RPB4

Summary

Gene Symbol: RPB4
Description: DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4
Alias: CTF15, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     RPB4

Top Publications

  1. Farago M, Nahari T, Hammel C, Cole C, Choder M. Rpb4p, a subunit of RNA polymerase II, mediates mRNA export during stress. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2744-55 pubmed
    ..Both functions of Rpb4p are required to maintain cell viability during stress. We propose that Rpb4p participates in the cellular responses to stress at the interface of the transcription and the export machineries. ..
  2. Kruk J, Dutta A, Fu J, Gilmour D, Reese J. The multifunctional Ccr4-Not complex directly promotes transcription elongation. Genes Dev. 2011;25:581-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our comprehensive analysis shows that Ccr4-Not directly regulates transcription, and suggests it does so by promoting the resumption of elongation of arrested RNAPII when it encounters transcriptional blocks in vivo. ..
  3. Armache K, Mitterweger S, Meinhart A, Cramer P. Structures of complete RNA polymerase II and its subcomplex, Rpb4/7. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7131-4 pubmed
    We determined the x-ray structure of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II subcomplex Rpb4/7 at 2...
  4. Kettenberger H, Armache K, Cramer P. Complete RNA polymerase II elongation complex structure and its interactions with NTP and TFIIS. Mol Cell. 2004;16:955-65 pubmed
    ..Binding of the elongation factor TFIIS realigns RNA in the active center, possibly converting the elongation complex to an alternative state less prone to stalling. ..
  5. Orlicky S, Tran P, Sayre M, Edwards A. Dissociable Rpb4-Rpb7 subassembly of rna polymerase II binds to single-strand nucleic acid and mediates a post-recruitment step in transcription initiation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10097-102 pubmed
    The Rpb4 and Rpb7 subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II form a heterodimeric complex essential for promoter-directed transcription initiation in a reconstituted system...
  6. Selitrennik M, Duek L, Lotan R, Choder M. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Rpb4p and Rpb7p subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II by two pathways. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:2092-103 pubmed
    ..However, during severe stresses of heat shock, ethanol, and starvation, the two proteins shuttle via a transcription-independent pathway. Thus, Rpb4p and Rpb7p shuttle via two pathways, depending on environmental conditions. ..
  7. Lotan R, Goler Baron V, Duek L, Haimovich G, Choder M. The Rpb7p subunit of yeast RNA polymerase II plays roles in the two major cytoplasmic mRNA decay mechanisms. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:1133-43 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analyses suggest that Rpb7p plays two distinct roles in mRNA decay, which can both be uncoupled from Rpb7p's role in transcription. Thus, Rpb7p plays pivotal roles in determining mRNA levels. ..
  8. Armache K, Kettenberger H, Cramer P. Architecture of initiation-competent 12-subunit RNA polymerase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6964-8 pubmed
    RNA polymerase (Pol) II consists of a 10-polypeptide catalytic core and the two-subunit Rpb4/7 complex that is required for transcription initiation...
  9. Lotan R, Bar On V, Harel Sharvit L, Duek L, Melamed D, Choder M. The RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb4p mediates decay of a specific class of mRNAs. Genes Dev. 2005;19:3004-16 pubmed
    ..Cells lacking RPB4 are defective in the deadenylation and post-deadenylation steps of representatives of this class of mRNAs...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Verma Gaur J, Rao S, Taya T, Sadhale P. Genomewide recruitment analysis of Rpb4, a subunit of polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reveals its involvement in transcription elongation. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1009-18 pubmed publisher
    The Rpb4/Rpb7 subcomplex of yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has counterparts in all multisubunit RNA polymerases from archaebacteria to higher eukaryotes...
  2. Harel Sharvit L, Eldad N, Haimovich G, Barkai O, Duek L, Choder M. RNA polymerase II subunits link transcription and mRNA decay to translation. Cell. 2010;143:552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the Rpb4/7 heterodimer interacts physically and functionally with components of the translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3), ..
  3. Czeko E, Seizl M, Augsberger C, Mielke T, Cramer P. Iwr1 directs RNA polymerase II nuclear import. Mol Cell. 2011;42:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Iwr1 function is Pol II specific, transcription independent, and apparently conserved from yeast to human. ..
  4. Jasiak A, Hartmann H, Karakasili E, Kalocsay M, Flatley A, Kremmer E, et al. Genome-associated RNA polymerase II includes the dissociable Rpb4/7 subcomplex. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26423-7 pubmed publisher
    Yeast RNA polymerase (Pol) II consists of a 10-subunit core enzyme and the Rpb4/7 subcomplex, which is dispensable for catalytic activity and dissociates in vitro...
  5. Sheffer A, Varon M, Choder M. Rpb7 can interact with RNA polymerase II and support transcription during some stresses independently of Rpb4. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2672-80 pubmed
    b>Rpb4 and Rpb7 are two yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) subunits whose mechanistic roles have recently started to be deciphered...
  6. Goler Baron V, Selitrennik M, Barkai O, Haimovich G, Lotan R, Choder M. Transcription in the nucleus and mRNA decay in the cytoplasm are coupled processes. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2022-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, little is known about possible cross-talk between these processes. The yeast Rpb4/7 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling heterodimer that interacts with Pol II and with mRNAs and is required for mRNA ..
  7. McKune K, Richards K, Edwards A, Young R, Woychik N. RPB7, one of two dissociable subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II, is essential for cell viability. Yeast. 1993;9:295-9 pubmed
    ..RPB7 is known to dissociate from RNA polymerase II as an RPB4/RPB7 subcomplex in vitro...
  8. Bushnell D, Kornberg R. Complete, 12-subunit RNA polymerase II at 4.1-A resolution: implications for the initiation of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6969-73 pubmed
    ..complete RNA polymerase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined, including a heterodimer of subunits Rpb4 and Rpb7 not present in previous "core" polymerase II structures...
  9. Qi H, Zakian V. The Saccharomyces telomere-binding protein Cdc13p interacts with both the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase alpha and the telomerase-associated est1 protein. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1777-88 pubmed
    ..We propose that Cdc13p's interaction with Est1p promotes TG(1-3) strand lengthening by telomerase and its interaction with Pol1p promotes C(1-3)A strand resynthesis by DNA polymerase alpha. ..
  10. Allepuz Fuster P, Martínez Fernández V, Garrido Godino A, Alonso Aguado S, Hanes S, Navarro F, et al. Rpb4/7 facilitates RNA polymerase II CTD dephosphorylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:13674-88 pubmed
    The Rpb4 and Rpb7 subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) participate in a variety of processes from transcription, DNA repair, mRNA export and decay, to translation regulation and stress response...
  11. Miyao T, Barnett J, Woychik N. Deletion of the RNA polymerase subunit RPB4 acts as a global, not stress-specific, shut-off switch for RNA polymerase II transcription at high temperatures. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46408-13 pubmed
    ..investigate the changes in the mRNA profile in cells lacking the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 (Delta RPB4)...
  12. Villanyi Z, Ribaud V, Kassem S, Panasenko O, Pahi Z, Gupta I, et al. The Not5 subunit of the ccr4-not complex connects transcription and translation. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004569 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have suggested that a sub-complex of RNA polymerase II composed of Rpb4 and Rpb7 couples the nuclear and cytoplasmic stages of gene expression by associating with newly made mRNAs in the nucleus, and contributing to their ..
  13. Wery M, Shematorova E, Van Driessche B, Vandenhaute J, Thuriaux P, Van Mullem V. Members of the SAGA and Mediator complexes are partners of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS. EMBO J. 2004;23:4232-42 pubmed
    ..rpb9Delta, spt8Delta and dst1Delta were lethal in cells lacking the Rpb4 subunit...
  14. Duan R, Rhie B, Ryu H, Ahn S. The RNA polymerase II Rpb4/7 subcomplex regulates cellular lifespan through an mRNA decay process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;: pubmed publisher
    In budding yeast, a highly conserved heterodimeric protein complex that is composed of the Rpb4 and Rpb7 proteins within RNA polymerase II shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm where it coordinates various steps of gene expression by ..
  15. Takagi Y, Calero G, Komori H, Brown J, Ehrensberger A, Hudmon A, et al. Head module control of mediator interactions. Mol Cell. 2006;23:355-64 pubmed
    ..The head module evidently controls Mediator-RNA polymerase II and Mediator-promoter interactions. ..
  16. Gilbert T, McDaniel S, Byrum S, Cades J, Dancy B, Wade H, et al. A PWWP domain-containing protein targets the NuA3 acetyltransferase complex via histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation to coordinate transcriptional elongation at coding regions. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:2883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies define a new form of the NuA3 complex that associates with H3K36me3 to effect transcriptional elongation. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001156. ..
  17. Xu Y, Bernecky C, Lee C, Maier K, Schwalb B, Tegunov D, et al. Architecture of the RNA polymerase II-Paf1C-TFIIS transcription elongation complex. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15741 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that Paf1C is globally required for normal mRNA transcription in yeast. These results provide a three-dimensional framework for further analysis of Paf1C function in transcription through chromatin. ..
  18. Sareen A, Choudhry P, Mehta S, Sharma N. Mapping the interaction site of Rpb4 and Rpb7 subunits of RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:763-70 pubmed
    b>Rpb4 and Rpb7, the fourth and the seventh largest subunits of RNA polymerase II, form a heterodimer in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  19. Daulny A, Geng F, Muratani M, Geisinger J, Salghetti S, Tansey W. Modulation of RNA polymerase II subunit composition by ubiquitylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19649-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubiquitylation by Asr1 leads to the ejection of the Rpb4/Rpb7 heterodimer from the polymerase complex and is associated with inactivation of polymerase function...
  20. Suh M, Meyer P, Gu M, Ye P, Zhang M, Kaplan C, et al. A dual interface determines the recognition of RNA polymerase II by RNA capping enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34027-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the dual interface based on combining PCI1 and PCI2 is required for directing CE to Pol II elongation complexes. ..
  21. Garcia Lopez M, Pelechano V, Mirón García M, Garrido Godino A, Garcia A, Calvo O, et al. The conserved foot domain of RNA pol II associates with proteins involved in transcriptional initiation and/or early elongation. Genetics. 2011;189:1235-48 pubmed publisher
  22. Leblanc B, Benham C, Clark D. An initiation element in the yeast CUP1 promoter is recognized by RNA polymerase II in the absence of TATA box-binding protein if the DNA is negatively supercoiled. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10745-50 pubmed
    ..The role of transcription factors might be to mark the promoter and to regulate specific melting of promoter DNA. ..
  23. Sampath V, Rekha N, Srinivasan N, Sadhale P. The conserved and non-conserved regions of Rpb4 are involved in multiple phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51566-76 pubmed
    b>Rpb4, the fourth largest subunit of RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for many phenotypes, including growth at high and low temperatures, sporulation, pseudohyphal growth, activated transcription of a subset of ..
  24. Porrúa O, Libri D. A bacterial-like mechanism for transcription termination by the Sen1p helicase in budding yeast. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:884-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that termination is inhibited by RNA-DNA hybrids. Our results elucidate the role of Sen1p in controlling pervasive transcription. ..
  25. Woychik N, Liao S, Kolodziej P, Young R. Subunits shared by eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases. Genes Dev. 1990;4:313-23 pubmed
  26. Sampath V, Balakrishnan B, Verma Gaur J, Onesti S, Sadhale P. Unstructured N terminus of the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb4 contributes to the interaction of Rpb4.Rpb7 subcomplex with the core RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3923-31 pubmed
    Two subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, Rpb7 and Rpb4, form a subcomplex that has counterparts in RNA polymerases I and III...
  27. Lee Y, Min S, Gim B, Kim Y. A transcriptional mediator protein that is required for activation of many RNA polymerase II promoters and is conserved from yeast to humans. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4622-32 pubmed
    ..A database search revealed the existence of MED6-related genes in humans and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that the role of mediator in transcriptional activation is conserved throughout the evolution. ..
  28. Suh M, Ye P, Zhang M, Hausmann S, Shuman S, Gnatt A, et al. Fcp1 directly recognizes the C-terminal domain (CTD) and interacts with a site on RNA polymerase II distinct from the CTD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17314-9 pubmed
    ..We speculate that Fcp1 interaction with the non-CTD site may mediate its stimulatory effect on transcription elongation reported previously. ..
  29. Han S, Lee J, Kang J, Kim Y. Med9/Cse2 and Gal11 modules are required for transcriptional repression of distinct group of genes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37020-6 pubmed
  30. Verma Gaur J, Deshpande S, Sadhale P. RAM pathway contributes to Rpb4 dependent pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:1373-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Rpb4, a subunit of RNA Polymerase II plays an important role in various stress responses in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  31. Kolodziej P, Woychik N, Liao S, Young R. RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:1915-20 pubmed
    ..These results more precisely define the subunit composition and phosphorylation of a eucaryotic RNA polymerase II enzyme. ..
  32. Ruprich Robert G, Wery M, Després D, Boulard Y, Thuriaux P. Crucial role of a dicarboxylic motif in the catalytic center of yeast RNA polymerases. Curr Genet. 2011;57:327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Rpb2-E(836) and the funnel domain are not found among the RNA-dependent eukaryotic RNA polymerases and may thus represent a specific adaptation to double-stranded DNA templates. ..
  33. Pillai B, Sampath V, Sharma N, Sadhale P. Rpb4, a non-essential subunit of core RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for activated transcription of a subset of genes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:30641-7 pubmed
    ..We report here, the role of Rpb4, a non-essential subunit of core RNA polymerase II, in activation of a subset of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  34. Garrido Godino A, García López M, García Martínez J, Pelechano V, Medina D, Pérez Ortín J, et al. Rpb1 foot mutations demonstrate a major role of Rpb4 in mRNA stability during stress situations in yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1859:731-43 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA polymerase II affect the assembly of the complex by altering the correct association of both the Rpb6 and the Rpb4/7 dimer. Assembly defects alter both transcriptional activity as well as the amount of enzyme associated with genes...
  35. Maillet I, Buhler J, Sentenac A, Labarre J. Rpb4p is necessary for RNA polymerase II activity at high temperature. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22586-90 pubmed
    ..Whereas RPB7 is essential, RPB4 is dispensable for cellular viability...
  36. Li W, Giles C, Li S. Insights into how Spt5 functions in transcription elongation and repressing transcription coupled DNA repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:7069-83 pubmed publisher
    Spt5, a transcription elongation factor, and Rpb4, a subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) that forms a subcomplex with Rpb7, play important roles in transcription elongation and repression of transcription coupled DNA repair (TCR) in ..
  37. Fellows J, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J. The Elp2 subunit of elongator and elongating RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a WD40 repeat protein. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12896-9 pubmed
    ..Generally, different combinations of double and triple ELP gene deletions cause the same phenotypes as single ELP1, ELP2, or ELP3 deletion, providing genetic evidence that the ELP gene products work together in a complex. ..
  38. Jensen G, Meredith G, Bushnell D, Kornberg R. Structure of wild-type yeast RNA polymerase II and location of Rpb4 and Rpb7. EMBO J. 1998;17:2353-8 pubmed
    ..A difference map between this structure and that of the polymerase lacking subunits Rpb4 and Rpb7 showed these two subunits forming part of the floor of the DNA-binding (active center) cleft, and revealed ..
  39. Han S, Lee Y, Gim B, Ryu G, Park S, Lane W, et al. Activator-specific requirement of yeast mediator proteins for RNA polymerase II transcriptional activation. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:979-88 pubmed
  40. Jasiak A, Armache K, Martens B, Jansen R, Cramer P. Structural biology of RNA polymerase III: subcomplex C17/25 X-ray structure and 11 subunit enzyme model. Mol Cell. 2006;23:71-81 pubmed
    ..During elongation, C17/25 may bind Pol III transcripts emerging from the adjacent exit pore, because the subcomplex binds to tRNA in vitro. ..
  41. Schulz D, Pirkl N, Lehmann E, Cramer P. Rpb4 subunit functions mainly in mRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:17446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..carries out eukaryotic mRNA transcription and consists of a 10-subunit catalytic core and a subcomplex of subunits Rpb4 and Rpb7 (Rpb4/7)...
  42. Gibney P, Fries T, Bailer S, Morano K. Rtr1 is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of a novel family of RNA polymerase II-binding proteins. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:938-48 pubmed publisher
    ..suppressors of the rtr1Delta temperature-sensitive growth phenotype, and deletion of the nonessential subunits RPB4 and RPB9 hypersensitized cells to RTR1 overexpression...
  43. Duan R, Rhie B, Ryu H, Ahn S. The RNA polymerase II Rpb4/7 subcomplex regulates cellular lifespan through an mRNA decay process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:266-70 pubmed
    In budding yeast, a highly conserved heterodimeric protein complex that is composed of the Rpb4 and Rpb7 proteins within RNA polymerase II shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm where it coordinates various steps of gene expression by ..
  44. Runner V, Podolny V, Buratowski S. The Rpb4 subunit of RNA polymerase II contributes to cotranscriptional recruitment of 3' processing factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1883-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of two separable components, a 10-subunit core including the catalytic active site and a heterodimer of the Rpb4 and Rpb7 subunits...
  45. Lehmann E, Brueckner F, Cramer P. Molecular basis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase II activity. Nature. 2007;450:445-9 pubmed
    ..The RdRP activity of Pol II provides a missing link in molecular evolution, because it suggests that Pol II evolved from an ancient replicase that duplicated RNA genomes. ..
  46. Tan Q, Li X, Sadhale P, Miyao T, Woychik N. Multiple mechanisms of suppression circumvent transcription defects in an RNA polymerase mutant. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8124-33 pubmed
    Using a high-copy-number suppressor screen to obtain clues about the role of the yeast RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 in transcription, we identified three suppressors of the temperature sensitivity resulting from deletion of the RPB4 ..
  47. Dettmann A, Jäschke Y, Triebel I, Bogs J, Schröder I, Schüller H. Mediator subunits and histone methyltransferase Set2 contribute to Ino2-dependent transcriptional activation of phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Ino2 directly binds to the Set2 histone methyltransferase. Mapping of interaction domains revealed the importance of the SET core domain which was necessary and sufficient for binding Ino2. ..
  48. Prather D, Krogan N, Emili A, Greenblatt J, Winston F. Identification and characterization of Elf1, a conserved transcription elongation factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10122-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, purification of Elf1 suggests an association with casein kinase II, previously implicated in roles in transcription. Together, these results suggest an important role for Elf1 in the regulation of transcription elongation. ..
  49. Donaldson I, Friesen J. Zinc stoichiometry of yeast RNA polymerase II and characterization of mutations in the zinc-binding domain of the largest subunit. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:13780-8 pubmed
    ..Core activity of the mutant enzyme was reduced 20-fold. We conclude that mutations in the zinc-binding domain can reduce core activity without altering the association of any of the subunits required for this activity. ..
  50. Sayre M, Tschochner H, Kornberg R. Reconstitution of transcription with five purified initiation factors and RNA polymerase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:23376-82 pubmed
    ..TFIIA failed to substitute for any purified factor or to stimulate transcription with the complete set of factors, indicating that its function in crude extracts is primarily as an anti-inhibitor. ..
  51. Edwards A, Kane C, Young R, Kornberg R. Two dissociable subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II stimulate the initiation of transcription at a promoter in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:71-5 pubmed
    ..These extracts were individually inactive, but a mixture would support promoter-directed initiation. The fourth and seventh largest subunits may, therefore, shuttle between polymerase molecules. ..
  52. Tan Q, Prysak M, Woychik N. Loss of the Rpb4/Rpb7 subcomplex in a mutant form of the Rpb6 subunit shared by RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3329-38 pubmed
    ..Purification of mutant RNA polymerase II revealed that two subunits, Rpb4 and Rpb7, are selectively lost in mutant cells...
  53. Sung P, Guzder S, Prakash L, Prakash S. Reconstitution of TFIIH and requirement of its DNA helicase subunits, Rad3 and Rad25, in the incision step of nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10821-6 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal the differential requirement of Rad3 DNA helicase and CTD kinase activities in damage-specific incision versus RNA polymerase II transcription. ..
  54. Schaft D, Roguev A, Kotovic K, Shevchenko A, Sarov M, Shevchenko A, et al. The histone 3 lysine 36 methyltransferase, SET2, is involved in transcriptional elongation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2475-82 pubmed
    ..Since SET2 is also a histone methyltransferase, these results suggest a role for histone 3 lysine 36 methylation in transcriptional elongation. ..
  55. Chen C, Chang C, Yen C, Chiu M, Chang W. Mapping RNA exit channel on transcribing RNA polymerase II by FRET analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The donor dye is labeled on a site near subunit Rpb3 or Rpb4, and the acceptor dye is attached to the 5' end of RNA transcript in the pol II elongation complex...
  56. Luo J, Fishburn J, Hahn S, Ranish J. An integrated chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry approach to study protein complex architecture and function. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.008318 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, it is an attractive approach to study the topology of protein complexes. ..
  57. Cai G, Imasaki T, Yamada K, Cardelli F, Takagi Y, Asturias F. Mediator head module structure and functional interactions. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and genetic means, the interactions of the Head module with TATA-binding protein (TBP) and RNAPII subunits Rpb4 and Rpb7. TBP binds near the Med18-Med20 attachment point and stabilizes an open conformation of the Head module...
  58. Mosley A, Pattenden S, Carey M, Venkatesh S, Gilmore J, Florens L, et al. Rtr1 is a CTD phosphatase that regulates RNA polymerase II during the transition from serine 5 to serine 2 phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2009;34:168-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional characterization of Rtr1 reveals its role as a CTD phosphatase essential for the S5-to-S2-P transition. ..
  59. Suh H, Hazelbaker D, Soares L, Buratowski S. The C-terminal domain of Rpb1 functions on other RNA polymerase II subunits. Mol Cell. 2013;51:850-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, CTD was transferred to other RNApII subunits. Fusions to Rpb4 or Rpb6, two RNApII subunits located near the original position of CTD, support viability in a strain carrying a ..
  60. Garrido Godino A, García López M, Navarro F. Correct assembly of RNA polymerase II depends on the foot domain and is required for multiple steps of transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3611-26 pubmed publisher
    ..the assembly and stability of the complex, by ensuring the correct association of Rpb1 with Rpb6 and of the dimer Rpb4-Rpb7 (Rpb4/7)...
  61. Khazak V, Sadhale P, Woychik N, Brent R, Golemis E. Human RNA polymerase II subunit hsRPB7 functions in yeast and influences stress survival and cell morphology. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:759-75 pubmed
    ..cells lose viability rapidly, stress-sensitive phenotypes reminiscent of those associated with deletion of the RPB4 subunit with which RPB7 normally complexes...
  62. Babbarwal V, Fu J, Reese J. The Rpb4/7 module of RNA polymerase II is required for carbon catabolite repressor protein 4-negative on TATA (Ccr4-not) complex to promote elongation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:33125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explored the features of polymerase required for Ccr4-Not to promote elongation and found that the Rpb4/7 module is important for Ccr4-Not to associate with elongation complexes and stimulate elongation...
  63. Vasiljeva L, Buratowski S. Nrd1 interacts with the nuclear exosome for 3' processing of RNA polymerase II transcripts. Mol Cell. 2006;21:239-48 pubmed
    ..Since Nrd1 is known to bind RNA polymerase II and be important for sn/snoRNA 3' end processing, Nrd1 may link transcription and RNA 3' end formation with surveillance by the exosome. ..