Gene Symbol: RTG3
Description: Rtg3p
Alias: Rtg3p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Rothermel B, Thornton J, Butow R. Rtg3p, a basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper protein that functions in mitochondrial-induced changes in gene expression, contains independent activation domains. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:19801-7 pubmed
    b>Rtg3p and Rtg1p are basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper protein transcription factors in yeast that interact and bind to sites in an upstream activation sequence element in the 5'-flanking region of CIT2, a gene encoding a peroxisomal ..
  2. Sekito T, Thornton J, Butow R. Mitochondria-to-nuclear signaling is regulated by the subcellular localization of the transcription factors Rtg1p and Rtg3p. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2103-15 pubmed
    ..We show that in respiratory-competent (rho(+)) cells in which CIT2 expression is low, Rtg1p and Rtg3p exist as a complex largely in the cytoplasm, and in rho(o) petites in which CIT2 expression is high, they exist as ..
  3. Komeili A, Wedaman K, O Shea E, Powers T. Mechanism of metabolic control. Target of rapamycin signaling links nitrogen quality to the activity of the Rtg1 and Rtg3 transcription factors. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:863-78 pubmed
    ..containing urea or ammonia as a sole nitrogen source requires the heterodimeric bZip transcription factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 and correlates with a redistribution of the Rtg1p/Rtg3 complex from a predominantly cytoplasmic to a predominantly ..
  4. Jia Y, Rothermel B, Thornton J, Butow R. A basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription complex in yeast functions in a signaling pathway from mitochondria to the nucleus. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:1110-7 pubmed
    ..b>Rtg3p binds together with Rtg1p to two identical sites oriented as inverted repeats 28 bp apart in a regulatory upstream ..
  5. Dubouloz F, Deloche O, Wanke V, Cameroni E, De Virgilio C. The TOR and EGO protein complexes orchestrate microautophagy in yeast. Mol Cell. 2005;19:15-26 pubmed
    ..Moreover, large-scale genetic analyses of the EGO complex confirm the existence of a growth control mechanism originating at the vacuolar membrane and pinpoint the amino acid glutamine as a key metabolite in TOR signaling. ..
  6. Zyrina A, Sorokin M, Sokolov S, Knorre D, Severin F. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling inhibits the survival during prolong S/G2 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Oncotarget. 2015;6:44084-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that these effects are due to alleviation of the strength of the S-phase arrest. ..
  7. Chen S, Liu D, Finley R, Greenberg M. Loss of mitochondrial DNA in the yeast cardiolipin synthase crd1 mutant leads to up-regulation of the protein kinase Swe1p that regulates the G2/M transition. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:10397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..of SWE1 is dependent on retrograde regulation as elevated expression of SWE1 is suppressed by deletion of RTG2 or RTG3. Taken together, these findings indicate that activation of the retrograde pathway leads to up-regulation of SWE1 ..
  8. Hagerman R, Trotter P, Willis R. The regulation of COQ5 gene expression by energy source. Free Radic Res. 2002;36:485-90 pubmed
  9. van Heusden G, Steensma H. 14-3-3 Proteins are essential for regulation of RTG3-dependent transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2001;18:1479-91 pubmed
    ..Recessive mutations in SIN4 and RTG3 can suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of this mutant...

More Information


  1. Hagerman R, Willis R. The yeast gene COQ5 is differentially regulated by Mig1p, Rtg3p and Hap2p. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1578:51-8 pubmed
    ..Mig1p repressed COQ5 expression on dextrose, while Rtg1p/Rtg3p heterodimers up-regulated COQ5 expression on oleic acid...
  2. Georgakopoulos T, Koutroubas G, Vakonakis I, Tzermia M, Prokova V, Voutsina A, et al. Functional analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YFR021w/YGR223c/YPL100w ORF family suggests relations to mitochondrial/peroxisomal functions and amino acid signalling pathways. Yeast. 2001;18:1155-71 pubmed
    ..Among these, the transcriptional activator Rtg3p interacted with both Yfr021wp and Ypl100wp and both ORF single deletions reduced the constitutive expression of ..
  3. Giannattasio S, Liu Z, Thornton J, Butow R. Retrograde response to mitochondrial dysfunction is separable from TOR1/2 regulation of retrograde gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42528-35 pubmed
  4. Journo D, Mor A, Abeliovich H. Aup1-mediated regulation of Rtg3 during mitophagy. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement with a role for Aup1 in the regulation of the RTG pathway, we find that deletion of RTG3, a transcription factor that mediates the RTG response, causes a defect in stationary phase mitophagy and that ..
  5. Batenchuk C, Tepliakova L, Kaern M. Identification of response-modulated genetic interactions by sensitivity-based epistatic analysis. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:493 pubmed publisher
    ..While the method was developed for growth phenotype, it should apply equally well for other phenotypes, including the expression of fluorescent reporters. ..
  6. Ruiz Roig C, Noriega N, Duch A, Posas F, de Nadal E. The Hog1 SAPK controls the Rtg1/Rtg3 transcriptional complex activity by multiple regulatory mechanisms. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4286-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In budding yeast, the RTG pathway relies on Rtg1 and Rtg3 basic helix-loop-helix leucine Zipper transcription factors...
  7. Law M, Ciccaglione K. Fine-tuning of histone H3 Lys4 methylation during pseudohyphal differentiation by the CDK submodule of RNA polymerase II. Genetics. 2015;199:435-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies implicate the CDK8 subcomplex in fine-tuning H3 Lys4 methylation levels during pseudohyphal differentiation. ..
  8. Gupta S, Radhakrishnan A, Raharja Liu P, Lin G, Steinmetz L, Gagneur J, et al. Temporal expression profiling identifies pathways mediating effect of causal variant on phenotype. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005195 pubmed publisher
    ..respiration during early sporulation was observed, which was dependent on the mitochondrial retrograde regulator, RTG3. Furthermore, our approach showed that MKT1 contributes to sporulation independent of Puf3, an RNA-binding protein ..
  9. Conlan R, Gounalaki N, Hatzis P, Tzamarias D. The Tup1-Cyc8 protein complex can shift from a transcriptional co-repressor to a transcriptional co-activator. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:205-10 pubmed
    ..First, we show that Cyc8-Tup1 is tethered to CIT2 promoter by interacting with the activation domain of Rtg3, a bHLH/L-Zip DNA-binding transactivator of CIT2...
  10. Laera L, Guaragnella N, Zdralević M, Marzulli D, Liu Z, Giannattasio S. The transcription factors ADR1 or CAT8 are required for RTG pathway activation and evasion from yeast acetic acid-induced programmed cell death in raffinose. Microb Cell. 2016;3:621-631 pubmed publisher
  11. Dilova I, Aronova S, Chen J, Powers T. Tor signaling and nutrient-based signals converge on Mks1p phosphorylation to regulate expression of Rtg1.Rtg3p-dependent target genes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46527-35 pubmed
    The heterodimeric bZip/HLH transcription factors Rtg1p and Rtg3p regulate the expression of a concise set of metabolic genes (termed RTG target genes) required for de novo biosynthesis of glutamate and glutamine...
  12. Robinson K, Koepke J, Kharodawala M, Lopes J. A network of yeast basic helix-loop-helix interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:4460-6 pubmed
    ..Using the yeast two-hybrid assay and a biochemical assay we show that Ino4p dimerizes with the Pho4p, Rtg1p, Rtg3p and Sgc1p bHLH proteins...
  13. Farooq M, Pracheil T, Dong Z, Xiao F, Liu Z. Mitochondrial DNA instability in cells lacking aconitase correlates with iron citrate toxicity. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:493536 pubmed publisher
    ..By deleting RTG1, RTG3, or genes encoding citrate synthase, mtDNA instability was prevented in aco1? mutant cells...