Gene Symbol: RRN3
Description: rDNA-binding RNA polymerase I transcriptional factor
Alias: rDNA-binding RNA polymerase I transcriptional factor
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Milkereit P, Tschochner H. A specialized form of RNA polymerase I, essential for initiation and growth-dependent regulation of rRNA synthesis, is disrupted during transcription. EMBO J. 1998;17:3692-703 pubmed
    ..We propose that the formation and disruption of the pol I-Rrn3p complex reflects a molecular switch for regulating rRNA synthesis and its growth rate-dependent regulation. ..
  2. Cavanaugh A, Hirschler Laszkiewicz I, Hu Q, Dundr M, Smink T, Misteli T, et al. Rrn3 phosphorylation is a regulatory checkpoint for ribosome biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27423-32 pubmed
    Cycloheximide inhibits ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription in vivo. The mouse homologue of yeast Rrn3, a polymerase-associated transcription initiation factor, can complement extracts from cycloheximide-treated mammalian cells...
  3. Claypool J, French S, Johzuka K, Eliason K, Vu L, Dodd J, et al. Tor pathway regulates Rrn3p-dependent recruitment of yeast RNA polymerase I to the promoter but does not participate in alteration of the number of active genes. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:946-56 pubmed
  4. Stepanchick A, Zhi H, Cavanaugh A, Rothblum K, Schneider D, Rothblum L. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9135-44 pubmed publisher
    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription...
  5. Huber A, Bodenmiller B, Uotila A, Stahl M, Wanka S, Gerrits B, et al. Characterization of the rapamycin-sensitive phosphoproteome reveals that Sch9 is a central coordinator of protein synthesis. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1929-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that Sch9 is a master regulator of protein synthesis. ..
  6. Blattner C, Jennebach S, Herzog F, Mayer A, Cheung A, Witte G, et al. Molecular basis of Rrn3-regulated RNA polymerase I initiation and cell growth. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2093-105 pubmed publisher
    Cell growth is regulated during RNA polymerase (Pol) I transcription initiation by the conserved factor Rrn3/TIF-IA in yeast/humans...
  7. Viktorovskaya O, Appling F, Schneider D. Yeast transcription elongation factor Spt5 associates with RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase II directly. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we observed that Spt5 directly binds to an essential Pol I transcription initiation factor, Rrn3, and to the ribosomal RNA...
  8. Schneider D, French S, Osheim Y, Bailey A, Vu L, Dodd J, et al. RNA polymerase II elongation factors Spt4p and Spt5p play roles in transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I and rRNA processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12707-12 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Spt4p, Spt5p, and, potentially, other regulators of Pol I transcription elongation play important roles in coupling rRNA transcription to its processing and ribosome assembly. ..
  9. Yamamoto R, Nogi Y, Dodd J, Nomura M. RRN3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an essential RNA polymerase I transcription factor which interacts with the polymerase independently of DNA template. EMBO J. 1996;15:3964-73 pubmed
    b>RRN3 is one of the RRN genes specifically required for the transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

More Information


  1. Philippi A, Steinbauer R, Reiter A, Fath S, Leger Silvestre I, Milkereit P, et al. TOR-dependent reduction in the expression level of Rrn3p lowers the activity of the yeast RNA Pol I machinery, but does not account for the strong inhibition of rRNA production. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our analysis reveals that the dramatic reduction of rRNA synthesis in the immediate cellular response to impaired TOR signalling cannot be explained by the simple down-regulation of Rrn3p and Pol I-Rrn3p levels. ..
  2. Granato D, Machado Santelli G, Oliveira C. Nop53p interacts with 5.8S rRNA co-transcriptionally, and regulates processing of pre-rRNA by the exosome. FEBS J. 2008;275:4164-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this observation and similar to the observed in exosome mutants, depletion of Nop53p leads to accumulation of polyadenylated pre-rRNAs. ..
  3. Laribee R, Hosni Ahmed A, Workman J, Chen H. Ccr4-not regulates RNA polymerase I transcription and couples nutrient signaling to the control of ribosomal RNA biogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005113 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions, Ccr4-Not suppresses Pol I initiation by regulating interactions with the essential transcription factor Rrn3. Additionally, Ccr4-Not disruption prevents reduced Pol I transcription when mTORC1 is inhibited suggesting Ccr4-..
  4. Shou W, Sakamoto K, Keener J, Morimoto K, Traverso E, Azzam R, et al. Net1 stimulates RNA polymerase I transcription and regulates nucleolar structure independently of controlling mitotic exit. Mol Cell. 2001;8:45-55 pubmed
    ..The independent functions of Net1 link a key event in the cell cycle to nucleolar processes that are fundamental to cell growth. ..
  5. Wnuk M, Lewinska A, Bugno M, Bartosz G, Slota E. Rapid detection of yeast rRNA genes with primed in situ (PRINS) labeling. FEMS Yeast Res. 2009;9:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..PRINS, which is as sensitive as PCR and allows cytological localization of analyzed sequences, can be adapted for various screening tests requiring fast labeling of rRNA genes. ..
  6. Cadwell C, Yoon H, Zebarjadian Y, Carbon J. The yeast nucleolar protein Cbf5p is involved in rRNA biosynthesis and interacts genetically with the RNA polymerase I transcription factor RRN3. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6175-83 pubmed
    ..of yeast cbf5-1) was identified as a multicopy suppressor of cbf5-1 and subsequently was found to be identical to RRN3, an RNA polymerase I transcription factor...
  7. Hoskins J, Butler J. RNA-based 5-fluorouracil toxicity requires the pseudouridylation activity of Cbf5p. Genetics. 2008;179:323-30 pubmed publisher
  8. Engel K, French S, Viktorovskaya O, Beyer A, Schneider D. Spt6 Is Essential for rRNA Synthesis by RNA Polymerase I. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:2321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that protein levels of an essential Pol I initiation factor, Rrn3, are reduced when Spt6 is inactivated, leading to low levels of Pol I-Rrn3 complex...
  9. Zhang Y, French S, Beyer A, Schneider D. The Transcription Factor THO Promotes Transcription Initiation and Elongation by RNA Polymerase I. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:3010-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that perturbation of THO function impairs transcription initiation and elongation by Pol I, identifying a new cellular target for the conserved THO complex. ..
  10. Nogi Y, Vu L, Nomura M. An approach for isolation of mutants defective in 35S ribosomal RNA synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:7026-30 pubmed
    ..We have thus isolated many mutants and identified at least nine genes (RRN1-RRN9) involved in 35S rRNA synthesis, two of which correspond to known RNA polymerase I subunit genes RPA190 and RPA135. ..
  11. Beckouët F, Labarre Mariotte S, Albert B, Imazawa Y, Werner M, Gadal O, et al. Two RNA polymerase I subunits control the binding and release of Rrn3 during transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1596-605 pubmed
    ..The rpa49Delta and rpa49-338::HIS3 mutations had a dual effect on the transcription initiation factor Rrn3 (TIF-IA)...
  12. Peyroche G, Milkereit P, Bischler N, Tschochner H, Schultz P, Sentenac A, et al. The recruitment of RNA polymerase I on rDNA is mediated by the interaction of the A43 subunit with Rrn3. EMBO J. 2000;19:5473-82 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that subunit A43 of Pol I interacts with transcription factor Rrn3: conditional mutations in A43 were found to disrupt the transcriptionally competent Pol I-Rrn3 complex, the two ..
  13. Reeder R. Regulation of RNA polymerase I transcription in yeast and vertebrates. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1999;62:293-327 pubmed
    ..This suggests that multiple signaling pathways may also be involved. The involvement of ribosomal genes and their transcripts in events such as mitosis, cancer, and aging is discussed. ..
  14. Schneider D, Michel A, Sikes M, Vu L, Dodd J, Salgia S, et al. Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I is linked to efficient rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. Mol Cell. 2007;26:217-29 pubmed
  15. Torreira E, Louro J, Pazos I, González Polo N, Gil Cartón D, Duran A, et al. The dynamic assembly of distinct RNA polymerase I complexes modulates rDNA transcription. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    Cell growth requires synthesis of ribosomal RNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Binding of initiation factor Rrn3 activates Pol I, fostering recruitment to ribosomal DNA promoters...
  16. Minaker S, Filiatrault M, Ben Aroya S, Hieter P, Stirling P. Biogenesis of RNA polymerases II and III requires the conserved GPN small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2013;193:853-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport. ..
  17. Zhou L, Le Roux G, Ducrot C, Chédin S, Labarre J, Riva M, et al. Repression of class I transcription by cadmium is mediated by the protein phosphatase 2A. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6087-97 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent cellular signaling pathway that targets the formation/dissociation of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex...