Gene Symbol: SEC12
Description: Sar family guanine nucleotide exchange factor SEC12
Alias: SED2, Sar family guanine nucleotide exchange factor SEC12
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Barlowe C, Schekman R. SEC12 encodes a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor essential for transport vesicle budding from the ER. Nature. 1993;365:347-9 pubmed
    ..glycoprotein that is essential for transport vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is encoded by SEC12 (refs 1-3)...
  2. d Enfert C, Barlowe C, Nishikawa S, Nakano A, Schekman R. Structural and functional dissection of a membrane glycoprotein required for vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:5727-34 pubmed
    ..Expression of a soluble cytoplasmic domain dramatically inhibited the growth of a sec12 temperature-sensitive strain by increasing the transport defect at a normally permissive temperature...
  3. Nakano A, Muramatsu M. A novel GTP-binding protein, Sar1p, is involved in transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:2677-91 pubmed
    SAR1, a gene that has been isolated as a multicopy suppressor of the yeast ER-Golgi transport mutant sec12, encodes a novel GTP-binding protein...
  4. Gimeno R, Espenshade P, Kaiser C. SED4 encodes a yeast endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds Sec16p and participates in vesicle formation. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:325-38 pubmed
    ..Sec12p, a close homologue of Sed4p, also acts early in the assembly of transport vesicles. However, SEC12 performs a different function than SED4 since Sec12p does not bind Sec16p, and genetic tests show that SEC12 and ..
  5. Oka T, Nakano A. Inhibition of GTP hydrolysis by Sar1p causes accumulation of vesicles that are a functional intermediate of the ER-to-Golgi transport in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1994;124:425-34 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we show that Sar1p can remedy the temperature-sensitive defect of the sec12 mutant membranes, which is in the formation of ER-to-Golgi transport vesicles...
  6. Sato K, Nakano A. Dissection of COPII subunit-cargo assembly and disassembly kinetics during Sar1p-GTP hydrolysis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:167-74 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a model for the maintenance of kinetically stable prebudding complexes during the Sar1p GTPase cycle that regulates cargo sorting into transport vesicles. ..
  7. Saito Y, Yamanushi T, Oka T, Nakano A. Identification of SEC12, SED4, truncated SEC16, and EKS1/HRD3 as multicopy suppressors of ts mutants of Sar1 GTPase. J Biochem. 1999;125:130-7 pubmed its GTPase cycle, we searched for multicopy suppressors of sar1 temperature-sensitive mutants and identified SEC12, SED4, truncated SEC16, and EKS1...
  8. Gilstring C, Melin Larsson M, Ljungdahl P. Shr3p mediates specific COPII coatomer-cargo interactions required for the packaging of amino acid permeases into ER-derived transport vesicles. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3549-65 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of either Shr3p or shr3-23p partially suppresses the temperature-sensitive sec12-1 allele...
  9. Kakoi S, Yorimitsu T, Sato K. COPII machinery cooperates with ER-localized Hsp40 to sequester misfolded membrane proteins into ER-associated compartments. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..COPII components and ER-associated Hsp40, Hlj1p, act in the same pathway to sequester EGFP-CFTR into ERACs. Our findings point to an as-yet-undefined role of COPII proteins in the formation of ERACs. ..

More Information


  1. Yakir Tamang L, Gerst J. A phosphatidylinositol-transfer protein and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase control Cdc42 to regulate the actin cytoskeleton and secretory pathway in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3583-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Based upon these findings, we propose that the exocytic signal involves PI delivery to the PI kinases (i.e., Mss4) by Sfh5, generation of PI(4,5)P(2), and PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent regulation of Cdc42 and the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  2. Chang H, Jesch S, Gaspar M, Henry S. Role of the unfolded protein response pathway in secretory stress and regulation of INO1 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2004;168:1899-913 pubmed
    ..Indeed, many of the Sec(-) mutants that had elevated UPR expression at semipermissive growth temperatures failed to achieve wild-type levels of INO1 expression under these same conditions. ..
  3. Barlowe C, Schekman R. Expression, purification, and assay of Sec12p: a Sar1p-specific GDP dissociation stimulator. Methods Enzymol. 1995;257:98-106 pubmed
  4. Sato M, Sato K, Nakano A. Endoplasmic reticulum localization of Sec12p is achieved by two mechanisms: Rer1p-dependent retrieval that requires the transmembrane domain and Rer1p-independent retention that involves the cytoplasmic domain. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:279-93 pubmed
    ..This study not only supports the two-mechanisms hypothesis but also provides powerful tools to dissect the two. ..
  5. Higashio H, Kohno K. A genetic link between the unfolded protein response and vesicle formation from the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:568-74 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the activation of the UPR affects ER-to-Golgi transport via stimulation of COPII vesicle formation from the ER. ..
  6. Hardwick K, Boothroyd J, Rudner A, Pelham H. Genes that allow yeast cells to grow in the absence of the HDEL receptor. EMBO J. 1992;11:4187-95 pubmed
    ..these SED genes encode membrane proteins: SED1 encodes a probable cell surface glycoprotein; SED2 is identical to SEC12, a gene required for the formation of ER-derived transport vesicles; SED4 encodes a protein whose cytoplasmic ..
  7. Heidtman M, Chen C, Collins R, Barlowe C. A role for Yip1p in COPII vesicle biogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:57-69 pubmed
    ..We propose that Yip1p has a previously unappreciated role in COPII vesicle biogenesis. ..
  8. Stalder D, Novick P. The casein kinases Yck1p and Yck2p act in the secretory pathway, in part, by regulating the Rab exchange factor Sec2p. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:686-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This promotes Sec2p function by stimulating its interaction with Sec15p. Finally, Sec2p is dephosphorylated very late in the exocytic reaction to facilitate recycling. ..
  9. Nakano A, Brada D, Schekman R. A membrane glycoprotein, Sec12p, required for protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1988;107:851-63 pubmed
    b>SEC12, a gene that is required for secretory, membrane, and vacuolar proteins to be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of a sec12 ts mutation...
  10. Sato M, Sato K, Nakano A. Evidence for the intimate relationship between vesicle budding from the ER and the unfolded protein response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:560-7 pubmed
    ..that positively regulate Sec12p, we isolated IRE1 as a novel multicopy suppressor of the temperature-sensitive sec12-4 mutant...
  11. Roberg K, Bickel S, Rowley N, Kaiser C. Control of amino acid permease sorting in the late secretory pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by SEC13, LST4, LST7 and LST8. Genetics. 1997;147:1569-84 pubmed
    ..The LST7 gene encodes a novel protein. Together, these data indicate that SEC13, LST4, LST7, and LST8 function in the regulated delivery of Gap1p to the cell surface, perhaps as components of a post-Golgi secretory-vesicle coat. ..
  12. Haynes C, Caldwell S, Cooper A. An HRD/DER-independent ER quality control mechanism involves Rsp5p-dependent ubiquitination and ER-Golgi transport. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:91-101 pubmed
    ..Both the HIP and HRD/DER pathways contribute to the degradation of CPY*, and only by eliminating both is CPY* degradation completely blocked. ..
  13. Chen C, Calero M, DeRegis C, Heidtman M, Barlowe C, Collins R. Genetic analysis of yeast Yip1p function reveals a requirement for Golgi-localized rab proteins and rab-Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. Genetics. 2004;168:1827-41 pubmed
  14. Massaad M, Herscovics A. Interaction of the endoplasmic reticulum alpha 1,2-mannosidase Mns1p with Rer1p using the split-ubiquitin system. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4629-35 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the split-ubiquitin system demonstrates that the C-terminal of Rer1p is in the cytosol. ..
  15. Zabel R, Bär C, Mehlgarten C, Schaffrath R. Yeast alpha-tubulin suppressor Ats1/Kti13 relates to the Elongator complex and interacts with Elongator partner protein Kti11. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:175-87 pubmed publisher
    ..inactivation of Kti13 or Elongator rescues the thermosensitive growth defect of secretory mutants (sec2-59(ts), sec12-4(ts)), suggesting that Kti13 and Elongator affect secretion processes that depend on the GTP exchange factors ..
  16. Murakami A, Kimura K, Nakano A. The inactive form of a yeast casein kinase I suppresses the secretory defect of the sec12 mutant. Implication of negative regulation by the Hrr25 kinase in the vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3804-10 pubmed
    ..three yeast loci, RST1, RST2, and RST3, whose mutations suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth of the sec12-4 mutant (Nakano, A. (1996) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 120, 642-646)...
  17. McMahon C, Studer S, Clendinen C, Dann G, Jeffrey P, Hughson F. The structure of Sec12 implicates potassium ion coordination in Sar1 activation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:43599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Crucial for the initiation of COPII coat assembly is Sec12, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor responsible for activating the small G protein Sar1...
  18. Bacon R, Salminen A, Ruohola H, Novick P, Ferro Novick S. The GTP-binding protein Ypt1 is required for transport in vitro: the Golgi apparatus is defective in ypt1 mutants. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:1015-22 pubmed
    ..We have also established genetic interactions between ypt1 and a subset of the other genes required for transport to and through the Golgi apparatus. ..
  19. Nakano A. Identification and characterization of extragenic suppressors of the yeast sec12 ts mutation. J Biochem. 1996;120:642-6 pubmed
    The product of the yeast SEC12 gene is the most upstream player as far as we know in the events of vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane...