Gene Symbol: SHO1
Description: osmosensor SHO1
Alias: SSU81, osmosensor SHO1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Hao N, Behar M, Parnell S, Torres M, Borchers C, Elston T, et al. A systems-biology analysis of feedback inhibition in the Sho1 osmotic-stress-response pathway. Curr Biol. 2007;17:659-67 pubmed
    ..Experimental analysis revealed that the membrane-bound osmosensor Sho1 is phosphorylated by Hog1 and that phosphorylation occurs on Ser-166...
  2. O Rourke S, Herskowitz I. A third osmosensing branch in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Msb2 protein and functions in parallel with the Sho1 branch. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4739-49 pubmed
    Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane-spanning proteins, Sho1 and Sln1, function during increased osmolarity to activate a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade...
  3. Tatebayashi K, Yamamoto K, Tanaka K, Tomida T, Maruoka T, Kasukawa E, et al. Adaptor functions of Cdc42, Ste50, and Sho1 in the yeast osmoregulatory HOG MAPK pathway. EMBO J. 2006;25:3033-44 pubmed
    ..osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway can be activated by either of the two upstream pathways, termed the SHO1 and SLN1 branches...
  4. Cullen P, Sabbagh W, Graham E, Irick M, van Olden E, Neal C, et al. A signaling mucin at the head of the Cdc42- and MAPK-dependent filamentous growth pathway in yeast. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1695-708 pubmed
    ..surface and interacts with Cdc42 and with the osmosensor for the high osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway, Sho1. Msb2 is glycosylated and is a member of the mucin family, proteins that in mammalian cells promote disease ..
  5. Maeda T, Takekawa M, Saito H. Activation of yeast PBS2 MAPKK by MAPKKKs or by binding of an SH3-containing osmosensor. Science. 1995;269:554-8 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, Pbs2p was activated by a mechanism that involves the binding of its amino terminal proline-rich motif to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of a putative transmembrane osmosensor Sho1p. ..
  6. Zarrinpar A, Bhattacharyya R, Nittler M, Lim W. Sho1 and Pbs2 act as coscaffolds linking components in the yeast high osmolarity MAP kinase pathway. Mol Cell. 2004;14:825-32 pubmed
    ..response pathway, the MAP kinase kinase Pbs2 is thought to function as a scaffold, since it binds the osmosensor Sho1, the upstream MAP kinase kinase kinase Ste11, and the downstream MAP kinase Hog1...
  7. Marles J, Dahesh S, Haynes J, Andrews B, Davidson A. Protein-protein interaction affinity plays a crucial role in controlling the Sho1p-mediated signal transduction pathway in yeast. Mol Cell. 2004;14:813-23 pubmed
    ..Our experiments also indicate that a second binding surface on the Sho1p SH3 domain is required for its proper in vivo function. ..
  8. Leng G, Song K. Direct interaction of Ste11 and Mkk1/2 through Nst1 integrates high-osmolarity glycerol and pheromone pathways to the cell wall integrity MAPK pathway. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:148-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Ser(407) and Thr(411) are novel residues of Mkk1 activated by these MAPK pathways. ..
  9. Adhikari H, Caccamise L, Pande T, Cullen P. Comparative Analysis of Transmembrane Regulators of the Filamentous Growth Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Uncovers Functional and Regulatory Differences. Eukaryot Cell. 2015;14:868-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This specialization may be important for fine-tuning and potentially diversifying the filamentation response. ..

More Information


  1. Bagnat M, Simons K. Cell surface polarization during yeast mating. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14183-8 pubmed
    ..Our results show that membrane microdomain clustering at the mating projection is involved in the generation and maintenance of polarity during mating. ..
  2. Fassler J, Gray W, Malone C, Tao W, Lin H, Deschenes R. Activated alleles of yeast SLN1 increase Mcm1-dependent reporter gene expression and diminish signaling through the Hog1 osmosensing pathway. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13365-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that increased Sln1p phosphorylation both stimulates Mcm1p activity and diminishes signaling through the Hog1 osmosensing pathway. ..
  3. Takatsume Y, Ohdate T, Maeta K, Nomura W, Izawa S, Inoue Y. Calcineurin/Crz1 destabilizes Msn2 and Msn4 in the nucleus in response to Ca(2+) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2010;427:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Crz1 destabilizes Msn2/Msn4 in the nuclei of cells in response to Ca2+ signalling. ..
  4. Zhou J, Zhong Q, Li G, Greenberg M. Loss of cardiolipin leads to longevity defects that are alleviated by alterations in stress response signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18106-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show for the first time that perturbation of CL synthesis leads to decreased longevity in yeast, which is restored by altering signaling through stress response pathways. ..
  5. Zuzuarregui A, Kupka T, Bhatt B, Dohnal I, Mudrak I, Friedmann C, et al. M-Track: detecting short-lived protein-protein interactions in vivo. Nat Methods. 2012;9:594-6 pubmed publisher
  6. Pitoniak A, Chavel C, Chow J, Smith J, Camara D, Karunanithi S, et al. Cdc42p-interacting protein Bem4p regulates the filamentous-growth mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:417-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Bem4p also interacted with the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) Ste11p. Thus, Bem4p is a new regulator of the filamentous-growth MAPK pathway and binds to general proteins, like Cdc42p and Ste11p, to promote a pathway-specific response. ..
  7. Vadaie N, Dionne H, Akajagbor D, Nickerson S, Krysan D, Cullen P. Cleavage of the signaling mucin Msb2 by the aspartyl protease Yps1 is required for MAPK activation in yeast. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:1073-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that cleavage-dependent activation is a general feature of signaling mucins, which brings to light a novel regulatory aspect of this class of signaling adhesion molecule. ..
  8. Shen Z, Li Y, Gasparski A, Abeliovich H, Greenberg M. Cardiolipin Regulates Mitophagy through the Protein Kinase C Pathway. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:2916-2923 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of both MAPKs was defective in CL-deficient cells. Deletion of HOG pathway genes SHO1, SSK1, STE50, and HOG1 exacerbated crd1Δ growth. 1 m sorbitol and 0...
  9. Zuzuarregui A, Li T, Friedmann C, Ammerer G, Alepuz P. Msb2 is a Ste11 membrane concentrator required for full activation of the HOG pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1849:722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..protein interaction profile during acute stress exposure, with an emphasis on the sensory system of the so-called Sho1/Msb2 signaling branch...
  10. Tatebayashi K, Yamamoto K, Nagoya M, Takayama T, Nishimura A, Sakurai M, et al. Osmosensing and scaffolding functions of the oligomeric four-transmembrane domain osmosensor Sho1. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6975 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the four-transmembrane (TM) domain protein Sho1 is an osmosensor in the HKR1 sub-branch of the HOG pathway...
  11. Lien E, Nagiec M, Dohlman H. Proper protein glycosylation promotes mitogen-activated protein kinase signal fidelity. Biochemistry. 2013;52:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal new components of the N-glycosylation machinery needed to ensure MAPK signaling fidelity. ..
  12. Li S, Diakov T, Rizzo J, Kane P. Vacuolar H+-ATPase works in parallel with the HOG pathway to adapt Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to osmotic stress. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that the V-ATPase acts in parallel with the HOG pathway in order to mediate salt detoxification. ..
  13. Nishimura A, Yamamoto K, Oyama M, Kozuka Hata H, Saito H, Tatebayashi K. Scaffold Protein Ahk1, Which Associates with Hkr1, Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2, Inhibits Cross Talk Signaling from the Hkr1 Osmosensor to the Kss1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1109-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to Hkr1-cyto binding, Ahk1 also bound to other signaling molecules in the HKR1 subbranch, including Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2...
  14. Thorne T, Ho H, Huvet M, Haynes K, Stumpf M. Prediction of putative protein interactions through evolutionary analysis of osmotic stress response in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We do find that correlated evolution provides some useful information for the prediction of protein-protein interactions, but that these alone are not sufficient to explain detectable patterns of correlated evolution. ..
  15. Adhikari H, Cullen P. Role of phosphatidylinositol phosphate signaling in the regulation of the filamentous-growth mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Eukaryot Cell. 2015;14:427-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the study extends the roles of PI signaling to a differentiation MAPK pathway and other cellular processes. ..
  16. Tatebayashi K, Tanaka K, Yang H, Yamamoto K, Matsushita Y, Tomida T, et al. Transmembrane mucins Hkr1 and Msb2 are putative osmosensors in the SHO1 branch of yeast HOG pathway. EMBO J. 2007;26:3521-33 pubmed
    ..Upstream of the HOG pathway are functionally redundant SLN1 and SHO1 signaling branches...
  17. Furukawa K, Sidoux Walter F, Hohmann S. Expression of the yeast aquaporin Aqy2 affects cell surface properties under the control of osmoregulatory and morphogenic signalling pathways. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1272-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest a potential link between aquaporins and cell surface properties, and relate to the proposed role of mammalian aquaporins in tumour cell migration and invasion. ..
  18. O Rourke S, Herskowitz I. The Hog1 MAPK prevents cross talk between the HOG and pheromone response MAPK pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2874-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have found that pseudohyphal growth exhibited by wild-type (HOG1) strains depends on SHO1, suggesting that Sho1p may be a receptor that feeds into the pseudohyphal growth pathway.
  19. Aguilera J, Rodríguez Vargas S, Prieto J. The HOG MAP kinase pathway is required for the induction of methylglyoxal-responsive genes and determines methylglyoxal resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:228-39 pubmed
  20. Tanaka K, Tatebayashi K, Nishimura A, Yamamoto K, Yang H, Saito H. Yeast osmosensors Hkr1 and Msb2 activate the Hog1 MAPK cascade by different mechanisms. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra21 pubmed publisher
    ..osmosensing systems involving the transmembrane sensor histidine kinase Sln1 or the tetraspanning membrane protein Sho1 stimulate the Hog1 MAPK cascade...
  21. Nelson B, Parsons A, Evangelista M, Schaefer K, Kennedy K, Ritchie S, et al. Fus1p interacts with components of the Hog1p mitogen-activated protein kinase and Cdc42p morphogenesis signaling pathways to control cell fusion during yeast mating. Genetics. 2004;166:67-77 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Fus1p acts as a scaffold for the assembly of a cell surface complex involved in polarized secretion of septum-degrading enzymes and inhibition of HOG pathway signaling to promote cell fusion. ..
  22. Burchett S, Flanary P, Aston C, Jiang L, Young K, Uetz P, et al. Regulation of stress response signaling by the N-terminal dishevelled/EGL-10/pleckstrin domain of Sst2, a regulator of G protein signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22156-67 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Vps36 and Sst2 have opposite and opposing effects on the pheromone and stress response pathways, with Vps36 acting downstream of the G protein and independently of Sst2 RGS activity. ..
  23. Lam M, Snider J, Rehal M, Wong V, Aboualizadeh F, Drecun L, et al. A Comprehensive Membrane Interactome Mapping of Sho1p Reveals Fps1p as a Novel Key Player in the Regulation of the HOG Pathway in S. cerevisiae. J Mol Biol. 2015;427:2088-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This study represents the largest membrane interactome analysis of Sho1p to date and complements past studies on the HOG pathway by increasing our understanding of Sho1p regulation. ..
  24. Winkler A, Arkind C, Mattison C, Burkholder A, Knoche K, Ota I. Heat stress activates the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and protein tyrosine phosphatases are essential under heat stress. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:163-73 pubmed
    ..In this work, we show that the Hog1 MAPK is also activated by heat stress and that Sho1, previously identified as a membrane-bound osmosensor, is required for heat stress activation of Hog1...
  25. Toh e A, Oguchi T. Defects in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor synthesis activate Hog1 kinase and confer copper-resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisisae. Genes Genet Syst. 2001;76:393-410 pubmed
    ..The constitutive activation was canceled by introducing the sskl mutation, but not the sho1 mutation, in each GPI anchor mutant tested, suggesting that the defect in GPI anchor synthesis specifically affects ..
  26. Basu S, Vadaie N, Prabhakar A, Li B, Adhikari H, Pitoniak A, et al. Spatial landmarks regulate a Cdc42-dependent MAPK pathway to control differentiation and the response to positional compromise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E2019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a surveillance mechanism monitors spatial position in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stress and modulates the response through a differentiation MAPK pathway. ..
  27. Pitoniak A, Birkaya B, Dionne H, Vadaie N, Cullen P. The signaling mucins Msb2 and Hkr1 differentially regulate the filamentation mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and contribute to a multimodal response. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Msb2p had a function in cell polarization through the adaptor protein Sho1p that Hkr1p did not. Differential MAPK activation by signaling mucins brings to light a new point of discrimination between MAPK pathways. ..
  28. Reiser V, Salah S, Ammerer G. Polarized localization of yeast Pbs2 depends on osmostress, the membrane protein Sho1 and Cdc42. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:620-7 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon depends of the osmosensor Sho1 and on a functional Cdc42 GTPase...
  29. Labedzka K, Tian C, Nussbaumer U, Timmermann S, Walther P, Müller J, et al. Sho1p connects the plasma membrane with proteins of the cytokinesis network through multiple isomeric interaction states. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to the overlapping binding specificities of its members the HICS complex is best described as ensembles of isomeric interaction states that precisely coordinate the different functions of the interactors during cytokinesis. ..
  30. Birkaya B, Maddi A, Joshi J, Free S, Cullen P. Role of the cell wall integrity and filamentous growth mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in cell wall remodeling during filamentous growth. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1118-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of ss-1,3-glucan linkages induced mucin shedding and resulted in defects in cell-cell adhesion and invasion of cells into the agar matrix. ..
  31. Thorsen M, Di Y, Tängemo C, Morillas M, Ahmadpour D, Van der Does C, et al. The MAPK Hog1p modulates Fps1p-dependent arsenite uptake and tolerance in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4400-10 pubmed
    ..Understanding how arsenite/antimonite uptake and toxicity is modulated may prove of value for their use in medical therapy. ..
  32. Zarrinpar A, Park S, Lim W. Optimization of specificity in a cellular protein interaction network by negative selection. Nature. 2003;426:676-80 pubmed
    ..that an isolated peptide ligand from the yeast protein Pbs2 recognizes its biological partner, the SH3 domain from Sho1, with near-absolute specificity--no other SH3 domain present in the yeast genome cross-reacts with the Pbs2 peptide,..
  33. Posas F, Saito H. Osmotic activation of the HOG MAPK pathway via Ste11p MAPKKK: scaffold role of Pbs2p MAPKK. Science. 1997;276:1702-5 pubmed
    ..The MAPKK Pbs2p bound to the Sho1p osmosensor, the MAPKKK Ste11p, and the MAPK Hog1p. Thus, Pbs2p may serve as a scaffold protein. ..
  34. Singh K. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sln1p-Ssk1p two-component system mediates response to oxidative stress and in an oxidant-specific fashion. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29:1043-50 pubmed
    ..Data is presented that shows Sho1 and Hog1 proteins are also involved in signaling oxidant-specific cellular damage...