Gene Symbol: RAS2
Description: Ras family GTPase RAS2
Alias: CTN5, CYR3, GLC5, TSL7, Ras family GTPase RAS2
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Gourlay C, Ayscough K. Actin-induced hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway leads to apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6487-501 pubmed
    ..This pathway represents the first defined link between environmental sensing, actin remodeling, and apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  2. Lai C, Boguski M, Broek D, Powers S. Influence of guanine nucleotides on complex formation between Ras and CDC25 proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:1345-52 pubmed
    ..coli as a fusion protein, this region of CDC25 was found to be a potent catalyst of GDP-GTP exchange on yeast Ras2 as well as human p21H-ras but inactive in promoting exchange on the Ras-related proteins Ypt1 and Rsr1...
  3. Xue Y, Batlle M, Hirsch J. GPR1 encodes a putative G protein-coupled receptor that associates with the Gpa2p Galpha subunit and functions in a Ras-independent pathway. EMBO J. 1998;17:1996-2007 pubmed
    The yeast RAS1 and RAS2 genes appear to be involved in control of cell growth in response to nutrients...
  4. Mösch H, Kübler E, Krappmann S, Fink G, Braus G. Crosstalk between the Ras2p-controlled mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP pathways during invasive growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:1325-35 pubmed
    ..Here we show that haploid invasive growth development depends on RAS2 but not RAS1. Ras1p is not sufficiently expressed to induce invasive growth...
  5. Ruggieri R, Bender A, Matsui Y, Powers S, Takai Y, Pringle J, et al. RSR1, a ras-like gene homologous to Krev-1 (smg21A/rap1A): role in the development of cell polarity and interactions with the Ras pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:758-66 pubmed
    ..This interaction of Rsr1p with the effector of Ras in S. cerevisiae suggests that Krev-1 may revert ras-induced transformation of mammalian cells by affecting the interaction of ras p21 with its effector. ..
  6. Ho J, Bretscher A. Ras regulates the polarity of the yeast actin cytoskeleton through the stress response pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1541-55 pubmed
    ..groups recovered, the group with the largest number of independent isolates was functionally null alleles of RAS2. Consistent with this, ras2Delta and tpm1Delta are synthetically lethal at 35 degrees C...
  7. Geymonat M, Spanos A, de Bettignies G, Sedgwick S. Lte1 contributes to Bfa1 localization rather than stimulating nucleotide exchange by Tem1. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:497-511 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that lte1 mutants display aberrant localization of the polarity cap, which is the organizer of the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that Lte1's role in cell polarization underlies its contribution to mitotic regulation. ..
  8. Shirayama M, Matsui Y, Tanaka K, Toh e A. Isolation of a CDC25 family gene, MSI2/LTE1, as a multicopy suppressor of ira1. Yeast. 1994;10:451-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MSI2 is involved in the termination of M phase and that this process is regulated by a ras superfamily gene product. ..
  9. Toda T, Cameron S, Sass P, Zoller M, Wigler M. Three different genes in S. cerevisiae encode the catalytic subunits of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Cell. 1987;50:277-87 pubmed
    ..The amino-terminal regions show no homology to each other and are heterogeneous in length. The TPK1 gene carried on a multicopy plasmid can suppress both a temperature-sensitive ras2 gene and adenylate cyclase gene.

More Information


  1. Lorenz M, Pan X, Harashima T, Cardenas M, Xue Y, Hirsch J, et al. The G protein-coupled receptor gpr1 is a nutrient sensor that regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;154:609-22 pubmed
    ..In summary, our studies reveal a novel G protein-coupled receptor senses nutrients and regulates the dimorphic transition to filamentous growth via a Galpha protein-cAMP-PKA signal transduction cascade. ..
  2. Yoshida S, Ichihashi R, Toh e A. Ras recruits mitotic exit regulator Lte1 to the bud cortex in budding yeast. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:889-97 pubmed
    ..We found that Lte1 physically associates with Ras2-GTP both in vivo and in vitro and that the Cdc25 homology domain (CHD) of Lte1 is essential for the interaction ..
  3. Seshan A, Amon A. Ras and the Rho effector Cla4 collaborate to target and anchor Lte1 at the bud cortex. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:940-6 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate how Ras, and the Cdc42 effector Cla4 regulate the localization of Lte1. We find that Ras2 and Lte1 associate in stages of the cell cycle when Lte1 is phosphorylated and associated with the bud cortex and ..
  4. Harashima T, Anderson S, Yates J, Heitman J. The kelch proteins Gpb1 and Gpb2 inhibit Ras activity via association with the yeast RasGAP neurofibromin homologs Ira1 and Ira2. Mol Cell. 2006;22:819-30 pubmed
    ..domain of Ira1/2, and loss of Gpb1/2 results in a destabilization of Ira1 and Ira2, leading to elevated levels of Ras2-GTP and unbridled cAMP-PKA signaling...
  5. Cherkasova V, McCully R, Wang Y, Hinnebusch A, Elion E. A novel functional link between MAP kinase cascades and the Ras/cAMP pathway that regulates survival. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1220-6 pubmed
    ..These effects are dependent on Kss1 and Ras2. Activation of Kss1 by a hyperactive Ste11 MAPKKK also increases cAMP, but mating receptor/scaffold activation has ..
  6. Li J, Li Y, Elledge S. Genetic analysis of the kinetochore DASH complex reveals an antagonistic relationship with the ras/protein kinase A pathway and a novel subunit required for Ask1 association. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:767-78 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of PDE2 or deletion of RAS2 rescued the temperature sensitivity of ask1-3 mutants. Ras2 negatively regulates DASH through the PKA pathway...
  7. Trott A, Shaner L, Morano K. The molecular chaperone Sse1 and the growth control protein kinase Sch9 collaborate to regulate protein kinase A activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;170:1009-21 pubmed
    ..Hyperactivation of the PKA pathway through expression of a constitutive RAS2 allele likewise resulted in temperature-sensitive growth, suggesting that modulation of PKA activity during thermal ..
  8. Lorenz M, Heitman J. Yeast pseudohyphal growth is regulated by GPA2, a G protein alpha homolog. EMBO J. 1997;16:7008-18 pubmed
    ..studies have implicated GPA2 in the control of intracellular cAMP levels; we find that expression of the dominant RAS2(Gly19Val) mutant or exogenous cAMP suppresses the Deltagpa2 pseudohyphal defect...
  9. Gimeno C, Ljungdahl P, Styles C, Fink G. Unipolar cell divisions in the yeast S. cerevisiae lead to filamentous growth: regulation by starvation and RAS. Cell. 1992;68:1077-90 pubmed
    ..Constitutive activation of RAS2 or mutation of SHR3, a gene required for amino acid uptake, enhance the pseudohyphal phenotype; a dominant mutation ..
  10. Morishita T, Mitsuzawa H, Nakafuku M, Nakamura S, Hattori S, Anraku Y. Requirement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras for completion of mitosis. Science. 1995;270:1213-5 pubmed
    ..However, even when the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) pathway was bypassed, the double disruption of RAS1 and RAS2 resulted in defects in growth at both low and high temperatures...
  11. Poullet P, Crechet J, Bernardi A, Parmeggiani A. Properties of the catalytic domain of sdc25p, a yeast GDP/GTP exchange factor of Ras proteins. Complexation with wild-type Ras2p, [S24N]Ras2p and [R80D, N81D]Ras2p. Eur J Biochem. 1995;227:537-44 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the residues R80 and N81 are situated in or closely associated with the Ras2p specific site binding Sdc25p. ..
  12. Zaman S, Lippman S, Schneper L, Slonim N, Broach J. Glucose regulates transcription in yeast through a network of signaling pathways. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:245 pubmed publisher
  13. Wei M, Fabrizio P, Hu J, Ge H, Cheng C, Li L, et al. Life span extension by calorie restriction depends on Rim15 and transcription factors downstream of Ras/PKA, Tor, and Sch9. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..the serine/threonine kinase Rim15 is required for yeast chronological life span extension caused by deficiencies in Ras2, Tor1, and Sch9, and by calorie restriction...
  14. Ahn S, Acurio A, Kron S. Regulation of G2/M progression by the STE mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in budding yeast filamentous growth. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3301-16 pubmed
    ..We infer that the MAPK pathway promotes filamentous growth by a novel mechanism that inhibits mitotic cyclin/CDK complexes and thereby modulates cell shape, budding pattern, and cell-cell connections. ..
  15. Toda T, Uno I, Ishikawa T, Powers S, Kataoka T, Broek D, et al. In yeast, RAS proteins are controlling elements of adenylate cyclase. Cell. 1985;40:27-36 pubmed
    S. cerevisiae strains containing RAS2val19, a RAS2 gene with a missense mutation analogous to one that activates the transforming potential of mammalian ras genes, have growth and biochemical properties strikingly similar to yeast strains ..
  16. Mösch H, Roberts R, Fink G. Ras2 signals via the Cdc42/Ste20/mitogen-activated protein kinase module to induce filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5352-6 pubmed
    RAS2val19, a dominant activated form of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras2, stimulates both filamentous growth and expression of a transcriptional reporter FG(TyA)::lacZ but does not induce the mating pathway reporter FUS1::lacZ...
  17. Irniger S, Baumer M, Braus G. Glucose and ras activity influence the ubiquitin ligases APC/C and SCF in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;154:1509-21 pubmed
    ..and other mutants defective in the APC/C are suppressed by reduced Ras signaling activity, by a deletion of the RAS2 gene, by a cdc25 mutation, by elevated levels of PDE2, or by growth without glucose...
  18. Bolte M, Dieckhoff P, Krause C, Braus G, Irniger S. Synergistic inhibition of APC/C by glucose and activated Ras proteins can be mediated by each of the Tpk1-3 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology. 2003;149:1205-16 pubmed
    ..This study shows that glucose and the activated Ras2(Val19) protein synergistically inhibit APC/C function via the cAMP/PKA pathway in yeast...
  19. Jorgensen P, Rupes I, Sharom J, Schneper L, Broach J, Tyers M. A dynamic transcriptional network communicates growth potential to ribosome synthesis and critical cell size. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2491-505 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that nutrient signals set the critical cell-size threshold via Sfp1 and Sch9-mediated control of ribosome biosynthetic rates. ..
  20. Kübler E, Mösch H, Rupp S, Lisanti M. Gpa2p, a G-protein alpha-subunit, regulates growth and pseudohyphal development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:20321-3 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is the Ras1 and Ras2 proteins that regulate adenylyl cyclase...
  21. Sass P, Field J, Nikawa J, Toda T, Wigler M. Cloning and characterization of the high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:9303-7 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae that, when present in high copy, reverses the phenotypic effects of RAS2Val19, a mutant form of the RAS2 gene that renders yeast cells sensitive to heat shock and starvation...
  22. Wei M, Fabrizio P, Madia F, Hu J, Ge H, Li L, et al. Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000467 pubmed publisher
  23. Mösch H, Fink G. Dissection of filamentous growth by transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1997;145:671-84 pubmed
    ..Epistasis tests between dfg mutant alleles and dominant activated alleles of the RAS2 and STE11 genes, RAS2Val19 and STE11-4, respectively, identify putative targets for the filamentation signaling ..
  24. Garrett J. Amino acid transport through the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gap1 permease is controlled by the Ras/cAMP pathway. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:496-502 pubmed
    ..Yeast with an activated Ras2/cAMP pathway show many phenotypes indicative of altered nitrogen uptake and metabolism; sensitivity to nitrogen ..
  25. Garrett S, Broach J. Loss of Ras activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suppressed by disruptions of a new kinase gene, YAKI, whose product may act downstream of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1336-48 pubmed
    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functionally redundant genes RAS1 and RAS2, which are homologous to the mammalian ras gene family and are required for vegetative growth...
  26. Nikawa J, Sass P, Wigler M. Cloning and characterization of the low-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:3629-36 pubmed
    ..plasmids containing either PDE1 or PDE2 can reverse the growth arrest defects of yeast cells carrying the RAS2(Val-19) mutation. PDE1 and PDE2 appear to account for the aggregate cAMP phosphodiesterase activity of S...
  27. Shima F, Okada T, Kido M, Sen H, Tanaka Y, Tamada M, et al. Association of yeast adenylyl cyclase with cyclase-associated protein CAP forms a second Ras-binding site which mediates its Ras-dependent activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:26-33 pubmed
    ..These results, taken together with those obtained with mammalian Raf, suggest the importance of the second Ras-binding site in effector regulation. ..
  28. Longo V, Shadel G, Kaeberlein M, Kennedy B. Replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Metab. 2012;16:18-31 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae will continue to serve as a leading model organism for studying pathways relevant to human aging and disease. ..
  29. Lesuisse E, Horion B, Labbe P, Hilger F. The plasma membrane ferrireductase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is partially controlled by cyclic AMP. Biochem J. 1991;280 ( Pt 2):545-8 pubmed
    The plasma-membrane-bound ferrireductase activity of ras1 and ras2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not induced in response to iron limitation. This phenotype was suppressed by the bcy1 mutation in ras2 but not in ras1 mutants...
  30. Grandin N, de Almeida A, Charbonneau M. The Cdc14 phosphatase is functionally associated with the Dbf2 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;258:104-16 pubmed
    ..2 M sorbitol to the culture medium. Our data are the first to demonstrate a functional link between Cdc14 and Dbf2 based on both biochemical and genetic information. ..
  31. Dechant R, Saad S, Ibáñez A, Peter M. Cytosolic pH regulates cell growth through distinct GTPases, Arf1 and Gtr1, to promote Ras/PKA and TORC1 activity. Mol Cell. 2014;55:409-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide a molecular mechanism for how cytosolic pH links C-source availability to the activity of signaling networks promoting cell growth. ..
  32. Liu Y, Liu N, Wu D, Bi Q, Meng S. The longevity of tor1Δ, sch9Δ, and ras2Δ mutants depends on actin dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Biosci. 2015;5:18 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex, serine/threonine kinase Sch9, and Ras2 have been shown to play important roles in aging for a long time, the relationship between these regulators and ..
  33. Jung V, Chen L, Hofmann S, Wigler M, Powers S. Mutations in the SHR5 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suppress Ras function and block membrane attachment and palmitoylation of Ras proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1333-42 pubmed
    ..We tested whether SHR5, like previously isolated suppressors of hyperactivated RAS2, acts by affecting the membrane attachment and/or posttranslational modification of Ras proteins...
  34. Munder T, Furst P. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC25 gene product binds specifically to catalytically inactive ras proteins in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:2091-9 pubmed
    Genetic data suggest that the yeast cell cycle control gene CDC25 is an upstream regulator of RAS2. We have been able to show for the first time that the guanine nucleotide exchange proteins Cdc25 and Sdc25 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ..
  35. Mariani D, Castro F, Almeida L, Fonseca F, Pereira M. Protection against cisplatin in calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the nutrient-sensor proteins Ras2, Tor1, or Sch9 through its target glutathione. FEMS Yeast Res. 2014;14:1147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the relationship between the nutrient sensor proteins Ras2, Sch9, or Tor1 and the response of calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to cisplatin...
  36. Budovskaya Y, Stephan J, Reggiori F, Klionsky D, Herman P. The Ras/cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway regulates an early step of the autophagy process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20663-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, the data suggest that at least a portion of the Ras/PKA effects on stationary phase survival are the result of the regulation of autophagy activity by this signaling pathway. ..
  37. Zu T, Verna J, Ballester R. Mutations in WSC genes for putative stress receptors result in sensitivity to multiple stress conditions and impairment of Rlm1-dependent gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:142-55 pubmed
  38. Marshall M, Gibbs J, Scolnick E, Sigal I. Regulatory function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAS C-terminus. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:2309-15 pubmed
    Activating mutations (valine 19 or leucine 68) were introduced into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAS1 and RAS2 genes...
  39. Budhwar R, Lu A, Hirsch J. Nutrient control of yeast PKA activity involves opposing effects on phosphorylation of the Bcy1 regulatory subunit. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation of Bcy1 phosphorylation by Gpb1 and Gpb2 produces a form of Bcy1 that is more stable and is a more effective PKA inhibitor. ..
  40. Chang Y, Howard S, Herman P. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway directly targets the Srb9 protein, a component of the general RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus. Mol Cell. 2004;15:107-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, this type of a transcriptional control mechanism would provide the cell with an efficient way of bringing about broad changes in gene expression. ..
  41. Belotti F, Tisi R, Paiardi C, Rigamonti M, Groppi S, Martegani E. Localization of Ras signaling complex in budding yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:1208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, both Ras2 and Cdc25 RasGEF were reported to localize not only in plasma membrane but also in internal membranes...
  42. Simpson Lavy K, Bronstein A, Kupiec M, Johnston M. Cross-Talk between Carbon Metabolism and the DNA Damage Response in S. cerevisiae. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This raises the possibility that activation of DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms could contribute to aerobic fermentation (Warburg effect), a hallmark of cancer cells. ..
  43. Raffaghello L, Lee C, Safdie F, Wei M, Madia F, Bianchi G, et al. Starvation-dependent differential stress resistance protects normal but not cancer cells against high-dose chemotherapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..times better protected against oxidative stress or chemotherapy drugs than cells expressing the oncogene homolog Ras2(val19)...
  44. Chang M, Kang C, Park Y, Yun C. Rck1 up-regulates pseudohyphal growth by activating the Ras2 and MAP kinase pathways independently in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;444:656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Rck1 up-regulated Ras2 at the protein level, not the transcriptional level...
  45. Mosteller R, Park W, Broek D. Analysis of interaction between Ras and CDC25 guanine nucleotide exchange factor using yeast GAL4 two-hybrid system. Methods Enzymol. 1995;255:135-48 pubmed
    ..We recommend that the two-hybrid system be employed in combination with other approaches, including molecular genetic analyses and in vitro binding experiments, for the study of Ras and CDC25-GEF interactions. ..
  46. Mabuchi T, Ichimura Y, Takeda M, Douglas M. ASC1/RAS2 suppresses the growth defect on glycerol caused by the atp1-2 mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:10492-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis revealed that ASC1 was allelic with RAS2, a G-protein growth regulator...
  47. Tobe B, Kitazono A, Garcia J, Gerber R, Bevis B, Choy J, et al. Morphogenesis signaling components influence cell cycle regulation by cyclin dependent kinase. Cell Div. 2009;4:12 pubmed publisher
    ..When facing nutrient-limited conditions, Ras2-mediated PKA and MAPK signaling cascades induce a switch from round to filamentous morphology resulting in delayed ..
  48. Nakafuku M, Obara T, Kaibuchi K, Miyajima I, Miyajima A, Itoh H, et al. Isolation of a second yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (GPA2) coding for guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein: studies on its structure and possible functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1374-8 pubmed
    ..copy number of plasmid GPA2 (YEpGPA2) had markedly elevated levels of cAMP and could suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation of RAS2. These results suggest that GPA2 may be involved in the regulation of cAMP levels in S. cerevisiae.
  49. Pratt Z, Drehman B, Miller M, Johnston S. Mutual interdependence of MSI1 (CAC3) and YAK1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Mol Biol. 2007;368:30-43 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel interaction between Msi1p and Yak1p in which each protein influences the activity of the other. ..
  50. Garrett J. The control of morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Elm1 kinase is responsive to RAS/cAMP pathway activity and tryptophan availability. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:809-20 pubmed
    ..Deletion of ELM1 in low PKA activity mutants increased the severity of their phenotypes, and activation of Ras2 decreases the cell elongation phenotype of elm1 mutants...
  51. Wood D, Poullet P, Wilson B, Khalil M, Tanaka K, Cannon J, et al. Biochemical characterization of yeast RAS2 mutants reveals a new region of ras protein involved in the interaction with GTPase-activating proteins. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5322-7 pubmed
    We report biochemical characterization of two recently identified mutants of yeast RAS2, RAS2-E99K and RAS2-E130K. These mutants exhibit dominant activating phenotypes in yeast...
  52. te Biesebeke R, Krab I, Parmeggiani A. The arginine finger loop of yeast and human GAP is a determinant for the specificity toward Ras GTPase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:7474-9 pubmed
    ..Ras complexes emphasize the importance of the finger loop region not only for the catalytic activity but also as a structural determinant involved in the specificity of GAPs toward Ras proteins from different organisms. ..
  53. Powers S, O Neill K, Wigler M. Dominant yeast and mammalian RAS mutants that interfere with the CDC25-dependent activation of wild-type RAS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:390-5 pubmed
    Two mutant alleles of RAS2 were discovered that dominantly interfere with wild-type RAS function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  54. Kim J, Powers S. Overexpression of RPI1, a novel inhibitor of the yeast Ras-cyclic AMP pathway, down-regulates normal but not mutationally activated ras function. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:3894-904 pubmed
    ..ii) overexpressed RPI1 suppresses the heat shock sensitivity phenotype induced by overexpression of normal RAS2 but does not suppress the same phenotype induced by RAS2Val-19, and (iii) disruption of RPI1 results in a heat ..
  55. Chavel C, Dionne H, Birkaya B, Joshi J, Cullen P. Multiple signals converge on a differentiation MAPK pathway. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000883 pubmed publisher
    ..Systems-level integration of signaling circuitry is likely to coordinate other regulatory networks that control complex behaviors. ..
  56. Sobering A, Jung U, Lee K, Levin D. Yeast Rpi1 is a putative transcriptional regulator that contributes to preparation for stationary phase. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:56-65 pubmed
    ..was identified initially as a dosage suppressor of the heat shock sensitivity associated with overexpression of RAS2 (J. Kim and S. Powers, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:3894-3904, 1991)...
  57. Rutzler M, Reissaus A, Budzowska M, Bandlow W. SUT2 is a novel multicopy suppressor of low activity of the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in yeast. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:1284-91 pubmed
  58. Reddi A, Culotta V. SOD1 integrates signals from oxygen and glucose to repress respiration. Cell. 2013;152:224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore may provide mechanistic insight into how rapidly proliferating cells and many cancers accomplish glucose-mediated repression of respiration in favor of aerobic glycolysis. ..
  59. Hlavatá L, Aguilaniu H, Pichova A, Nystrom T. The oncogenic RAS2(val19) mutation locks respiration, independently of PKA, in a mode prone to generate ROS. EMBO J. 2003;22:3337-45 pubmed
    The RAS2(val19) allele, which renders the cAMP-PKA pathway constitutively active and decreases the replicative life-span of yeast cells, is demonstrated to increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to elevate oxidative ..
  60. Broek D, Samiy N, Fasano O, Fujiyama A, Tamanoi F, Northup J, et al. Differential activation of yeast adenylate cyclase by wild-type and mutant RAS proteins. Cell. 1985;41:763-9 pubmed
    In these experiments we demonstrate that purified RAS proteins, whether derived from the yeast RAS1 or RAS2 or the human H-ras genes, activate yeast adenylate cyclase in the presence of guanine nucleotides...
  61. Uno I, Matsumoto K, Ishikawa T. Characterization of cyclic AMP-requiring yeast mutants altered in the regulatory subunit of protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:14110-5 pubmed
    The CYR3 mutant of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, partially accumulated unbudded cells and required cAMP for the best growth at 35 degrees C...
  62. Hong K, Nielsen J. Recovery of phenotypes obtained by adaptive evolution through inverse metabolic engineering. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:7579-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, site-directed mutants having one of the mutations RAS2(Lys77), RAS2(Tyr112), and ERG5(Pro370) were constructed and evaluated...
  63. Howard S, Chang Y, Budovskaya Y, Herman P. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a functional interaction with the Sin4p complex of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Genetics. 2001;159:77-89 pubmed
    ..For example, mutations that elevated the levels of Ras signaling, like RAS2(val19), were synthetic lethal with sin4...
  64. Verrotti A, Crechet J, Di Blasi F, Seidita G, Mirisola M, Kavounis C, et al. RAS residues that are distant from the GDP binding site play a critical role in dissociation factor-stimulated release of GDP. EMBO J. 1992;11:2855-62 pubmed
    We have previously shown that a conserved glycine at position 82 of the yeast RAS2 protein is involved in the conversion of RAS proteins from the GDP- to the GTP-bound form...
  65. Frascotti G, Coccetti P, Vanoni M, Alberghina L, Martegani E. The overexpression of the 3' terminal region of the CDC25 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes growth inhibition and alteration of purine nucleotides pools. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1089:206-12 pubmed
    ..The disruption of RAS genes was only partially able to 'cure' this phenotype. A ras2-ts1, ras1::URA3 strain, transformed with pIND25-1 plasmid, was able to grow in galactose at 36 degrees C...
  66. Scherz R, Shinder V, Engelberg D. Anatomical analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stalk-like structures reveals spatial organization and cell specialization. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5402-13 pubmed
    ..Colonies grown on 4% agar or higher are reminiscent of stalks in some aspects. The agar concentration effects are mediated in part by the Ras pathway and are related to the invasive-growth phenomenon. ..
  67. Marshall M, Gibbs J, Scolnick E, Sigal I. An adenylate cyclase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is stimulated by RAS proteins with effector mutations. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:52-61 pubmed
    ..into the proposed effector regions of both mammalian Ha-ras (residues 32 to 40) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAS2 (residues 39 to 47) proteins. The RAS2[Ser 42] protein had reduced biological function in the yeast S. cerevisiae...
  68. Fujimura K, Tanaka K, Nakano A, Toh e A. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSI4 gene encodes the yeast counterpart of component A of Rab geranylgeranyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:9205-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that the MSI4 gene product is a yeast counterpart of component A of Rab geranylgeranyltransferase that is essential for Ypt1p to localize on membranes...
  69. Baroni M, Marconi G, Parrini M, Monti P, Alberghina L. In vitro interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC25 and RAS2 proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;186:467-74 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae the CDC25 protein is a positive regulator of RAS/cAMP pathway [1-4], enhancing the GDP-releasing rate of RAS2 protein [5]. In this work we have tried to detect a direct interaction between CDC25 and RAS2 gene products...
  70. Boguslawski G. PBS2, a yeast gene encoding a putative protein kinase, interacts with the RAS2 pathway and affects osmotic sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol. 1992;138:2425-32 pubmed
    ..The gene is essential for manifestation of resistance to the antibiotic polymyxin B. Deletion of PBS2 enables a ras2-530 null mutant to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources; overexpression of PBS2+ enhances viability of a RAS2Val19 ..
  71. Schneper L, Krauss A, Miyamoto R, Fang S, Broach J. The Ras/protein kinase A pathway acts in parallel with the Mob2/Cbk1 pathway to effect cell cycle progression and proper bud site selection. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:108-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, mob2Delta strains have imprecise bud site selection, a defect exacerbated by deletion of RAS2. Mob2 and Cbk1 act to properly localize Ace2, a transcription factor that directs daughter cell-specific ..
  72. Demlow C, Fox T. Activity of mitochondrially synthesized reporter proteins is lower than that of imported proteins and is increased by lowering cAMP in glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Genetics. 2003;165:961-74 pubmed
    ..Recessive mutations in ras2 and cyr1, as well as elevated dosage of PDE2, allowed cox2::arg8m-G66S to support Arg prototrophy...
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    ..This result indicates that the genetic control of stationary phase minisatellite stability is dependent on the sequence composition of the minisatellite itself. ..
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    ..These results suggest that the RAS1Ser22 gene product interferes with the normal interaction of Ras with Cdc25 by forming a dead-end complex between Ras1Ser22 and Cdc25 proteins. ..
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    ..We provide evidence that these effects are due to alleviation of the strength of the S-phase arrest. ..