Gene Symbol: RTG2
Description: Rtg2p
Alias: Rtg2p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Rothermel B, Shyjan A, Etheredge J, Butow R. Transactivation by Rtg1p, a basic helix-loop-helix protein that functions in communication between mitochondria and the nucleus in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29476-82 pubmed
    ..Regulated expression of CIT2 also requires the RTG2 gene product...
  2. Vélot C, Haviernik P, Lauquin G. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RTG2 gene is a regulator of aconitase expression under catabolite repression conditions. Genetics. 1996;144:893-903 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of the corresponding cloned gene revealed that it is identical to RTG2 previously cloned as a pivotal gene in controlling interorganelle retrograde communication...
  3. Ferreira Junior J, Spirek M, Liu Z, Butow R. Interaction between Rtg2p and Mks1p in the regulation of the RTG pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 2005;354:2-8 pubmed
    ..These processes depend on a positive regulatory factor, Rtg2p, a novel protein with a ATP binding domain similar to that of the Hsp70/actin/sugar kinase superfamily...
  4. Borghouts C, Benguria A, Wawryn J, Jazwinski S. Rtg2 protein links metabolism and genome stability in yeast longevity. Genetics. 2004;166:765-77 pubmed
    ..In contrast, overexpression of RTG2 diminishes ERC formation in both grandes and petites. The excess Rtg2p did not augment the retrograde response, indicating that it was not engaged in retrograde signaling...
  5. Small W, Brodeur R, Sandor A, Fedorova N, Li G, Butow R, et al. Enzymatic and metabolic studies on retrograde regulation mutants of yeast. Biochemistry. 1995;34:5569-76 pubmed
    Two nuclear genes, RTG1 and RTG2, which sense the functional state of yeast mitochondria, have been described recently...
  6. Liu Z, Spirek M, Thornton J, Butow R. A novel degron-mediated degradation of the RTG pathway regulator, Mks1p, by SCFGrr1. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4893-904 pubmed
    ..RS terminates with two transcription factors, Rtg1p and Rtg3p. One positive regulator, Rtg2p, and four negative regulators, Lst8p, Mks1p, and the redundant 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1p and Bmh2p, control RS ..
  7. Liu Z, Sekito T, Spirek M, Thornton J, Butow R. Retrograde signaling is regulated by the dynamic interaction between Rtg2p and Mks1p. Mol Cell. 2003;12:401-11 pubmed
    ..This process requires Rtg2p, a novel cytoplasmic protein with an N-terminal ATP binding domain...
  8. Pray Grant M, Schieltz D, McMahon S, Wood J, Kennedy E, Cook R, et al. The novel SLIK histone acetyltransferase complex functions in the yeast retrograde response pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8774-86 pubmed
    ..Notably SLIK uniquely contains the protein Rtg2, linking the function of SLIK to the retrograde response pathway...
  9. Bhattacharyya S, Rolfsmeier M, Dixon M, Wagoner K, Lahue R. Identification of RTG2 as a modifier gene for CTG*CAG repeat instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;162:579-89 pubmed
    ..CAG repeat mutation frequencies. The RTG2 gene was identified as one such modifier. In rtg2 mutants, expansions of CTG...

More Information


  1. Sekito T, Liu Z, Thornton J, Butow R. RTG-dependent mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling is regulated by MKS1 and is linked to formation of yeast prion [URE3]. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:795-804 pubmed
    ..Herein, we report that MKS1 is a negative regulator of the RTG pathway, acting between Rtg2p, a proximal sensor of mitochondrial function, and the bHLH transcription factors Rtg1p and Rtg3p...
  2. Liu Z, Sekito T, Epstein C, Butow R. RTG-dependent mitochondria to nucleus signaling is negatively regulated by the seven WD-repeat protein Lst8p. EMBO J. 2001;20:7209-19 pubmed
    ..Glutamate negatively regulates RTG-dependent gene expression upstream of Rtg2p, which, in turn, acts upstream of the bHLH/Zip transcription factors, Rtg1p and Rtg3p...
  3. Liao X, Butow R. RTG1 and RTG2: two yeast genes required for a novel path of communication from mitochondria to the nucleus. Cell. 1993;72:61-71 pubmed
    ..depends on a new class of upstream activation site element (UASr) and two previously unidentified genes, RTG1 and RTG2. RTG1 encodes a protein of 177 amino acids with similarity to basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that ..
  4. Sekito T, Thornton J, Butow R. Mitochondria-to-nuclear signaling is regulated by the subcellular localization of the transcription factors Rtg1p and Rtg3p. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2103-15 pubmed
    ..b>Rtg2p, which is cytoplasmic in both rho(+) and rho(o) cells, is required for the dephosphorylation and nuclear ..
  5. Komeili A, Wedaman K, O Shea E, Powers T. Mechanism of metabolic control. Target of rapamycin signaling links nitrogen quality to the activity of the Rtg1 and Rtg3 transcription factors. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:863-78 pubmed
    ..Nuclear import of the complex requires the cytoplasmic protein Rtg2, a previously identified upstream regulator of Rtg1 and Rtg3, whereas export requires the importin-beta-family ..
  6. Panni S, Montecchi Palazzi L, Kiemer L, Cabibbo A, Paoluzi S, Santonico E, et al. Combining peptide recognition specificity and context information for the prediction of the 14-3-3-mediated interactome in S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens. Proteomics. 2011;11:128-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach provides an orthogonal reliability assessment and maps with high confidence the 14-3-3 peptide target on the partner proteins. ..
  7. Jin R, Dobry C, McCown P, Kumar A. Large-scale analysis of yeast filamentous growth by systematic gene disruption and overexpression. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:284-96 pubmed
  8. Chen S, Tarsio M, Kane P, Greenberg M. Cardiolipin mediates cross-talk between mitochondria and the vacuole. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5047-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion mutants in RTG2 and NHX1, which mediate vacuolar pH and ion homeostasis, rescue the defective colony formation phenotype of ..
  9. Chen S, Liu D, Finley R, Greenberg M. Loss of mitochondrial DNA in the yeast cardiolipin synthase crd1 mutant leads to up-regulation of the protein kinase Swe1p that regulates the G2/M transition. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:10397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..of SWE1 is dependent on retrograde regulation as elevated expression of SWE1 is suppressed by deletion of RTG2 or RTG3...
  10. Rios Anjos R, Camandona V, Bleicher L, Ferreira Junior J. Structural and functional mapping of Rtg2p determinants involved in retrograde signaling and aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177090 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rtg2p is a positive modulator of this pathway that is also required for cellular longevity...
  11. Zyrina A, Smirnova E, Markova O, Severin F, Knorre D. Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase and Yap1p Act as a Signaling Module Contributing to Ethanol Tolerance of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017;83: pubmed publisher
    ..We also report cross talk between this pathway and the conventional retrograde signaling cascade activated by dysfunctional mitochondria. ..
  12. Picazo C, Orozco H, Matallana E, Aranda A. Interplay among Gcn5, Sch9 and mitochondria during chronological aging of wine yeast is dependent on growth conditions. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0117267 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, unbalance of nutrients can be more relevant for life span than total amounts of them. Deletion of RTG2, which codes for a protein associated with Gcn5 and is a component of the mitochondrial retrograde signal, and ..
  13. Farooq M, Pracheil T, Dong Z, Xiao F, Liu Z. Mitochondrial DNA instability in cells lacking aconitase correlates with iron citrate toxicity. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:493536 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that loss of Sod1, but not Sod2, prevents mtDNA loss in aco1? mutant cells. We propose that mtDNA loss in aco1? mutant cells is caused by the activation of the RTG pathway and subsequent iron citrate accumulation and toxicity. ..
  14. Kamata K, Hatanaka A, Goswami G, Shinmyozu K, Nakayama J, Urano T, et al. C-terminus of the Sgf73 subunit of SAGA and SLIK is important for retention in the larger complex and for heterochromatin boundary function. Genes Cells. 2013;18:823-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis detected both the full-length and truncated forms of Spt7, suggesting that SAGA and SLIK complex formation is important for the boundary function of Sgf73. ..
  15. Dubouloz F, Deloche O, Wanke V, Cameroni E, De Virgilio C. The TOR and EGO protein complexes orchestrate microautophagy in yeast. Mol Cell. 2005;19:15-26 pubmed
    ..Moreover, large-scale genetic analyses of the EGO complex confirm the existence of a growth control mechanism originating at the vacuolar membrane and pinpoint the amino acid glutamine as a key metabolite in TOR signaling. ..
  16. Daniel J, Torok M, Sun Z, Schieltz D, Allis C, Yates J, et al. Deubiquitination of histone H2B by a yeast acetyltransferase complex regulates transcription. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1867-71 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that the SAGA and SLIK HAT complexes can regulate an integrated set of multiple histone modifications, counteracting repressive effects that alter chromatin and regulate gene expression. ..
  17. Pierce M, Maddelein M, Roberts B, Wickner R. A novel Rtg2p activity regulates nitrogen catabolism in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13213-8 pubmed
    ..b>Rtg2p regulates transcription of glutamate-repressible genes by facilitation of the nuclear entry of the Rtg1 and Rtg3 ..
  18. Schmidt M, McCartney R, Zhang X, Tillman T, Solimeo H, Wolfl S, et al. Std1 and Mth1 proteins interact with the glucose sensors to control glucose-regulated gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4561-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, studies with green fluorescent protein fusions indicate that Std1 is localized to the cell periphery and the cell nucleus, supporting the idea that it may transduce signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. ..
  19. Pray Grant M, Daniel J, Schieltz D, Yates J, Grant P. Chd1 chromodomain links histone H3 methylation with SAGA- and SLIK-dependent acetylation. Nature. 2005;433:434-8 pubmed
    ..Our study identifies the first chromodomain that recognizes methylated histone H3 (Lys 4) and possibly identifies a larger subfamily of chromodomain proteins with similar recognition properties. ..
  20. Zhang F, Pracheil T, Thornton J, Liu Z. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Is a Candidate Signaling Molecule in the Mitochondria-to-Nucleus Retrograde Response Pathway. Genes (Basel). 2013;4:86-100 pubmed publisher
    ..In budding yeast, the retrograde response, also known as the RTG pathway, is regulated positively by Rtg1, Rtg2, Rtg3 and Grr1 and negatively by Mks1, Lst8 and two 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1/2...
  21. Torelli N, Ferreira Júnior J, Kowaltowski A, da Cunha F. RTG1- and RTG2-dependent retrograde signaling controls mitochondrial activity and stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;81:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..depends on Rtg1p and Rtg3p, which together form the transcription factor that regulates gene expression, and Rtg2p, an activator of the pathway...
  22. Hallstrom T, Moye Rowley W. Multiple signals from dysfunctional mitochondria activate the pleiotropic drug resistance pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37347-56 pubmed
    ..These data uncover a new regulatory pathway connecting expression of multidrug resistance genes with mitochondrial function...
  23. Laera L, Guaragnella N, Zdralević M, Marzulli D, Liu Z, Giannattasio S. The transcription factors ADR1 or CAT8 are required for RTG pathway activation and evasion from yeast acetic acid-induced programmed cell death in raffinose. Microb Cell. 2016;3:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..target genes, such as CIT2, encoding peroxisomal citrate synthase, dependent on the positive regulator RTG2 in response to mitochondrial dysfunction...
  24. Unlu E, Narayanan L, Gordon D. Characterization of fungal RTG2 genes in retrograde signaling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2013;13:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular link between mitochondria and the nuclear genome is controlled by three key signaling proteins: Rtg1p, Rtg2p, and Rtg3p. Although the retrograde signaling response has been well characterized in S...
  25. Eustice M, Pillus L. Unexpected function of the glucanosyltransferase Gas1 in the DNA damage response linked to histone H3 acetyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2014;196:1029-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis thus uncovers previously unsuspected functions for both Gas1 and Sas3 in DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation. ..