pathways of interest. ..
  41. Lee K, Hines L, Levin D. A pair of functionally redundant yeast genes (PPZ1 and PPZ2) encoding type 1-related protein phosphatases function within the PKC1-mediated pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:5843-53 pubmed
    ..Here we describe two genes whose overexpression suppress both an mpk1 delta mutation and a pkc1 delta mutation. One of these genes is identical to the previously identified PPZ2 gene...
  42. Queralt E, Igual J. Functional connection between the Clb5 cyclin, the protein kinase C pathway and the Swi4 transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;171:1485-98 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, genes of the PKC pathway rescue the growth defect of clb5 swi4, and pkc1 and slt2 mutations are synthetic lethal with clb5, pointing to a connection between Clb5, the PKC pathway, and Swi4...
  43. Rodríguez Quiñones J, Irizarry R, Díaz Blanco N, Rivera Molina F, Gómez Garzón D, RODRIGUEZ MEDINA J. Global mRNA expression analysis in myosin II deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals an impairment of cell integrity functions. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:34 pubmed publisher
    ..The SLT2/MPK1 gene was up regulated in the microarray, and a myo1Deltaslt2Delta double mutant was non-viable...
  44. Goshen Lago T, Goldberg Carp A, Melamed D, Darlyuk Saadon I, Bai C, Ahn N, et al. Variants of the yeast MAPK Mpk1 are fully functional independently of activation loop phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:2771-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied variants of Mpk1, a yeast orthologue of Erk, which is essential for cell wall integrity...
  45. PINA F, FLEMING T, Pogliano K, Niwa M. Reticulons Regulate the ER Inheritance Block during ER Stress. Dev Cell. 2016;37:279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Reticulon/Yop1-dependent changes in ER structure are linked to ER inheritance during the yeast cell cycle. ..
  46. García R, Sanz A, Rodríguez Peña J, Nombela C, Arroyo J. Rlm1 mediates positive autoregulatory transcriptional feedback that is essential for Slt2-dependent gene expression. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:1649-60 pubmed publisher
    ..that is largely dependent on the transcription factor Rlm1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Slt2. Upon cell wall stress, the transcription factor Rlm1 is recruited to the promoters of RLM1 and SLT2, and exerts ..
  47. Backhaus K, Rippert D, Heilmann C, Sorgo A, de Koster C, Klis F, et al. Mutations in SNF1 complex genes affect yeast cell wall strength. Eur J Cell Biol. 2013;92:383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Epistasis analyses with mutants in cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling confirm that the SNF1 complex and the CWI pathway independently affect yeast cell integrity. ..
  48. Breton A, Schaeffer J, Aigle M. The yeast Rvs161 and Rvs167 proteins are involved in secretory vesicles targeting the plasma membrane and in cell integrity. Yeast. 2001;18:1053-68 pubmed
    ..They are synthetic-lethal with the slt2/mpk1 mutation, which affects the MAP kinase cascade controlled by Pkc1p and is required for cell integrity...
  49. Ai W, Bertram P, Tsang C, Chan T, Zheng X. Regulation of subtelomeric silencing during stress response. Mol Cell. 2002;10:1295-305 pubmed
    ..Rapamycin or stress induced by chlorpromazine leads to activation of MAP kinase Mpk1/Slt2, which phosphorylates Sir3...
  50. Shitamukai A, Hirata D, Sonobe S, Miyakawa T. Evidence for antagonistic regulation of cell growth by the calcineurin and high osmolarity glycerol pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:3651-61 pubmed
    Because Ca(2+) signaling of budding yeast, through the activation of calcineurin and the Mpk1/Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, performs redundant function(s) in the events essential for growth, the simultaneous deletion of ..
  51. Melikant B, Giuliani C, Halbmayer Watzina S, Limmongkon A, Heberle Bors E, Wilson C. The Arabidopsis thaliana MEK AtMKK6 activates the MAP kinase AtMPK13. FEBS Lett. 2004;576:5-8 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analysis showed the co-expression of these two genes in diverse plant tissues. These data show that AtMKK6 can functionally activate the MAP kinase AtMPK13. ..
  52. Perez J, Arcones I, Gomez A, Casquero V, Roncero C. Phosphorylation of Bni4 by MAP kinases contributes to septum assembly during yeast cytokinesis. FEMS Yeast Res. 2016;16: pubmed publisher
    Previous work has shown that the synthetic lethality of the slt2?rim101? mutant results from a combination of factors, including improper functioning of the septum assembly machinery...
  53. Sharmin D, Sasano Y, Sugiyama M, Harashima S. Type 2C protein phosphatase Ptc6 participates in activation of the Slt2-mediated cell wall integrity pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng. 2015;119:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of phosphorylated Slt2 increased significantly after CR treatment in Δptc1 cells and more so in Δptc1Δptc6 cells; therefore, ..
  54. Gardarin A, Chédin S, Lagniel G, Aude J, Godat E, Catty P, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum is a major target of cadmium toxicity in yeast. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1034-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, Cd(2+) activates the calcium channel Cch1/Mid1, which also contributes to Cd(2+) entry into the cell. The results reinforce the interest of using yeast as a cellular model to study toxicity mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. ..
  55. Hu F, Alcasabas A, Elledge S. Asf1 links Rad53 to control of chromatin assembly. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1061-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, checkpoint pathways directly regulate chromatin assembly to promote survival in response to DNA damage and replication blocks. ..
  56. Piper P, Truman A, Millson S, Nuttall J. Hsp90 chaperone control over transcriptional regulation by the yeast Slt2(Mpk1)p and human ERK5 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:783-5 pubmed
    ..integrity MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) function can be provided in yeast cells by either the native Slt2(Mpk1)p of yeast or by a heterologously expressed human ERK5 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5)...
  57. Li X, Ferro Novick S, Novick P. Different polarisome components play distinct roles in Slt2p-regulated cortical ER inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to a common mechanism for the regulation of ER inheritance in which Slt2p activity at the bud tip controls the association of the ER with the actin-based cytoskeleton...
  58. Ragni E, Piberger H, Neupert C, García Cantalejo J, Popolo L, Arroyo J, et al. The genetic interaction network of CCW12, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for cell wall integrity during budding and formation of mating projections. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:107 pubmed publisher
    ..Among those are BCK1, CHS3, EDE1, PFD1, SLT2 and SLA1 that were also identified in the SGA...
  59. Castrejon F, Gomez A, Sanz M, Duran A, Roncero C. The RIM101 pathway contributes to yeast cell wall assembly and its function becomes essential in the absence of mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2p. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:507-17 pubmed
    ..the cell wall compensatory response in this mutant was very poor, as indicated by the almost complete absence of Slt2 phosphorylation and the modest increase in chitin synthesis after calcofluor treatment...
  60. Ahmadpour D, Maciaszczyk Dziubinska E, Babazadeh R, Dahal S, Migocka M, Andersson M, et al. The mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 modulates arsenite transport through the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:3649-3659 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that another MAPK, Slt2, is transiently phosphorylated in response to arsenite influx...
  61. Birkaya B, Maddi A, Joshi J, Free S, Cullen P. Role of the cell wall integrity and filamentous growth mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in cell wall remodeling during filamentous growth. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1118-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of ss-1,3-glucan linkages induced mucin shedding and resulted in defects in cell-cell adhesion and invasion of cells into the agar matrix. ..
  62. Turchini A, Ferrario L, Popolo L. Increase of external osmolarity reduces morphogenetic defects and accumulation of chitin in a gas1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:1167-71 pubmed
    ..GAS1 deletion was found to be lethal in the absence of the Bck1 and Slt2 (Mpk1) proteins of the cell integrity pathway.
  63. Claret S, Gatti X, Doignon F, Thoraval D, Crouzet M. The Rgd1p Rho GTPase-activating protein and the Mid2p cell wall sensor are required at low pH for protein kinase C pathway activation and cell survival in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1375-86 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that this pathway mediates tolerance to low pH and that the Bck1 and Slt2 proteins belonging to the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are essential for cell survival at low pH...
  64. Paravicini G, Friedli L. Protein-protein interactions in the yeast PKC1 pathway: Pkc1p interacts with a component of the MAP kinase cascade. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;251:682-91 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the members of the PKC1-mediated MAP kinase cascade form a complex in vivo and that Pkc1p is capable of directly interacting with at least one component of this pathway. ..
  65. Rousseau A, Bertolotti A. An evolutionarily conserved pathway controls proteasome homeostasis. Nature. 2016;536:184-9 pubmed
    ..Downstream of TORC1 inhibition, the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mpk1, acts to increase the supply of RACs and proteasome subunits under challenging conditions in order to maintain ..
  66. Jacoby J, Nilius S, Heinisch J. A screen for upstream components of the yeast protein kinase C signal transduction pathway identifies the product of the SLG1 gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;258:148-55 pubmed
    ..can be partially suppressed by overexpression of genes for other components of the Pkc pathway, such as PKC1, SLT2, ROM2, and STE20...