Gene Symbol: RTF1
Description: Rtf1p
Alias: CSL3, Rtf1p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Gómez Navarro N, Peiró Chova L, Estruch F. Iwr1 facilitates RNA polymerase II dynamics during transcription elongation. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:803-811 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, absence of Iwr1 causes genome instability that is enhanced by defects in the DNA repair machinery. ..
  2. Nordick K, Hoffman M, BETZ J, Jaehning J. Direct interactions between the Paf1 complex and a cleavage and polyadenylation factor are revealed by dissociation of Paf1 from RNA polymerase II. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1158-67 pubmed publisher
    The Paf1 complex (Paf1, Ctr9, Cdc73, Rtf1, and Leo1) is normally associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) throughout the transcription cycle...
  3. Zhang Y, Smith A, Renfrow M, Schneider D. The RNA polymerase-associated factor 1 complex (Paf1C) directly increases the elongation rate of RNA polymerase I and is required for efficient regulation of rRNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that Paf1C plays an important direct role in cellular control of rRNA expression. ..
  4. Wood A, Schneider J, Dover J, Johnston M, Shilatifard A. The Paf1 complex is essential for histone monoubiquitination by the Rad6-Bre1 complex, which signals for histone methylation by COMPASS and Dot1p. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34739-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to its role during the elongation phase of transcription, the Paf1 complex appears to activate the function but not the placement of the Rad6-Bre1 ubiquitin-protein ligase at the promoters of active genes. ..
  5. Ng H, Dole S, Struhl K. The Rtf1 component of the Paf1 transcriptional elongation complex is required for ubiquitination of histone H2B. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33625-8 pubmed
    In yeast cells, the Rtf1 and Paf1 components of the Paf1 transcriptional elongation complex are important for recruitment of Set1, the histone H3-lysine 4 (H3-Lys4) methylase, to a highly localized domain at the 5' portion of active mRNA ..
  6. Simic R, Lindstrom D, Tran H, Roinick K, Costa P, Johnson A, et al. Chromatin remodeling protein Chd1 interacts with transcription elongation factors and localizes to transcribed genes. EMBO J. 2003;22:1846-56 pubmed
    ..First, we identified Chd1 in a two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with Rtf1, a member of the Paf1 complex that associates with RNA pol II and regulates transcription elongation...
  7. Squazzo S, Costa P, Lindstrom D, Kumer K, Simic R, Jennings J, et al. The Paf1 complex physically and functionally associates with transcription elongation factors in vivo. EMBO J. 2002;21:1764-74 pubmed
    We are using biochemical and genetic approaches to study Rtf1 and the Spt4-Spt5 complex, which independently have been implicated in transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. Here, we report a remarkable convergence of these studies...
  8. Krogan N, Dover J, Wood A, Schneider J, Heidt J, Boateng M, et al. The Paf1 complex is required for histone H3 methylation by COMPASS and Dot1p: linking transcriptional elongation to histone methylation. Mol Cell. 2003;11:721-9 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that the Paf1 complex is required for histone H3 methylation, therefore linking transcriptional elongation to chromatin methylation. ..
  9. Costa P, Arndt K. Synthetic lethal interactions suggest a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation. Genetics. 2000;156:535-47 pubmed
    ..Here we present genetic results that indicate a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation...

More Information


  1. Rondon A, Gallardo M, Garcia Rubio M, Aguilera A. Molecular evidence indicating that the yeast PAF complex is required for transcription elongation. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:47-53 pubmed
    PAF is a five-subunit protein complex composed of Paf1, Cdc73, Leo1, Rtf1 and Ctr9, which was purified from yeast in association with RNA polymerase II and which is believed to function in transcription elongation...
  2. Kim K, Levin D. Mpk1 MAPK association with the Paf1 complex blocks Sen1-mediated premature transcription termination. Cell. 2011;144:745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that this mechanism is conserved in an interaction between the human ERK5 MAPK and human Paf1. ..
  3. Warner M, Roinick K, Arndt K. Rtf1 is a multifunctional component of the Paf1 complex that regulates gene expression by directing cotranscriptional histone modification. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6103-15 pubmed
    ..To better understand the function of the Rtf1 subunit of the Paf1 complex, we created a series of sequential deletions along the length of the protein...
  4. Porter S, Penheiter K, Jaehning J. Separation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Paf1 complex from RNA polymerase II results in changes in its subnuclear localization. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:209-20 pubmed
    The yeast Paf1 complex (Paf1C), composed of Paf1, Ctr9, Cdc73, Rtf1, and Leo1, associates with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at promoters and in the actively transcribed portions of mRNA genes...
  5. Prather D, Krogan N, Emili A, Greenblatt J, Winston F. Identification and characterization of Elf1, a conserved transcription elongation factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10122-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, purification of Elf1 suggests an association with casein kinase II, previously implicated in roles in transcription. Together, these results suggest an important role for Elf1 in the regulation of transcription elongation. ..
  6. Crisucci E, Arndt K. The Paf1 complex represses ARG1 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by promoting histone modifications. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:712-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To begin to identify the mechanistic basis for Paf1 complex-mediated repression of ARG1, we focused on the Rtf1 subunit of the complex...
  7. Qiu H, Hu C, Gaur N, Hinnebusch A. Pol II CTD kinases Bur1 and Kin28 promote Spt5 CTR-independent recruitment of Paf1 complex. EMBO J. 2012;31:3494-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that pCTD repeats and Spt5 pCTRs provide separate interaction surfaces that cooperate to ensure high-level Paf1C recruitment. ..
  8. Chu Y, Simic R, Warner M, Arndt K, Prelich G. Regulation of histone modification and cryptic transcription by the Bur1 and Paf1 complexes. EMBO J. 2007;26:4646-56 pubmed
  9. Xue Y, Kowalska A, Grabowska K, Przybyt K, Cichewicz M, Del Rosario B, et al. Histone chaperones Nap1 and Vps75 regulate histone acetylation during transcription elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This work sheds further light on the importance of histone chaperones as general regulators of transcription elongation. ..
  10. Baker R, Harris K, Zhang K. Mutations synthetically lethal with cep1 target S. cerevisiae kinetochore components. Genetics. 1998;149:73-85 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with the view that the major cellular role of CP1 is to safeguard the biochemical integrity of the kinetochore. ..
  11. Chruscicki A, MacDonald V, Young B, Loewen C, Howe L. Critical determinants for chromatin binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yng1 exist outside of the plant homeodomain finger. Genetics. 2010;185:469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these motifs can bind histones independently, together they increase the apparent association of Yng1 for the H3 tail. ..
  12. Sheldon K, Mauger D, Arndt K. A Requirement for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Paf1 complex in snoRNA 3' end formation. Mol Cell. 2005;20:225-36 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the functions of this complex, we isolated missense mutations in the gene encoding the Rtf1 subunit and used them to identify functionally interacting proteins...
  13. Carvin C, Kladde M. Effectors of lysine 4 methylation of histone H3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are negative regulators of PHO5 and GAL1-10. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33057-62 pubmed
    ..a component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae COMPASS complex, is regulated by the transcriptional elongation Paf1-Rtf1 and histone ubiquitination Rad6-Bre1 complexes, which are required for the expression of a subset of genes...
  14. Xu Y, Bernecky C, Lee C, Maier K, Schwalb B, Tegunov D, et al. Architecture of the RNA polymerase II-Paf1C-TFIIS transcription elongation complex. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15741 pubmed publisher
    ..Paf1C comprises the five subunits Paf1, Leo1, Ctr9, Cdc73 and Rtf1, and binds to the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation complex (EC)...
  15. Klucevsek K, Braun M, Arndt K. The Paf1 complex subunit Rtf1 buffers cells against the toxic effects of [PSI+] and defects in Rkr1-dependent protein quality control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2012;191:1107-18 pubmed publisher
    The Rtf1 subunit of the Paf1 complex is required for specific histone modifications, including histone H2B lysine 123 monoubiquitylation...
  16. DERMODY J, Buratowski S. Leo1 subunit of the yeast paf1 complex binds RNA and contributes to complex recruitment. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Paf1C purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds RNA in vitro, as do the purified Leo1 and Rtf1 subunits of the complex...
  17. Tatum D, Li W, Placer M, Li S. Diverse roles of RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 complex in different subpathways of nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To our best knowledge, among the NER-modulating factors documented so far, Paf1C appears to have the most diverse functions in different NER pathways or subpathways. ..
  18. Strawn L, Lin C, Tank E, Osman M, Simpson S, True H. Mutants of the Paf1 complex alter phenotypic expression of the yeast prion [PSI+]. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2229-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the CTR9 deletion alters several [PSI+]-dependent phenotypes. This provides one example of how [PSI+] and genetic modifiers can interact to uncover and regulate phenotypic variability. ..
  19. Zhang L, Fletcher A, Cheung V, Winston F, Stargell L. Spn1 regulates the recruitment of Spt6 and the Swi/Snf complex during transcriptional activation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1393-403 pubmed
    ..These findings link Spn1 functions to the transition from an inactive to an actively transcribing RNAPII complex at a postrecruitment-regulated promoter. ..
  20. Pan Y, Sun M, Wohlschlegel J, Reed S. Cks1 enhances transcription efficiency at the GAL1 locus by linking the Paf1 complex to the 19S proteasome. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:1192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we found that the Paf1 complex component Rtf1 interacts directly with Cks1 and that this interaction is essential for efficient recruitment of Cks1 to chromatin ..
  21. Nourani A, Robert F, Winston F. Evidence that Spt2/Sin1, an HMG-like factor, plays roles in transcription elongation, chromatin structure, and genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1496-509 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest a direct link for Spt2 with transcription elongation, chromatin dynamics, and genome stability. ..
  22. Mayer M, Pot I, Chang M, Xu H, Aneliunas V, Kwok T, et al. Identification of protein complexes required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1736-45 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we find that genes involved in mitotic spindle integrity and positioning have a previously unrecognized role in sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  23. Mueller C, Jaehning J. Ctr9, Rtf1, and Leo1 are components of the Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1971-80 pubmed
    ..We have established that Ctr9, Rtf1, and Leo1 are factors that associate with Paf1, Cdc73, and Pol II, but not with the Srb-mediator...
  24. Jin H, Kaplan C. Relationships of RNA polymerase II genetic interactors to transcription start site usage defects and growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;5:21-33 pubmed publisher
  25. Stolinski L, Eisenmann D, Arndt K. Identification of RTF1, a novel gene important for TATA site selection by TATA box-binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4490-500 pubmed
    ..This analysis has led to the discovery of a previously unidentified gene, RTF1. The original rtf1 suppressor mutation, which encodes a single amino acid change in Rtf1, and an rtf1 null allele ..
  26. Farnung L, Vos S, Wigge C, Cramer P. Nucleosome-Chd1 structure and implications for chromatin remodelling. Nature. 2017;550:539-542 pubmed publisher
    ..Translocation may involve ratcheting of the two lobes of the ATPase, which is trapped in a pre- or post-translocation state in the absence or presence, respectively, of transition state-mimicking compounds. ..
  27. Kim J, Roeder R. Direct Bre1-Paf1 complex interactions and RING finger-independent Bre1-Rad6 interactions mediate histone H2B ubiquitylation in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a more detailed mechanistic basis for H2B ubiquitylation in yeast. ..
  28. Xiao T, Shibata Y, Rao B, Laribee R, O Rourke R, Buck M, et al. The RNA polymerase II kinase Ctk1 regulates positioning of a 5' histone methylation boundary along genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:721-31 pubmed
  29. Howard S, Hester A, Herman P. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway may control RNA polymerase II elongation via the Spt4p/Spt5p complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2003;165:1059-70 pubmed
    ..These data point out the interesting possibility that signal transduction pathways might directly influence the elongation step of RNA polymerase II transcription. ..
  30. White W, Johnson D. Characterization of synthetic-lethal mutants reveals a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24p in vacuole function and Na+ tolerance. Genetics. 1997;147:43-55 pubmed
    ..The csl3 mutant displayed phenotypes similar to those observed with calcium-sensitive, Pet- vna mutants defective in vacuole ..
  31. Latham J, Chosed R, Wang S, Dent S. Chromatin signaling to kinetochores: transregulation of Dam1 methylation by histone H2B ubiquitination. Cell. 2011;146:709-19 pubmed publisher
  32. Amrich C, Davis C, Rogal W, Shirra M, Heroux A, Gardner R, et al. Cdc73 subunit of Paf1 complex contains C-terminal Ras-like domain that promotes association of Paf1 complex with chromatin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:10863-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneous mutation of the C-domain and another subunit of the Paf1 complex, Rtf1, causes enhanced mutant phenotypes and loss of histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation...
  33. Tomson B, Davis C, Warner M, Arndt K. Identification of a role for histone H2B ubiquitylation in noncoding RNA 3'-end formation through mutational analysis of Rtf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;188:273-89 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Paf1 complex to transcriptional regulation, we generated mutations that alter conserved residues within the Rtf1 subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Paf1 complex...
  34. Piro A, Mayekar M, Warner M, Davis C, Arndt K. Small region of Rtf1 protein can substitute for complete Paf1 complex in facilitating global histone H2B ubiquitylation in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously identified a 90-amino acid region within the Rtf1 subunit of Paf1C that is necessary for Paf1C-dependent histone modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  35. Tomson B, Crisucci E, Heisler L, Gebbia M, Nislow C, Arndt K. Effects of the Paf1 complex and histone modifications on snoRNA 3'-end formation reveal broad and locus-specific regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae, implicates the participation of transcriptional proteins and histone modifications in this process, and suggests that the Paf1C contributes to the fine tuning of nuanced levels of regulation that exist at individual loci. ..
  36. Braun M, Costa P, Crisucci E, Arndt K. Identification of Rkr1, a nuclear RING domain protein with functional connections to chromatin modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2800-11 pubmed
    ..we performed a genetic screen for mutations that cause lethality in the absence of the Paf1 complex component Rtf1. Our results have led to the discovery of a previously unstudied gene, RKR1...
  37. Mayekar M, Gardner R, Arndt K. The recruitment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Paf1 complex to active genes requires a domain of Rtf1 that directly interacts with the Spt4-Spt5 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3259-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies revealed a prominent role for the Rtf1 subunit in tethering Paf1C to the RNA polymerase II elongation machinery...
  38. Laribee R, Krogan N, Xiao T, Shibata Y, Hughes T, Greenblatt J, et al. BUR kinase selectively regulates H3 K4 trimethylation and H2B ubiquitylation through recruitment of the PAF elongation complex. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1487-93 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal a novel function for the BUR kinase in transcriptional regulation through the selective control of histone modifications. ..
  39. Sakata T, Fujii K, Ohno M, Kitabatake M. Crt10 directs the cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 to nonfunctional 25S rRNA decay. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;457:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed the convergence of multiple pathways for stresses that harm nucleic acids and provided a molecular framework for the substrate diversity of the E3 complex. ..
  40. Gothwal S, Patel N, Colletti M, Sasanuma H, Shinohara M, Hochwagen A, et al. The Double-Strand Break Landscape of Meiotic Chromosomes Is Shaped by the Paf1 Transcription Elongation Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2016;202:497-512 pubmed publisher
    ..factor 1 complex, Paf1C, promotes both types of methylation, we addressed the role of the Paf1C component, Rtf1, in the regulation of meiotic DSB formation...
  41. Van Oss S, Shirra M, Bataille A, Wier A, Yen K, Vinayachandran V, et al. The Histone Modification Domain of Paf1 Complex Subunit Rtf1 Directly Stimulates H2B Ubiquitylation through an Interaction with Rad6. Mol Cell. 2016;64:815-825 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the histone modification domain (HMD) of Paf1C subunit Rtf1 directly interacts with the ubiquitin conjugase Rad6 and stimulates H2Bub independently of transcription...
  42. Mueller C, Porter S, Hoffman M, Jaehning J. The Paf1 complex has functions independent of actively transcribing RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2004;14:447-56 pubmed
    The yeast Paf1 complex, minimally composed of Paf1, Ctr9, Cdc73, Rtf1, and Leo1, was originally isolated in association with RNA polymerase II (Pol II)...