RPO21

Summary

Gene Symbol: RPO21
Description: DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPO21
Alias: RPB1, RPB220, SUA8, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPO21
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     RPO21

Top Publications

  1. Alepuz P, de Nadal E, Zapater M, Ammerer G, Posas F. Osmostress-induced transcription by Hot1 depends on a Hog1-mediated recruitment of the RNA Pol II. EMBO J. 2003;22:2433-42 pubmed
    ..The mammalian p38 also interacts with the RNA Pol II, which might suggest a conserved mechanism for regulation of gene expression by SAPKs among eukaryotic cells. ..
  2. Zaros C, Briand J, Boulard Y, Labarre Mariotte S, Garcia Lopez M, Thuriaux P, et al. Functional organization of the Rpb5 subunit shared by the three yeast RNA polymerases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:634-47 pubmed
    ..Lethal or conditional mutants of the C-terminal globe altered the binding of Rpb5 to Rpb1-beta25/26 (prolonging the Bridge helix) and Rpb1-alpha44/47 (ahead of the Switch 1 loop and binding Rpb5 in a two-..
  3. Lunde B, Reichow S, Kim M, Suh H, Leeper T, Yang F, et al. Cooperative interaction of transcription termination factors with the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this cooperativity provides a signal-response mechanism to ensure that its action is confined only to proper polyadenylation sites where Ser2 phosphorylation density is highest. ..
  4. Zhang L, Fletcher A, Cheung V, Winston F, Stargell L. Spn1 regulates the recruitment of Spt6 and the Swi/Snf complex during transcriptional activation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1393-403 pubmed
    ..These findings link Spn1 functions to the transition from an inactive to an actively transcribing RNAPII complex at a postrecruitment-regulated promoter. ..
  5. Mirón García M, Garrido Godino A, García Molinero V, Hernández Torres F, Rodriguez Navarro S, Navarro F. The prefoldin bud27 mediates the assembly of the eukaryotic RNA polymerases in an rpb5-dependent manner. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003297 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the role of URI seems to be conserved in humans, suggesting conserved mechanisms in RNA pols biogenesis. ..
  6. Mayer A, Lidschreiber M, Siebert M, Leike K, Söding J, Cramer P. Uniform transitions of the general RNA polymerase II transcription complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1272-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Transitions are uniform and independent of gene length, type and expression. ..
  7. Kaplan C, Laprade L, Winston F. Transcription elongation factors repress transcription initiation from cryptic sites. Science. 2003;301:1096-9 pubmed
    ..Other elongation and chromatin factors, including Spt16 and histone H3, appear to contribute to this control. ..
  8. Cho E, Takagi T, Moore C, Buratowski S. mRNA capping enzyme is recruited to the transcription complex by phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3319-26 pubmed
    ..Our results provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that capping enzyme is recruited to the transcription complex via phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase CTD. ..
  9. Eichner J, Chen H, Warfield L, Hahn S. Position of the general transcription factor TFIIF within the RNA polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex. EMBO J. 2010;29:706-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this mechanism, mutations far from the enzyme active site, which alter the binding of either structured TFIIF domains to Pol II, have similar defects in transcription start site usage. ..

More Information

Publications91

  1. Keogh M, Podolny V, Buratowski S. Bur1 kinase is required for efficient transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7005-18 pubmed
    ..Although Bur1 can phosphorylate the Rpb1 carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) kinase in vitro, it has no strong specificity within the consensus heptapeptide ..
  2. Czeko E, Seizl M, Augsberger C, Mielke T, Cramer P. Iwr1 directs RNA polymerase II nuclear import. Mol Cell. 2011;42:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Iwr1 function is Pol II specific, transcription independent, and apparently conserved from yeast to human. ..
  3. Hobson D, Wei W, Steinmetz L, Svejstrup J. RNA polymerase II collision interrupts convergent transcription. Mol Cell. 2012;48:365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insight into fundamental mechanisms of gene traffic control and point to an unexplored effect of antisense transcription on gene regulation via polymerase collision. ..
  4. Verma R, Oania R, Fang R, Smith G, Deshaies R. Cdc48/p97 mediates UV-dependent turnover of RNA Pol II. Mol Cell. 2011;41:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..contain high levels of Ub conjugates, and mass spectrometry identified numerous nonproteasomal proteins, including Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA Pol II...
  5. Goler Baron V, Selitrennik M, Barkai O, Haimovich G, Lotan R, Choder M. Transcription in the nucleus and mRNA decay in the cytoplasm are coupled processes. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2022-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, by recruiting Rpb4/7, Pol II governs not only transcription but also mRNA decay. ..
  6. Reid J, Svejstrup J. DNA damage-induced Def1-RNA polymerase II interaction and Def1 requirement for polymerase ubiquitylation in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29875-8 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which Def1 interacts with RNAPII in response to DNA damage, recruiting the ubiquitylation machinery to enable its modification and subsequent degradation. ..
  7. Xiao T, Hall H, Kizer K, Shibata Y, Hall M, Borchers C, et al. Phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II CTD regulates H3 methylation in yeast. Genes Dev. 2003;17:654-63 pubmed
    ..These data document a new link between histone methylation and the transcription apparatus and uncover a regulatory pathway that is selective for H3 Lys 36 methylation. ..
  8. Malagon F, Kireeva M, Shafer B, Lubkowska L, Kashlev M, Strathern J. Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPB1 gene conferring hypersensitivity to 6-azauracil. Genetics. 2006;172:2201-9 pubmed
    ..In this work we reisolated the rpo21-24/rpb1-E1230K allele, which reduces the interaction of RNAPII-TFIIS, and identified five new point mutations in ..
  9. Kettenberger H, Armache K, Cramer P. Complete RNA polymerase II elongation complex structure and its interactions with NTP and TFIIS. Mol Cell. 2004;16:955-65 pubmed
    ..Binding of the elongation factor TFIIS realigns RNA in the active center, possibly converting the elongation complex to an alternative state less prone to stalling. ..
  10. Miyao T, Woychik N. RNA polymerase subunit RPB5 plays a role in transcriptional activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15281-6 pubmed
    ..The defects noted with rpb5-9 are similar to those seen in truncation mutants of the RPB1-carboxyl terminal domain (CTD)...
  11. Sadowski M, Dichtl B, Hubner W, Keller W. Independent functions of yeast Pcf11p in pre-mRNA 3' end processing and in transcription termination. EMBO J. 2003;22:2167-77 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Pcf11p is a bifunctional protein and that transcript cleavage is not an obligatory step prior to RNAP II termination. ..
  12. Chen X, Ruggiero C, Li S. Yeast Rpb9 plays an important role in ubiquitylation and degradation of Rpb1 in response to UV-induced DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4617-25 pubmed
    ..Here we show that, in response to UV radiation, Rpb9 also functions in promoting ubiquitylation and degradation of Rpb1, the largest subunit of Pol II...
  13. Gaillard H, Tous C, Botet J, González Aguilera C, Quintero M, Viladevall L, et al. Genome-wide analysis of factors affecting transcription elongation and DNA repair: a new role for PAF and Ccr4-not in transcription-coupled repair. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000364 pubmed publisher
  14. Qiu H, Hu C, Hinnebusch A. Phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD by KIN28 enhances BUR1/BUR2 recruitment and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation near promoters. Mol Cell. 2009;33:752-62 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, CTK1 is responsible for the bulk of Ser2P in total Pol II and at promoter-distal sites. In addition to phosphorylating Ser2 near promoters, BUR1/BUR2 also stimulates Ser2P formation by CTK1 during transcription elongation. ..
  15. Squazzo S, Costa P, Lindstrom D, Kumer K, Simic R, Jennings J, et al. The Paf1 complex physically and functionally associates with transcription elongation factors in vivo. EMBO J. 2002;21:1764-74 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the Paf1 complex functions during the elongation phase of transcription in conjunction with Spt4-Spt5 and Spt16-Pob3. ..
  16. Briand J, Navarro F, Rematier P, Boschiero C, Labarre S, Werner M, et al. Partners of Rpb8p, a small subunit shared by yeast RNA polymerases I, II and III. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6056-65 pubmed
    ..A ygr089-Delta null mutant has no detectable growth defect but aggravates the conditional growth defect of rpb8 mutants, suggesting that the interaction with Rpb8p may be physiologically relevant. ..
  17. Staresincic L, Walker J, Dirac Svejstrup A, Mitter R, Svejstrup J. GTP-dependent binding and nuclear transport of RNA polymerase II by Npa3 protein. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that Npa3 defines an unconventional pathway for nuclear import of RNAPII, which involves GTP-dependent binding of Npa3 to the polymerase. ..
  18. Majovski R, Khaperskyy D, Ghazy M, Ponticelli A. A functional role for the switch 2 region of yeast RNA polymerase II in transcription start site utilization and abortive initiation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34917-23 pubmed
    ..We report here the identification of two mutations in the switch 2 region, rpb1-K332A and rpb1-R344A, which conferred conditional growth properties and downstream shifts in start site utilization...
  19. Govind C, Qiu H, Ginsburg D, Ruan C, Hofmeyer K, Hu C, et al. Phosphorylated Pol II CTD recruits multiple HDACs, including Rpd3C(S), for methylation-dependent deacetylation of ORF nucleosomes. Mol Cell. 2010;39:234-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A strong correlation between increased acetylation and lower histone occupancy in HDA mutants implies that histone acetylation is important for nucleosome eviction. ..
  20. Somesh B, Sigurdsson S, Saeki H, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J. Communication between distant sites in RNA polymerase II through ubiquitylation factors and the polymerase CTD. Cell. 2007;129:57-68 pubmed
    ..These data reveal the specificity and mechanism of RNAPII ubiquitylation and demonstrate that E2s can play a crucial role in substrate recognition. ..
  21. Harel Sharvit L, Eldad N, Haimovich G, Barkai O, Duek L, Choder M. RNA polymerase II subunits link transcription and mRNA decay to translation. Cell. 2010;143:552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Rpb4/7, through its interactions at each step in the mRNA lifecycle, represents a class of factors, "mRNA coordinators," which integrate the various stages of gene expression into a system. ..
  22. Schreieck A, Easter A, Etzold S, Wiederhold K, Lidschreiber M, Cramer P, et al. RNA polymerase II termination involves C-terminal-domain tyrosine dephosphorylation by CPF subunit Glc7. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:175-179 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that transcription termination involves Tyr1 dephosphorylation of the CTD and indicate that pre-mRNA processing by CPF and transcription termination are coupled via Glc7-dependent Pol II-Tyr1 dephosphorylation. ..
  23. Wilson M, Saponaro M, Leidl M, Svejstrup J. MultiDsk: a ubiquitin-specific affinity resin. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46398 pubmed publisher
    ..We use the resin to show that the Def1 protein becomes ubiquitylated in response to DNA damage, and to isolate ubiquitylated forms of RNA polymerase II. ..
  24. Ng H, Robert F, Young R, Struhl K. Targeted recruitment of Set1 histone methylase by elongating Pol II provides a localized mark and memory of recent transcriptional activity. Mol Cell. 2003;11:709-19 pubmed
  25. Kaplan C, Larsson K, Kornberg R. The RNA polymerase II trigger loop functions in substrate selection and is directly targeted by alpha-amanitin. Mol Cell. 2008;30:547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that alpha-amanitin-inhibited Pol II elongation, which is slow and exhibits reduced substrate selectivity, results from direct alpha-amanitin interference with the TL. ..
  26. Hengartner C, Myer V, Liao S, Wilson C, Koh S, Young R. Temporal regulation of RNA polymerase II by Srb10 and Kin28 cyclin-dependent kinases. Mol Cell. 1998;2:43-53 pubmed
  27. Liu Y, Warfield L, Zhang C, Luo J, Allen J, Lang W, et al. Phosphorylation of the transcription elongation factor Spt5 by yeast Bur1 kinase stimulates recruitment of the PAF complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4852-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic results suggest that Bur1 is essential for growth because it targets multiple factors that play distinct roles in transcription. ..
  28. Hazelbaker D, Marquardt S, Wlotzka W, Buratowski S. Kinetic competition between RNA Polymerase II and Sen1-dependent transcription termination. Mol Cell. 2013;49:55-66 pubmed publisher
    ..A mutation in the Pol II subunit Rpb1 that increases the elongation rate increases read-through transcription at Sen1-mediated terminators...
  29. Li B, Howe L, Anderson S, Yates J, Workman J. The Set2 histone methyltransferase functions through the phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8897-903 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that Set2 is involved in regulating transcription elongation through its direct contact with pol II. ..
  30. Bhaumik S, Green M. SAGA is an essential in vivo target of the yeast acidic activator Gal4p. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1935-45 pubmed
    ..Based on these and other results, we conclude that SAGA is an essential target of Gal4p that, following recruitment to the UAS, facilitates PIC assembly and transcription. ..
  31. Lei E, Krebber H, Silver P. Messenger RNAs are recruited for nuclear export during transcription. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1771-82 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that export factors are recruited to the sites of transcription to promote efficient mRNA export. ..
  32. Shaw R, Wilson J, Smith K, Reines D. Regulation of an IMP dehydrogenase gene and its overexpression in drug-sensitive transcription elongation mutants of yeast. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32905-16 pubmed
    ..These findings show that yeast possess a conserved system that gauges nucleotide pools and cell growth rate and responds through a uniquely regulated member of the IMD gene family. ..
  33. Garrido Godino A, García López M, Navarro F. Correct assembly of RNA polymerase II depends on the foot domain and is required for multiple steps of transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3611-26 pubmed publisher
    ..foot of RNA pol II is crucial for the assembly and stability of the complex, by ensuring the correct association of Rpb1 with Rpb6 and of the dimer Rpb4-Rpb7 (Rpb4/7)...
  34. Schroeder S, Schwer B, Shuman S, Bentley D. Dynamic association of capping enzymes with transcribing RNA polymerase II. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2435-40 pubmed
    ..CTD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation therefore control the association of capping enzymes with pol II as it transcribes a gene. ..
  35. Wyers F, Rougemaille M, Badis G, Rousselle J, Dufour M, Boulay J, et al. Cryptic pol II transcripts are degraded by a nuclear quality control pathway involving a new poly(A) polymerase. Cell. 2005;121:725-37 pubmed
    ..Our data strongly support the existence of a posttranscriptional quality control mechanism limiting inappropriate expression of genetic information. ..
  36. Denis C, Chiang Y, Cui Y, Chen J. Genetic evidence supports a role for the yeast CCR4-NOT complex in transcriptional elongation. Genetics. 2001;158:627-34 pubmed
    ..Third, the ccr4 deletion displayed allele-specific interactions with rpb1 alleles that are thought to be important in the control of elongation...
  37. Wilson M, Harreman M, Taschner M, Reid J, Walker J, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. Proteasome-mediated processing of Def1, a critical step in the cellular response to transcription stress. Cell. 2013;154:983-995 pubmed publisher
    ..This facilitates polyubiquitylation of Rpb1, triggering its proteasome-mediated degradation...
  38. Conrad N, Wilson S, Steinmetz E, Patturajan M, Brow D, Swanson M, et al. A yeast heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex associated with RNA polymerase II. Genetics. 2000;154:557-71 pubmed
    ..This set of genetic and physical interactions suggests a role for yeast RNA-binding proteins in transcriptional regulation. ..
  39. Wood A, Schneider J, Dover J, Johnston M, Shilatifard A. The Paf1 complex is essential for histone monoubiquitination by the Rad6-Bre1 complex, which signals for histone methylation by COMPASS and Dot1p. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34739-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to its role during the elongation phase of transcription, the Paf1 complex appears to activate the function but not the placement of the Rad6-Bre1 ubiquitin-protein ligase at the promoters of active genes. ..
  40. Chen H, Hahn S. Binding of TFIIB to RNA polymerase II: Mapping the binding site for the TFIIB zinc ribbon domain within the preinitiation complex. Mol Cell. 2003;12:437-47 pubmed
    ..This surface is best conserved in polymerases that require a TFIIB-like factor. Our results suggest a general mechanism for interaction of TFIIB-like factors and RNA polymerases and a mechanism for the function of the ribbon domain. ..
  41. Kvint K, Uhler J, Taschner M, Sigurdsson S, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. Reversal of RNA polymerase II ubiquitylation by the ubiquitin protease Ubp3. Mol Cell. 2008;30:498-506 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement with this, cells with compromised DNA repair are better equipped to survive UV damage when UPB3 is deleted. ..
  42. García López M, Mirón García M, Garrido Godino A, Mingorance C, Navarro F. Overexpression of SNG1 causes 6-azauracil resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2010;56:251-63 pubmed publisher
    ..suppressor screening to identify genes whose overexpression could repair the 6AU(S) growth defect caused by rpb1 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  43. Hartzog G, Wada T, Handa H, Winston F. Evidence that Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6 control transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1998;12:357-69 pubmed
    ..1998), provide strong evidence that these factors are important for transcription elongation in vivo. ..
  44. Dasgupta A, Juedes S, Sprouse R, Auble D. Mot1-mediated control of transcription complex assembly and activity. EMBO J. 2005;24:1717-29 pubmed
    ..We suggest that at activated promoters, Mot1 disassembles transcriptionally inactive TBP, thereby facilitating the formation of a TBP complex that supports functional PIC assembly. ..
  45. Chinchilla K, Rodríguez Molina J, Ursic D, Finkel J, Ansari A, Culbertson M. Interactions of Sen1, Nrd1, and Nab3 with multiple phosphorylated forms of the Rpb1 C-terminal domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:417-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Sen1 and Nrd1 both interact directly with Nab3, as well as with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II...
  46. Kops O, Zhou X, Lu K. Pin1 modulates the dephosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by yeast Fcp1. FEBS Lett. 2002;513:305-11 pubmed
    ..Together, our results indicate a new role for Pin1 in the regulation of CTD phosphorylation and present a further example for prolyl isomerization-dependent protein dephosphorylation. ..
  47. Kim H, Jeong S, Heo J, Jeong S, Kim S, Youn H, et al. mRNA capping enzyme activity is coupled to an early transcription elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6184-93 pubmed
    ..Capping enzyme ensures the early transcription checkpoint by capping of the nascent transcript in time and allowing it to extend further. ..
  48. Guglielmi B, Soutourina J, Esnault C, Werner M. TFIIS elongation factor and Mediator act in conjunction during transcription initiation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16062-7 pubmed
  49. Greenwood C, Selth L, Dirac Svejstrup A, Svejstrup J. An iron-sulfur cluster domain in Elp3 important for the structural integrity of elongator. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data support the idea that the Elp3 FeS cluster is essential for normal Elongator function in vivo primarily as a structural, rather than catalytic, domain. ..
  50. Krishnamurthy S, He X, Reyes Reyes M, Moore C, Hampsey M. Ssu72 Is an RNA polymerase II CTD phosphatase. Mol Cell. 2004;14:387-94 pubmed
  51. Kaplan C, Holland M, Winston F. Interaction between transcription elongation factors and mRNA 3'-end formation at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL10-GAL7 locus. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:913-22 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results provide new evidence for a connection between the transcription elongation factor Spt6 and 3'-end formation in vivo. ..
  52. Ursic D, Chinchilla K, Finkel J, Culbertson M. Multiple protein/protein and protein/RNA interactions suggest roles for yeast DNA/RNA helicase Sen1p in transcription, transcription-coupled DNA repair and RNA processing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:2441-52 pubmed
    ..The protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions reported here suggest that the DNA/RNA helicase activity of Sen1p is utilized for several different purposes in multiple gene expression pathways. ..
  53. Cho E, Buratowski S. Evidence that transcription factor IIB is required for a post-assembly step in transcription initiation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25807-13 pubmed
    ..This step may be related to the yeast-specific spacing between TATA elements and start sites since mutations of the corresponding glutamate in mammalian TFIIB do not produce a similar effect. ..
  54. Harreman M, Taschner M, Sigurdsson S, Anindya R, Reid J, Somesh B, et al. Distinct ubiquitin ligases act sequentially for RNA polymerase II polyubiquitylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20705-10 pubmed publisher
  55. Jouvet N, Poschmann J, Douville J, Bulet L, Ramotar D. Rrd1 isomerizes RNA polymerase II in response to rapamycin. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:92 pubmed publisher
    ..that Rrd1 mediates structural changes onto the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (Rpb1) in response to rapamycin, although this appears to be independent of the overall phosphorylation status of the CTD...
  56. Chanarat S, Seizl M, Strasser K. The Prp19 complex is a novel transcription elongation factor required for TREX occupancy at transcribed genes. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1147-58 pubmed publisher
  57. Porrúa O, Libri D. A bacterial-like mechanism for transcription termination by the Sen1p helicase in budding yeast. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:884-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that termination is inhibited by RNA-DNA hybrids. Our results elucidate the role of Sen1p in controlling pervasive transcription. ..
  58. Tatum D, Li W, Placer M, Li S. Diverse roles of RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 complex in different subpathways of nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To our best knowledge, among the NER-modulating factors documented so far, Paf1C appears to have the most diverse functions in different NER pathways or subpathways. ..
  59. Somesh B, Reid J, Liu W, Søgaard T, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. Multiple mechanisms confining RNA polymerase II ubiquitylation to polymerases undergoing transcriptional arrest. Cell. 2005;121:913-23 pubmed
    ..These results identify several mechanisms that confine ubiquitylation of RNAPII to the forms of the enzyme that arrest during elongation. ..
  60. Nonet M, Young R. Intragenic and extragenic suppressors of mutations in the heptapeptide repeat domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II. Genetics. 1989;123:715-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that the SRB2 gene encodes a factor that is involved in RNA synthesis and may interact with the CTR domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. ..
  61. Otero G, Fellows J, Li Y, de Bizemont T, Dirac A, Gustafsson C, et al. Elongator, a multisubunit component of a novel RNA polymerase II holoenzyme for transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell. 1999;3:109-18 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the transition from transcriptional initiation to elongation involves an exchange of the multiprotein mediator complex for elongator in a reaction coupled to CTD hyperphosphorylation. ..
  62. Rodriguez C, Cho E, Keogh M, Moore C, Greenleaf A, Buratowski S. Kin28, the TFIIH-associated carboxy-terminal domain kinase, facilitates the recruitment of mRNA processing machinery to RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:104-12 pubmed
    ..Pta1 in yeast extracts binds specifically to the phosphorylated CTD, suggesting that this interaction may mediate coupling of polyadenylation and transcription. ..
  63. Phatnani H, Jones J, Greenleaf A. Expanding the functional repertoire of CTD kinase I and RNA polymerase II: novel phosphoCTD-associating proteins in the yeast proteome. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15702-19 pubmed
  64. Cramer P, Bushnell D, Fu J, Gnatt A, Maier Davis B, Thompson N, et al. Architecture of RNA polymerase II and implications for the transcription mechanism. Science. 2000;288:640-9 pubmed
    ..Notable features of the model include a pair of jaws, formed by subunits Rpb1, Rpb5, and Rpb9, that appear to grip DNA downstream of the active center...
  65. Berroteran R, Ware D, Hampsey M. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:226-37 pubmed
    ..The SUA8 gene was cloned and partially sequenced, revealing identity to RPB1, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II...
  66. Beaudenon S, Huacani M, Wang G, McDonnell D, Huibregtse J. Rsp5 ubiquitin-protein ligase mediates DNA damage-induced degradation of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6972-9 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that Rsp5 binds and ubiquitinates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, Rpb1, in vitro...
  67. Qiu H, Hu C, Gaur N, Hinnebusch A. Pol II CTD kinases Bur1 and Kin28 promote Spt5 CTR-independent recruitment of Paf1 complex. EMBO J. 2012;31:3494-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that pCTD repeats and Spt5 pCTRs provide separate interaction surfaces that cooperate to ensure high-level Paf1C recruitment. ..
  68. Grünberg S, Warfield L, Hahn S. Architecture of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex and mechanism of ATP-dependent promoter opening. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:788-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Right-handed threading of DNA through the Ssl2 binding groove, combined with the fixed position of upstream promoter DNA, leads to DNA unwinding and the open state. ..
  69. Barilla D, Lee B, Proudfoot N. Cleavage/polyadenylation factor IA associates with the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:445-50 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these data reinforce the concept that CTD phosphorylation acts as a regulatory mechanism in the maturation of the primary transcript. ..
  70. Chen H, Hahn S. Mapping the location of TFIIB within the RNA polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex: a model for the structure of the PIC. Cell. 2004;119:169-80 pubmed
    ..The TFIIF subunit Tfg1 was found in close proximity to the TFIIB B finger, linker, and core domains, suggesting that these two factors closely cooperate during initiation. ..
  71. Vasiljeva L, Kim M, Mutschler H, Buratowski S, Meinhart A. The Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 termination complex interacts with the Ser5-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:795-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Nrd1 recruitment to genes involves a combination of interactions with CTD and Nab3. ..
  72. Sigurdsson S, Dirac Svejstrup A, Svejstrup J. Evidence that transcript cleavage is essential for RNA polymerase II transcription and cell viability. Mol Cell. 2010;38:202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that transcription problems leading to backtracking are frequent in vivo and that reactivation of backtracked RNAPII is crucial for transcription. ..
  73. Mayer A, Heidemann M, Lidschreiber M, Schreieck A, Sun M, Hintermair C, et al. CTD tyrosine phosphorylation impairs termination factor recruitment to RNA polymerase II. Science. 2012;336:1723-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that CTD modifications trigger and block factor recruitment and lead to an extended CTD code that explains transcription cycle coordination on the basis of differential phosphorylation of Tyr(1), Ser(2), and Ser(5). ..
  74. Chu Y, Simic R, Warner M, Arndt K, Prelich G. Regulation of histone modification and cryptic transcription by the Bur1 and Paf1 complexes. EMBO J. 2007;26:4646-56 pubmed
  75. Wilcox C, Rossettini A, Hanes S. Genetic interactions with C-terminal domain (CTD) kinases and the CTD of RNA Pol II suggest a role for ESS1 in transcription initiation and elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2004;167:93-105 pubmed
    Ess1 is an essential prolyl isomerase that binds the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1, the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Ess1 is proposed to control transcription by isomerizing phospho-Ser-Pro peptide bonds within the CTD repeat...
  76. Saeki Y, Kudo T, Sone T, Kikuchi Y, Yokosawa H, Toh e A, et al. Lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chain may serve as a targeting signal for the 26S proteasome. EMBO J. 2009;28:359-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results raise the possibility that Lys63-linked ubiquitin chain also serves as a targeting signal for the 26S proteaseome in vivo. ..
  77. Liao S, Zhang J, Jeffery D, Koleske A, Thompson C, Chao D, et al. A kinase-cyclin pair in the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Nature. 1995;374:193-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the SRB10/11 kinase is involved in CTD phosphorylation and suggest that this modification has a role in the response to transcriptional regulators in vivo. ..
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