Gene Symbol: RFC1
Description: replication factor C subunit 1
Alias: CDC44, replication factor C subunit 1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Naiki T, Shimomura T, Kondo T, Matsumoto K, Sugimoto K. Rfc5, in cooperation with rad24, controls DNA damage checkpoints throughout the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5888-96 pubmed
  2. Fien K, Stillman B. Identification of replication factor C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a component of the leading-strand DNA replication complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:155-63 pubmed
    ..Now that RFC from S. cerevisiae has been purified, all seven cellular factors previously shown to be required for SV40 DNA replication in vitro have been identified in S. cerevisiae. ..
  3. Yao N, Coryell L, Zhang D, Georgescu R, Finkelstein J, Coman M, et al. Replication factor C clamp loader subunit arrangement within the circular pentamer and its attachment points to proliferating cell nuclear antigen. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50744-53 pubmed
    ..The RFC1 subunit also binds PCNA tightly, and we identify two hydrophobic residues in RFC1 that are important for this ..
  4. Ayyagari R, Impellizzeri K, Yoder B, Gary S, Burgers P. A mutational analysis of the yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen indicates distinct roles in DNA replication and DNA repair. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4420-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, several mutants suppressed a cold-sensitive mutation in the CDC44 gene, which encodes the large subunit of replication factor C...
  5. Moir D, Stewart S, Osmond B, Botstein D. Cold-sensitive cell-division-cycle mutants of yeast: isolation, properties, and pseudoreversion studies. Genetics. 1982;100:547-63 pubmed
    ..proved to be alleles of CDC11, while the remaining mutants defined at least six new cell-division-cycle genes: CDC44, CDC45, CDC48, CDC49, CDC50 and CDC51...
  6. Marzahn M, Hayner J, Meyer J, Bloom L. Kinetic analysis of PCNA clamp binding and release in the clamp loading reaction catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1854:31-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Dhillon N, Oki M, Szyjka S, Aparicio O, Kamakaka R. H2A.Z functions to regulate progression through the cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:489-501 pubmed
    ..We also found that H2A.Z localized to the promoters of cyclin genes, and cells lacking H2A.Z were delayed in the induction of these cyclin genes. Several different models are proposed to explain these observations. ..
  8. Longhese M, Fraschini R, Plevani P, Lucchini G. Yeast pip3/mec3 mutants fail to delay entry into S phase and to slow DNA replication in response to DNA damage, and they define a functional link between Mec3 and DNA primase. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3235-44 pubmed
  9. Ionescu C, Shea K, Mehra R, Prundeanu L, McAlear M. Monomeric yeast PCNA mutants are defective in interacting with and stimulating the ATPase activity of RFC. Biochemistry. 2002;41:12975-85 pubmed
    ..These pol30-41 mutants were, however, sensitive to UV irradiation and to the DNA damaging agent methylmethane sulfonate, implying that DNA repair pathways have a distinct requirement for stable DNA clamps. ..

More Information


  1. Felipe Abrio I, Lafuente Barquero J, García Rubio M, Aguilera A. RNA polymerase II contributes to preventing transcription-mediated replication fork stalls. EMBO J. 2015;34:236-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that the RNAPII or ancillary factors actively help prevent transcription-associated genome instability. ..
  2. Xie Y, Counter C, Alani E. Characterization of the repeat-tract instability and mutator phenotypes conferred by a Tn3 insertion in RFC1, the large subunit of the yeast clamp loader. Genetics. 1999;151:499-509 pubmed
    The RFC1 gene encodes the large subunit of the yeast clamp loader (RFC) that is a component of eukaryotic DNA polymerase holoenzymes...
  3. Cullmann G, Fien K, Kobayashi R, Stillman B. Characterization of the five replication factor C genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4661-71 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae. RFC1 is identical to CDC44, a gene identified as a cell division cycle gene encoding a protein involved in DNA metabolism...
  4. Sakato M, O Donnell M, Hingorani M. A central swivel point in the RFC clamp loader controls PCNA opening and loading on DNA. J Mol Biol. 2012;416:163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The pivotal role of the RFC-B/C/D subunit ATPase core in clamp loading is consistent with the similar central location of all three ATPase active subunits of the Escherichia coli clamp loader. ..
  5. McAlear M, Tuffo K, Holm C. The large subunit of replication factor C (Rfc1p/Cdc44p) is required for DNA replication and DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;142:65-78 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that Cdc44p is required for both DNA replication and DNA repair in vivo. Cold-sensitive cdc44 mutants experience a delay in traversing S phase at the restrictive temperature following alpha factor arrest; ..
  6. Amin N, Holm C. In vivo analysis reveals that the interdomain region of the yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen is important for DNA replication and DNA repair. Genetics. 1996;144:479-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results show that PCNA plays an essential role in both DNA replication and DNA repair in vivo. ..
  7. Schmidt S, Gomes X, Burgers P. ATP utilization by yeast replication factor C. III. The ATP-binding domains of Rfc2, Rfc3, and Rfc4 are essential for DNA recognition and clamp loading. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34784-91 pubmed
    The conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of the ATP-binding domain encoded by the yeast RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, and RFC4 genes was mutated to glutamic acid...
  8. Vijayakumar S, Chapados B, Schmidt K, Kolodner R, Tainer J, Tomkinson A. The C-terminal domain of yeast PCNA is required for physical and functional interactions with Cdc9 DNA ligase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1624-37 pubmed
  9. Franco A, Lam W, Burgers P, Kaufman P. Histone deposition protein Asf1 maintains DNA replisome integrity and interacts with replication factor C. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1365-75 pubmed
    ..We conclude that histone chaperone protein Asf1 maintains a subset of replication elongation factors at stalled replication forks and directly interacts with the replication machinery. ..
  10. Tackett A, Dilworth D, Davey M, O DONNELL M, Aitchison J, Rout M, et al. Proteomic and genomic characterization of chromatin complexes at a boundary. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:35-47 pubmed
    ..We show that these complexes are important for the faithful maintenance of an established boundary, as disruption of the complexes results in specific, anomalous alterations of the silent and active epigenetic states. ..
  11. Moriel Carretero M, Aguilera A. A postincision-deficient TFIIH causes replication fork breakage and uncovers alternative Rad51- or Pol32-mediated restart mechanisms. Mol Cell. 2010;37:690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Broken forks are rescued by MRX-Rad52-Rfc1-dependent recombination via two types of replication restart mechanisms, one being Rad51 dependent and the other ..
  12. Amin N, Tuffo K, Holm C. Dominant mutations in three different subunits of replication factor C suppress replication defects in yeast PCNA mutants. Genetics. 1999;153:1617-28 pubmed
    ..In addition, dominant suppressor mutations were identified in the RFC1 and RFC2 genes using a single pol30 mutant...
  13. Bialkowska A, Kurlandzka A. Proteins interacting with Lin 1p, a putative link between chromosome segregation, mRNA splicing and DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2002;19:1323-33 pubmed
    ..of two-hybrid assay with Lin1p as the bait resulted in the identification of six proteins: Prp8, Slx5, Siz2, Wss1, Rfc1 and YIL149w...
  14. McAlear M, Howell E, Espenshade K, Holm C. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pol30) mutations suppress cdc44 mutations and identify potential regions of interaction between the two encoded proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:4390-7 pubmed
    ..We present genetic evidence that PCNA interacts with the gene product of CDC44, an essential nucleotide-binding protein that encodes the large subunit of yeast replication factor C (K...
  15. Beckwith W, McAlear M. Allele-specific interactions between the yeast RFC1 and RFC5 genes suggest a basis for RFC subunit-subunit interactions. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;264:378-91 pubmed
    ..We isolated and characterized mutations in the RFC5 gene that could suppress the cold-sensitive phenotype of rfc1-1 mutants...
  16. Gerik K, Gary S, Burgers P. Overproduction and affinity purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:1256-62 pubmed
    Yeast replication factor C (RF-C) is a heteropentamer encoded by the RFC1-5 genes...
  17. Noskov V, Araki H, Sugino A. The RFC2 gene, encoding the third-largest subunit of the replication factor C complex, is required for an S-phase checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4914-23 pubmed
    ..It was also shown that the rfc2-1 mutation is synthetically lethal with either the cdc44-1 or rfc5-1 mutation and that the restrictive temperature of rfc2-1 mutant cells can be lowered by combining ..
  18. Cremona C, Sarangi P, Yang Y, Hang L, Rahman S, Zhao X. Extensive DNA damage-induced sumoylation contributes to replication and repair and acts in addition to the mec1 checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2012;45:422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that DNA damage-induced sumoylation does not require Mec1 checkpoint signaling, and the presence of both enables optimal DNA damage resistance. ..
  19. Moir D, Botstein D. Determination of the order of gene function in the yeast nuclear division pathway using cs and ts mutants. Genetics. 1982;100:565-77 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the nuclear branch of the overall cell-cycle pathway itself contains at least one branch. ..
  20. McCulloch S, Wood A, Garg P, Burgers P, Kunkel T. Effects of accessory proteins on the bypass of a cis-syn thymine-thymine dimer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase eta. Biochemistry. 2007;46:8888-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, although accessory proteins clearly participate in pol eta functions in vivo, they do not appear to help suppress UV mutagenesis by improving pol eta bypass fidelity per se. ..
  21. Merrill B, Holm C. The RAD52 recombinational repair pathway is essential in pol30 (PCNA) mutants that accumulate small single-stranded DNA fragments during DNA synthesis. Genetics. 1998;148:611-24 pubmed
    ..with pol30-104; three mutations affected the structural gene for the large subunit of replication factor C (rfc1), which loads PCNA onto DNA, and six mutations affected three members of the RAD52 epistasis group for DNA ..
  22. Myung K, Kolodner R. Suppression of genome instability by redundant S-phase checkpoint pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4500-7 pubmed
    ..These data support the view that spontaneous genome rearrangements result from DNA replication errors and indicate that there is a high degree of redundancy among the checkpoints that act in S phase to suppress such genome instability. ..
  23. Beckwith W, Sun Q, Bosso R, Gerik K, Burgers P, McAlear M. Destabilized PCNA trimers suppress defective Rfc1 proteins in vivo and in vitro. Biochemistry. 1998;37:3711-22 pubmed
    ..The rfc1-1 substitution (D513N) lies within the widely conserved RFC box VIII consensus sequence and results in phenotypes ..
  24. Lydall D, Weinert T. G2/M checkpoint genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: further evidence for roles in DNA replication and/or repair. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;256:638-51 pubmed
    ..strongly reduces the growth rate of yeast strains that are defective in the DNA replication/repair proteins Rfc1p (cdc44), DNA pol alpha (cdc17) and DNA pol delta (cdc2) but has much weaker effects on cdc6, cdc9, cdc15 and CDC4 strains...
  25. Kenna M, Skibbens R. Mechanical link between cohesion establishment and DNA replication: Ctf7p/Eco1p, a cohesion establishment factor, associates with three different replication factor C complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2999-3007 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the association of Ctf7p/Eco1p with each of three RFC complexes supplies new insights into the functional redundancy of RFC complexes in cohesion establishment. ..
  26. Kolodner R, Marsischky G. Eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:89-96 pubmed
    ..MMR proteins function in these processes in conjunction with components of nucleotide excision repair (NER) and, possibly, recombination. ..