Gene Symbol: RPT4
Description: proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT4
Alias: CRL13, PCS1, SUG2, proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT4
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Tomko R, Funakoshi M, Schneider K, Wang J, Hochstrasser M. Heterohexameric ring arrangement of the eukaryotic proteasomal ATPases: implications for proteasome structure and assembly. Mol Cell. 2010;38:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..use disulfide engineering to show that the eukaryotic ATPases form a ring with the arrangement Rpt1-Rpt2-Rpt6-Rpt3-Rpt4-Rpt5 in fully assembled proteasomes. The arrangement is consistent with known assembly intermediates...
  2. Sone T, Saeki Y, Toh e A, Yokosawa H. Sem1p is a novel subunit of the 26 S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28807-16 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that Sem1, possibly hDSS1, is a novel subunit of the 26 S proteasome and plays a role in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. ..
  3. Glickman M, Rubin D, Fried V, Finley D. The regulatory particle of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteasome. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3149-62 pubmed
    ..Overall, regulatory particles from yeasts and mammals are remarkably similar, suggesting that the specific mechanistic features of the proteasome have been closely conserved over the course of evolution. ..
  4. Ferdous A, Gonzalez F, Sun L, Kodadek T, Johnston S. The 19S regulatory particle of the proteasome is required for efficient transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2001;7:981-91 pubmed
    ..First, yeast strains carrying alleles of SUG1 and SUG2, encoding 19S components, exhibit phenotypes indicative of elongation defects...
  5. Chang C, Gonzalez F, Rothermel B, Sun L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. The Gal4 activation domain binds Sug2 protein, a proteasome component, in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:30956-63 pubmed
    ..b>Sug2 protein, a component of the 19 S regulatory particle of the 26 S proteasome, was one of seven proteins identified ..
  6. Gonzalez F, Delahodde A, Kodadek T, Johnston S. Recruitment of a 19S proteasome subcomplex to an activated promoter. Science. 2002;296:548-50 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that in vivo, the base of the 19S complex functions independently of the larger complex and plays a direct, nonproteolytic role in RNA polymerase II transcription. ..
  7. Rubin D, Glickman M, Larsen C, Dhruvakumar S, Finley D. Active site mutants in the six regulatory particle ATPases reveal multiple roles for ATP in the proteasome. EMBO J. 1998;17:4909-19 pubmed
    ..In summary, ATP promotes protein breakdown by the proteasome through multiple mechanisms, as reflected by the diverse phenotypes of the rpt mutants. ..
  8. Funakoshi M, Tomko R, Kobayashi H, Hochstrasser M. Multiple assembly chaperones govern biogenesis of the proteasome regulatory particle base. Cell. 2009;137:887-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Nas2 forms a complex with the Rpt4 and Rpt5 ATPases and enhances 26S proteasome formation in vivo and in vitro...
  9. Saeki Y, Toh e A, Yokosawa H. Rapid isolation and characterization of the yeast proteasome regulatory complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;273:509-15 pubmed
    ..In contrast with the previously reported result showing that Rpn10, a multiubiquitin chain binding subunit, is a component of the base complex, we present evidence that the lid complex isolated from wild-type yeast contains Rpn10. ..

More Information


  1. Park S, Roelofs J, Kim W, Robert J, Schmidt M, Gygi S, et al. Hexameric assembly of the proteasomal ATPases is templated through their C termini. Nature. 2009;459:866-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rpt proteins with the strongest assembly phenotypes, Rpt4 and Rpt6, were absent from BP1...
  2. Matyskiela M, Lander G, Martin A. Conformational switching of the 26S proteasome enables substrate degradation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:781-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, Rpn11 moves from an occluded position to directly above the central pore, thus facilitating substrate deubiquitination concomitant with translocation. ..
  3. Lipson C, Alalouf G, Bajorek M, Rabinovich E, Atir Lande A, Glickman M, et al. A proteasomal ATPase contributes to dislocation of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we find that equivalent mutations in RPT4 and RPT2 result in different phenotypes...
  4. Lander G, Estrin E, Matyskiela M, Bashore C, Nogales E, Martin A. Complete subunit architecture of the proteasome regulatory particle. Nature. 2012;482:186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide a structural basis for the ability of the proteasome to degrade a diverse set of substrates and thus regulate vital cellular processes. ..
  5. Li S, Spooner R, Allen S, Guise C, Ladds G, Schnöder T, et al. Folding-competent and folding-defective forms of ricin A chain have different fates after retrotranslocation from the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cytosolic ERAD components, particularly the proteasome RP, can discriminate between structural features of the same substrate. ..
  6. Malik S, Shukla A, Sen P, Bhaumik S. The 19 s proteasome subcomplex establishes a specific protein interaction network at the promoter for stimulated transcriptional initiation in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35714-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results provide significant insights as to how the 19 S proteasome subcomplex regulates the formation of the active transcription complex assembly (and, hence, transcriptional initiation) at the promoter in vivo. ..
  7. Takeuchi J, Tamura T. Recombinant ATPases of the yeast 26S proteasome activate protein degradation by the 20S proteasome. FEBS Lett. 2004;565:39-42 pubmed
    ..Purification of the Rpt1Rpt2 hetero-complex and the Rpt4 homo-complex for functional characterization demonstrated their contribution to energy-dependent protein ..
  8. Geng F, Tansey W. Similar temporal and spatial recruitment of native 19S and 20S proteasome subunits to transcriptionally active chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6060-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that proteasome subunits Rpt1, Rpt4, Rpn8, Rpn12, Pre6, and Pre10 are recruited to GAL10 rapidly upon galactose induction...
  9. Xie Y, Varshavsky A. UFD4 lacking the proteasome-binding region catalyses ubiquitination but is impaired in proteolysis. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:1003-7 pubmed
    ..Here we advance this analysis for UFD4 and show that it interacts with RPT4 and RPT6, two subunits of the 19S particle...
  10. Sulahian R, Sikder D, Johnston S, Kodadek T. The proteasomal ATPase complex is required for stress-induced transcription in yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:1351-7 pubmed
    Sug1 and Sug2 are two of six ATPases in the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome. We have shown previously that these proteins play a non-proteolytic role in the transcription of the GAL genes in yeast...
  11. Sun L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Physical association of the APIS complex and general transcription factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:991-9 pubmed
    ..These data add to the growing body of evidence that the APIS complex has a role in transcription, independent of its role in proteolysis and, furthermore, argues that it functions in association with the general transcription complex. ..
  12. Yu Z, Livnat Levanon N, Kleifeld O, Mansour W, Nakasone M, Castaneda C, et al. Base-CP proteasome can serve as a platform for stepwise lid formation. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher
  13. Kingsbury J, McCusker J. Homoserine toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans homoserine kinase (thr1Delta) mutants. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:717-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the doa4Delta and proteasome mutants identified have reduced ubiquitin- and/or proteasome-mediated proteolysis, the degradation of a particular protein or subset of proteins likely contributes to homoserine toxicity...
  14. Gillette T, Huang W, Russell S, Reed S, Johnston S, Friedberg E. The 19S complex of the proteasome regulates nucleotide excision repair in yeast. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1528-39 pubmed
    ..The 19S regulatory complex of the yeast proteasome functions in nucleotide excision repair independent of proteolysis. ..
  15. McDonald H, Helfant A, Mahony E, Khosla S, Goetsch L. Mutational analysis reveals a role for the C terminus of the proteasome subunit Rpt4p in spindle pole body duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;162:705-20 pubmed
    ..Previously, we reported that a conditional mutation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene RPT4/PCS1, which encodes one of six ATPases in the proteasome 19S cap complex/regulatory particle (RP), causes failure of ..
  16. Russell S, Gonzalez F, Joshua Tor L, Johnston S. Selective chemical inactivation of AAA proteins reveals distinct functions of proteasomal ATPases. Chem Biol. 2001;8:941-50 pubmed
    ..Mutation of a threonine in the active site of Sug1/Rpt6 or Sug2/Rpt4 to a cysteine sensitizes these proteins to inactivation through alkylation by the sulfhydryl modifying agent ..
  17. De La Mota Peynado A, Lee S, Pierce B, Wani P, Singh C, Roelofs J. The proteasome-associated protein Ecm29 inhibits proteasomal ATPase activity and in vivo protein degradation by the proteasome. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29467-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the inhibitory ability of Ecm29 is important for its function as a proteasome quality control factor by ensuring that aberrant proteasomes recognized by Ecm29 are inactive. ..
  18. Chen L, Madura K. Centrin/Cdc31 is a novel regulator of protein degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1829-40 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal for the first time a new role for centrin/Cdc31 in protein degradation. ..
  19. Funakoshi M, Hochstrasser M. Small epitope-linker modules for PCR-based C-terminal tagging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2009;26:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The set of plasmids has been deposited in the non-profit plasmid repository Addgene (http://www.addgene.org). ..
  20. Saeki Y, Isono E, Toh e A. Preparation of ubiquitinated substrates by the PY motif-insertion method for monitoring 26S proteasome activity. Methods Enzymol. 2005;399:215-27 pubmed
    ..In this communication, we describe that Sic1 was successfully ubiquitinated by the PY motif-insertion method and demonstrate that Sic1 thus ubiquitinated was degraded by the purified yeast 26S proteasome. ..
  21. Russell S, Steger K, Johnston S. Subcellular localization, stoichiometry, and protein levels of 26 S proteasome subunits in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21943-52 pubmed
    ..The subcellular localization of two ATPase components of the regulatory complex of the proteasome, Sug2/Rpt4 and Sug1/Rpt6, and a subunit of the 20 S proteasome, Pre1, were determined by immunofluorescence...
  22. Russell S, Reed S, Huang W, Friedberg E, Johnston S. The 19S regulatory complex of the proteasome functions independently of proteolysis in nucleotide excision repair. Mol Cell. 1999;3:687-95 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, blockage of protein degradation by the proteasome has no effect on the efficiency of NER. This establishes that the regulatory complex of the proteasome has a function independent of protein degradation. ..
  23. Desany B, Alcasabas A, Bachant J, Elledge S. Recovery from DNA replicational stress is the essential function of the S-phase checkpoint pathway. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2956-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that this checkpoint pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of DNA synthetic capabilities when DNA replication is stressed. ..
  24. Luan B, Huang X, Wu J, Mei Z, Wang Y, Xue X, et al. Structure of an endogenous yeast 26S proteasome reveals two major conformational states. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:2642-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure-guided biochemical analysis reveals enhanced deubiquitylating enzyme activity of Rpn11 upon assembly of the lid. Our structures serve as a molecular basis for mechanistic understanding of proteasome function. ..
  25. Dube D, Li B, Greenblatt E, Nimer S, Raymond A, Kohler J. A two-hybrid assay to study protein interactions within the secretory pathway. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15648 pubmed publisher
  26. Bashore C, Dambacher C, Goodall E, Matyskiela M, Lander G, Martin A. Ubp6 deubiquitinase controls conformational dynamics and substrate degradation of the 26S proteasome. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2015;22:712-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubp6 may thus act as a ubiquitin-dependent 'timer' to coordinate individual processing steps at the proteasome and modulate substrate degradation. ..
  27. Ding Z, Fu Z, Xu C, Wang Y, Wang Y, Li J, et al. High-resolution cryo-EM structure of the proteasome in complex with ADP-AlFx. Cell Res. 2017;27:373-385 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of nucleotide-driven allosteric cooperativity of the complex and of the substrate processing by the proteasome. ..
  28. Hatanaka A, Chen B, Sun J, Mano Y, Funakoshi M, Kobayashi H, et al. Fub1p, a novel protein isolated by boundary screening, binds the proteasome complex. Genes Genet Syst. 2011;86:305-14 pubmed
    ..Finally, boundary assay showed that human PSMF1 also exhibited boundary establishment activity in yeast. Our results defined the functional correlation between Fub1p and PSMF1. ..
  29. Kimura Y, Saeki Y, Yokosawa H, Polevoda B, Sherman F, Hirano H. N-Terminal modifications of the 19S regulatory particle subunits of the yeast proteasome. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;409:341-8 pubmed
    ..By using nat1, nat3, and mak3 deletion mutants, we found that 8 subunits, Rpt4, Rpt5, Rpt6, Rpn2, Rpn3, Rpn5, Rpn6, and Rpn8, were NatA substrates, and that 2 subunits, Rpt3 and Rpn11, were NatB ..
  30. Satoh T, Saeki Y, Hiromoto T, Wang Y, Uekusa Y, Yagi H, et al. Structural basis for proteasome formation controlled by an assembly chaperone nas2. Structure. 2014;22:731-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Nas2 operates as a proteasome activation blocker, offering a checkpoint during the formation of the 19S ATPase prior to its docking onto the proteolytic 20S core particle. ..
  31. Saeki Y, Toh e A, Kudo T, Kawamura H, Tanaka K. Multiple proteasome-interacting proteins assist the assembly of the yeast 19S regulatory particle. Cell. 2009;137:900-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the RP assembly is a highly organized and elaborate process orchestrated by multiple proteasome-dedicated chaperones. ..
  32. Russell S, Sathyanarayana U, Johnston S. Isolation and characterization of SUG2. A novel ATPase family component of the yeast 26 S proteasome. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32810-7 pubmed
    ..We have now cloned the gene defined by the second complementation group. SUG2 encodes an essential 49-kDa protein that is also a member of the CAD family and is 43% identical to SUG1...