Gene Symbol: SAN1
Description: ubiquitin-protein ligase SAN1
Alias: ubiquitin-protein ligase SAN1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Gardner R, Nelson Z, Gottschling D. Degradation-mediated protein quality control in the nucleus. Cell. 2005;120:803-15 pubmed
    ..San1p is nuclear localized and requires nuclear localization for function. Loss of SAN1 results in a chronic stress response, underscoring its role of protein quality control in the cell...
  2. Evans D, Brewster N, Xu Q, Rowley A, Altheim B, Johnston G, et al. The yeast protein complex containing cdc68 and pob3 mediates core-promoter repression through the cdc68 N-terminal domain. Genetics. 1998;150:1393-405 pubmed
  3. Prasad R, Kawaguchi S, Ng D. A nucleus-based quality control mechanism for cytosolic proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, the Hsp70 chaperone system is needed for efficient import and degradation. These data reveal a new function of the nucleus as a compartment central to the quality control of cytosolic proteins. ..
  4. Xu Q, Johnston G, Singer R. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc68 transcription activator is antagonized by San1, a protein implicated in transcriptional silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:7553-65 pubmed
    ..We show here that one of the suppressor genes is the previously reported SAN1 gene; san1 mutations were originally identified as suppressors of a sir4 mutation, implicated in the chromatin-..
  5. Fredrickson E, Rosenbaum J, Locke M, Milac T, Gardner R. Exposed hydrophobicity is a key determinant of nuclear quality control degradation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the yeast nuclear PQC ubiquitin ligase San1 recognizes exposed hydrophobicity in its substrates...
  6. Lewis M, Pelham H. Inefficient quality control of thermosensitive proteins on the plasma membrane. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5038 pubmed publisher
    ..form, these proteins are rapidly degraded upon temperature shift, in part due to the action of the Doa10 and San1 ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome. When tethered to the ER protein Use1, they are also degraded...
  7. Estruch F, Peiró Chova L, Gómez Navarro N, Durbán J, Hodge C, del Olmo M, et al. A genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies new genes that interact with mex67-5, a temperature-sensitive allele of the gene encoding the mRNA export receptor. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;281:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our results also uncovered genetic connections between Mex67p and the poly(A) nuclease complex and with components of chromatin boundary elements. ..
  8. Heck J, Cheung S, Hampton R. Cytoplasmic protein quality control degradation mediated by parallel actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases Ubr1 and San1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We now show that Ubr1 and San1 mediate chaperone-dependent ubiquitination of numerous misfolded cytoplasmic proteins...
  9. Dasgupta A, Ramsey K, Smith J, Auble D. Sir Antagonist 1 (San1) is a ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26830-8 pubmed
    Mutations in Sir Antagonist 1 (SAN1) suppress defects in SIR4 and SPT16 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

More Information


  1. Schnell R, D Ari L, Foss M, Goodman D, Rine J. Genetic and molecular characterization of suppressors of SIR4 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1989;122:29-46 pubmed
    ..These suppressor mutations, which define at least three new genes, SAN1, SAN2 and SAN3, arose at the frequency expected for loss-of-function mutations following mutagenesis...
  2. Peng J, Schwartz D, Elias J, Thoreen C, Cheng D, Marsischky G, et al. A proteomics approach to understanding protein ubiquitination. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:921-6 pubmed
    ..The methodology described here provides a general tool for the large-scale analysis and characterization of protein ubiquitination. ..
  3. Ratsima H, Ladouceur A, Pascariu M, Sauvé V, Salloum Z, Maddox P, et al. Independent modulation of the kinase and polo-box activities of Cdc5 protein unravels unique roles in the maintenance of genome stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E914-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results highlight the specific contributions of Cdc5 functional domains to cell division and reveal unexpected mechanisms controlling spindle pole body behavior and genome stability. ..
  4. Summers D, Wolfe K, Ren H, Cyr D. The Type II Hsp40 Sis1 cooperates with Hsp70 and the E3 ligase Ubr1 to promote degradation of terminally misfolded cytosolic protein. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52099 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathways for proteasomal degradation of misfolded cytosolic proteins involve functional interplay between Type II Hsp40/Hsp70 chaperone pairs, PQC E3 ligases, and storage depots for misfolded proteins...
  5. Arlow T, Scott K, Wagenseller A, Gammie A. Proteasome inhibition rescues clinically significant unstable variants of the mismatch repair protein Msh2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:246-51 pubmed publisher the major mechanism for increased turnover of the Msh2 variants and identified the primary ubiquitin ligase as San1. Deletion of San1 restored protein levels for all but one variant, but did not elevate wild-type Msh2 levels...
  6. Ibarra R, Sandoval D, Fredrickson E, Gardner R, Kleiger G. The San1 Ubiquitin Ligase Functions Preferentially with Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzyme Ubc1 during Protein Quality Control. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:18778-90 pubmed publisher
    ..basis for how PQC substrate ubiquitylation rates are controlled, the reaction catalyzed by nuclear ubiquitin ligase San1 was reconstituted in vitro Our results demonstrate that San1 can function with two ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, ..
  7. Sen R, Ferdoush J, Kaja A, Bhaumik S. Fine-Tuning of FACT by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulation of Transcriptional Elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1691-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the FACT subunit Spt16 is ubiquitylated by San1 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and degraded by the 26S proteasome...
  8. Mayor T, Graumann J, Bryan J, MacCoss M, Deshaies R. Quantitative profiling of ubiquitylated proteins reveals proteasome substrates and the substrate repertoire influenced by the Rpn10 receptor pathway. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1885-95 pubmed
    ..This approach illustrates the feasibility of systems-level quantitative analysis to map enzyme-substrate networks in the UPS. ..
  9. Downey M, Houlsworth R, Maringele L, Rollie A, Brehme M, Galicia S, et al. A genome-wide screen identifies the evolutionarily conserved KEOPS complex as a telomere regulator. Cell. 2006;124:1155-68 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore indicate that the KEOPS complex promotes both telomere uncapping and telomere elongation. ..
  10. Prasad R, Kawaguchi S, Ng D. Biosynthetic mode can determine the mechanism of protein quality control. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425:689-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These center on the Doa10, San1, and Ubr1 ubiquitin ligases. Unlike in the ER, the necessity for multiple pathways here is unclear...
  11. Khosrow Khavar F, Fang N, Ng A, Winget J, Comyn S, Mayor T. The yeast ubr1 ubiquitin ligase participates in a prominent pathway that targets cytosolic thermosensitive mutants for degradation. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..absence of Ubr1 alone, whereas in a third case it is reliant on the dual deletion of Ubr1 and the nuclear E3 ligase San1. We found that the impairment of the degradation of these quality control substrates at the restrictive temperature ..
  12. Duttler S, Pechmann S, Frydman J. Principles of cotranslational ubiquitination and quality control at the ribosome. Mol Cell. 2013;50:379-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that quality control at the ribosome is achieved through a tiered system wherein nascent polypeptides have a chance to fold before becoming accessible to ubiquitination. ..
  13. Starita L, Lo R, Eng J, von Haller P, Fields S. Sites of ubiquitin attachment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proteomics. 2012;12:236-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, such peptides with GG shifts have been difficult to discover. We identify 870 unique sites of ubiquitin attachment on 438 different proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  14. Amm I, Wolf D. Molecular mass as a determinant for nuclear San1-dependent targeting of misfolded cytosolic proteins to proteasomal degradation. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:1765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubr1, formerly discovered as recognition component of the N-end rule pathway, and the nuclear ubiquitin ligase San1. For San1-mediated targeting to proteasomal degradation, cytosolic proteins have to be imported into the nucleus...
  15. Guerriero C, Weiberth K, Brodsky J. Hsp70 targets a cytoplasmic quality control substrate to the San1p ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18506-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasize the diverse action of molecular chaperones during CytoQC. ..
  16. Fredrickson E, Clowes Candadai S, Tam C, Gardner R. Means of self-preservation: how an intrinsically disordered ubiquitin-protein ligase averts self-destruction. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:1041-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe another adaptation for E3 self-protection discovered while exploring San1, which ubiquitinates misfolded nuclear proteins in yeast for proteasomal degradation...
  17. Mayor T, Lipford J, Graumann J, Smith G, Deshaies R. Analysis of polyubiquitin conjugates reveals that the Rpn10 substrate receptor contributes to the turnover of multiple proteasome targets. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:741-51 pubmed