Gene Symbol: RAP1
Description: DNA-binding transcription factor RAP1
Alias: GRF1, TBA1, TUF1, DNA-binding transcription factor RAP1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     RAP1

Top Publications

  1. Kurtz S, Shore D. RAP1 protein activates and silences transcription of mating-type genes in yeast. Genes Dev. 1991;5:616-28 pubmed
    b>RAP1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein essential for cell growth...
  2. Pobiega S, Marcand S. Dicentric breakage at telomere fusions. Genes Dev. 2010;24:720-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This unforeseen result suggests a rescue pathway able to process telomere fusions and to back up NHEJ inhibition at telomeres...
  3. Yu L, Morse R. Chromatin opening and transactivator potentiation by RAP1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:5279-88 pubmed
    ..Correspondingly, GCN4 requires assistance from an accessory protein, RAP1, for activation of the HIS4 promoter, whereas GAL4 does not...
  4. Buck S, Shore D. Action of a RAP1 carboxy-terminal silencing domain reveals an underlying competition between HMR and telomeres in yeast. Genes Dev. 1995;9:370-84 pubmed
    b>RAP1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein in yeast that can either repress or activate transcription. Previous studies have demonstrated a direct role for RAP1 in silencing at HM mating-type loci and telomeres...
  5. Drazinic C, Smerage J, Lopez M, Baker H. Activation mechanism of the multifunctional transcription factor repressor-activator protein 1 (Rap1p). Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3187-96 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates that the role of the Rap1p in the activation of glycolytic enzyme genes is to bind in their UAS elements and to facilitate the binding of Gcr1p at adjacent binding sites. ..
  6. Freeman K, Gwadz M, Shore D. Molecular and genetic analysis of the toxic effect of RAP1 overexpression in yeast. Genetics. 1995;141:1253-62 pubmed
    ..Rap1p also participates in transcriptional silencing at HM mating-type loci and telomeres. Overexpression of RAP1 strongly inhibits cell growth, perhaps by interfering with essential transcriptional activation functions within ..
  7. Lustig A, Kurtz S, Shore D. Involvement of the silencer and UAS binding protein RAP1 in regulation of telomere length. Science. 1990;250:549-53 pubmed
    The yeast protein RAP1, initially described as a transcriptional regulator, binds in vitro to sequences found in a number of seemingly unrelated genomic loci...
  8. Yarragudi A, Parfrey L, Morse R. Genome-wide analysis of transcriptional dependence and probable target sites for Abf1 and Rap1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:193-202 pubmed
    Abf1 and Rap1 are general regulatory factors (GRFs) that contribute to transcriptional activation of a large number of genes, as well as to replication, silencing and telomere structure in yeast...
  9. Yarragudi A, Miyake T, Li R, Morse R. Comparison of ABF1 and RAP1 in chromatin opening and transactivator potentiation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9152-64 pubmed
    Autonomously replicating sequence binding factor 1 (ABF1) and repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1) from budding yeast are multifunctional, site-specific DNA-binding proteins, with roles in gene activation and repression, replication, and ..

More Information


  1. Andrulis E, Zappulla D, Ansari A, Perrod S, Laiosa C, Gartenberg M, et al. Esc1, a nuclear periphery protein required for Sir4-based plasmid anchoring and partitioning. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8292-301 pubmed
    ..yeast proteins that, when tethered to a telomere, suppress a telomeric silencing defect caused by truncation of Rap1. A previously uncharacterized protein, Esc1 (establishes silent chromatin), was recovered, in addition to well-..
  2. Zhang W, Zhang J, Zhang X, Xu C, Tu X. Solution structure of Rap1 BRCT domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a novel fold. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:1055-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Rap1 (repressor-activator protein 1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, containing a BRCT domain at its N-terminus, is a multifunctional protein that controls telomere function, silencing, and the activation of glycolytic and ribosomal ..
  3. Negrini S, Ribaud V, Bianchi A, Shore D. DNA breaks are masked by multiple Rap1 binding in yeast: implications for telomere capping and telomerase regulation. Genes Dev. 2007;21:292-302 pubmed
    ..examining events at DNA breaks generated adjacent to either natural telomeric sequences (TG repeats) or arrays of Rap1-binding sites that vary in length...
  4. Sabourin M, Tuzon C, Zakian V. Telomerase and Tel1p preferentially associate with short telomeres in S. cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2007;27:550-61 pubmed
    ..Tel1p binding was dependent on Xrs2p and required for preferential binding of telomerase to short telomeres. These data suggest that Tel1p targets telomerase to the DNA ends most in need of extension...
  5. Marcand S, Gilson E, Shore D. A protein-counting mechanism for telomere length regulation in yeast. Science. 1997;275:986-90 pubmed
  6. Vodenicharov M, Laterreur N, Wellinger R. Telomere capping in non-dividing yeast cells requires Yku and Rap1. EMBO J. 2010;29:3007-19 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Yku and Rap1 become crucially important for this function in these cells...
  7. Papai G, Tripathi M, Ruhlmann C, Layer J, Weil P, Schultz P. TFIIA and the transactivator Rap1 cooperate to commit TFIID for transcription initiation. Nature. 2010;465:956-60 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine the architecture of nucleoprotein complexes composed of TFIID, TFIIA, the transcriptional activator Rap1 and yeast enhancer-promoter DNA...
  8. Mizuno T, Kishimoto T, Shinzato T, Haw R, Chambers A, Wood J, et al. Role of the N-terminal region of Rap1p in the transcriptional activation of glycolytic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2004;21:851-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that one function of the N-terminal region of Rap1p, presumably the BRCT domain, is to facilitate the binding of Gcr1p to the promoter by a protein-protein interaction. ..
  9. Marcand S, Pardo B, Gratias A, Cahun S, Callebaut I. Multiple pathways inhibit NHEJ at telomeres. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rap1 protein directly binds the telomere sequences and is required for NHEJ inhibition...
  10. Feeser E, Wolberger C. Structural and functional studies of the Rap1 C-terminus reveal novel separation-of-function mutants. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:520-31 pubmed publisher
    The yeast Rap1 protein plays an important role in transcriptional silencing and in telomere length homeostasis...
  11. Williams T, Levy D, Maki Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Blackburn E. Characterization of the yeast telomere nucleoprotein core: Rap1 binds independently to each recognition site. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35814-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres is an array of tandem telomeric DNA repeats bound site-specifically by multiple Rap1 molecules...
  12. Schawalder S, Kabani M, Howald I, Choudhury U, Werner M, Shore D. Growth-regulated recruitment of the essential yeast ribosomal protein gene activator Ifh1. Nature. 2004;432:1058-61 pubmed
    ..b>Rap1 (refs 6, 7) and more recently Fhl1 (ref. 8) were shown to bind upstream of many RP genes...
  13. Rudra D, Zhao Y, Warner J. Central role of Ifh1p-Fhl1p interaction in the synthesis of yeast ribosomal proteins. EMBO J. 2005;24:533-42 pubmed
    ..Homeostatic mechanisms within the cell respond by reducing the transcription of rRNA to match the output of RPs, and by reducing the global transcription of mRNA to match the capacity of the translational apparatus. ..
  14. Kasahara K, Ohtsuki K, Ki S, Aoyama K, Takahashi H, Kobayashi T, et al. Assembly of regulatory factors on rRNA and ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6686-705 pubmed
    ..This study uses genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation to study the roles of HMO1, FHL1, and RAP1 in transcription of these genes as well as other RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes in yeast...
  15. Ganapathi M, Palumbo M, Ansari S, He Q, Tsui K, Nislow C, et al. Extensive role of the general regulatory factors, Abf1 and Rap1, in determining genome-wide chromatin structure in budding yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2032-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use high resolution tiling arrays to examine the contributions of two general regulatory factors, Abf1 and Rap1, to nucleosome occupancy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  16. Lieb J, Liu X, Botstein D, Brown P. Promoter-specific binding of Rap1 revealed by genome-wide maps of protein-DNA association. Nat Genet. 2001;28:327-34 pubmed
    We determined the distribution of repressor-activator protein 1 (Rap1) and the accessory silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4 in vivo on the entire yeast genome, at a resolution of 2 kb...
  17. Chen Y, Rai R, Zhou Z, Kanoh J, Ribeyre C, Yang Y, et al. A conserved motif within RAP1 has diversified roles in telomere protection and regulation in different organisms. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:213-21 pubmed publisher
    Repressor activator protein 1 (RAP1) is the most highly conserved telomere protein...
  18. Pardo B, Marcand S. Rap1 prevents telomere fusions by nonhomologous end joining. EMBO J. 2005;24:3117-27 pubmed
    Telomeres protect chromosomes from end-to-end fusions. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein Rap1 directly binds telomeric DNA...
  19. Moretti P, Freeman K, Coodly L, Shore D. Evidence that a complex of SIR proteins interacts with the silencer and telomere-binding protein RAP1. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2257-69 pubmed
    ..show that SIR3 and SIR4 interact with a carboxy-terminal domain of the silencer, telomere, and UAS-binding protein RAP1. We identified SIR3 and SIR4 in a two-hybrid screen for RAP1-interacting factors and showed that SIR3 interacts ..
  20. Wotton D, Shore D. A novel Rap1p-interacting factor, Rif2p, cooperates with Rif1p to regulate telomere length in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1997;11:748-60 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rap1 protein binds with high affinity to sites within the poly(C(1-3)A) tracts at telomeres, where it plays a role in both telomere length regulation and the initiation of telomeric silencing...
  21. Devlin C, Tice Baldwin K, Shore D, Arndt K. RAP1 is required for BAS1/BAS2- and GCN4-dependent transcription of the yeast HIS4 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:3642-51 pubmed
    The major in vitro binding activity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HIS4 promoter is due to the RAP1 protein...
  22. Hardy C, Sussel L, Shore D. A RAP1-interacting protein involved in transcriptional silencing and telomere length regulation. Genes Dev. 1992;6:801-14 pubmed
    The yeast RAP1 protein is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that functions as both a repressor and an activator of transcription...
  23. Tornow J, Zeng X, Gao W, Santangelo G. GCR1, a transcriptional activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, complexes with RAP1 and can function without its DNA binding domain. EMBO J. 1993;12:2431-7 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae, efficient expression of glycolytic and translational component genes requires two DNA binding proteins, RAP1 (which binds to UASRPG) and GCR1 (which binds to the CT box)...
  24. Sussel L, Shore D. Separation of transcriptional activation and silencing functions of the RAP1-encoded repressor/activator protein 1: isolation of viable mutants affecting both silencing and telomere length. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:7749-53 pubmed
    The repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1) binds to the upstream activating sites of many genes, the silencer elements flanking the unexpressed mating-type loci HMR and HML, and the poly(C1-3A) sequences at telomeres, suggesting that RAP1 ..
  25. Garbett K, Tripathi M, Cencki B, Layer J, Weil P. Yeast TFIID serves as a coactivator for Rap1p by direct protein-protein interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:297-311 pubmed
    ..In vitro transcription of a UAS(RAP1) enhancer-driven reporter gene requires both Rap1p and TFIID and is independent of the Fhl1p-Ifh1p coregulator...
  26. Goto G, Zencir S, Hirano Y, Ogi H, Ivessa A, Sugimoto K. Binding of Multiple Rap1 Proteins Stimulates Chromosome Breakage Induction during DNA Replication. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005283 pubmed publisher
    ..In budding yeast Rap1 protein binds to telomeric TG repeat and negatively regulates telomere length...
  27. Ben Aroya S, Mieczkowski P, Petes T, Kupiec M. The compact chromatin structure of a Ty repeated sequence suppresses recombination hotspot activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2004;15:221-31 pubmed
    ..The compact chromatin structure is determined by sequences at the N terminus of the Ty. Increased binding of the Rap1 protein to the hotspot restores both open chromatin conformation and DSB formation...
  28. Ji H, Adkins C, Cartwright B, Friedman K. Yeast Est2p affects telomere length by influencing association of Rap1p with telomeric chromatin. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Est2p can directly or indirectly influence the binding of Rap1p to telomeric DNA, implicating telomerase in roles both upstream and downstream of Rap1p in telomere length homeostasis...
  29. Fukunaga K, Hirano Y, Sugimoto K. Subtelomere-binding protein Tbf1 and telomere-binding protein Rap1 collaborate to inhibit localization of the Mre11 complex to DNA ends in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:347-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In budding yeast, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex associates with DNA ends and promotes checkpoint activation. Rap1 binds to double-stranded telomeric regions and recruits Rif1 and Rif2 to telomeres...
  30. Liu C, Lustig A. Genetic analysis of Rap1p/Sir3p interactions in telomeric and HML silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;143:81-93 pubmed
    ..Each SIR3 suppressor was also capable of suppressing a rap1 allele (rap1-21), which deletes the 28 aa C-terminal tail domain, but none of the suppressors restored telometric ..
  31. Izbicka E, Barnes L, Robinson A, Davidson K, Lawrence R, Hannibal G. Alterations in DNA repair and telomere maintenance mechanism affect response to porphyrins in yeast. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:1899-903 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of telomere binding protein Rap1 hypersensitized the mec1delta and tel1delta to TMPyP4...
  32. Wiley E, Zakian V. Extra telomeres, but not internal tracts of telomeric DNA, reduce transcriptional repression at Saccharomyces telomeres. Genetics. 1995;139:67-79 pubmed
    ..The product of the RAP1 gene, Rap1p, is a component of the telosome...
  33. Hang L, Liu X, Cheung I, Yang Y, Zhao X. SUMOylation regulates telomere length homeostasis by targeting Cdc13. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:920-6 pubmed publisher
  34. Mattarocci S, Shyian M, Lemmens L, Damay P, Altintas D, Shi T, et al. Rif1 controls DNA replication timing in yeast through the PP1 phosphatase Glc7. Cell Rep. 2014;7:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus link Rif1 to negative regulation of replication origin firing through recruitment of the Glc7 phosphatase. ..
  35. Knutson B, Hahn S. Domains of Tra1 important for activator recruitment and transcription coactivator functions of SAGA and NuA4 complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:818-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Tra1 recruitment at Gcn4-dependent and Rap1-dependent promoters requires the same regions of Tra1 and that separate regions of Tra1 contribute to the HAT ..
  36. Clement M, Deshaies F, de Repentigny L, Belhumeur P. The nuclear GTPase Gsp1p can affect proper telomeric function through the Sir4 protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:453-68 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Gsp1p was found to interact genetically and physically with the telomeric component Sir4p. Taken together, these results suggest that the GSP1 pathway could regulate proper telomeric function in yeast through Sir4p. ..
  37. Giraldo R, Rhodes D. The yeast telomere-binding protein RAP1 binds to and promotes the formation of DNA quadruplexes in telomeric DNA. EMBO J. 1994;13:2411-20 pubmed
    The protein RAP1 is essential for the maintenance of the telomeres of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and binds in vitro to multiple sites found within the TG1-3 telomeric repeats...
  38. Gilson E, Roberge M, Giraldo R, Rhodes D, Gasser S. Distortion of the DNA double helix by RAP1 at silencers and multiple telomeric binding sites. J Mol Biol. 1993;231:293-310 pubmed
    Repressor Activator Protein 1 (RAP1) is an essential nuclear protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that recognizes a 13 base-pair (bp) consensus sequence found in numerous upstream activating sequences, at the silencers of ..
  39. Hanna J, Kroll E, Lundblad V, Spencer F. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTF18 and CTF4 are required for sister chromatid cohesion. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3144-58 pubmed
    ..The requirement for CTF4 and CTF18 in robust cohesion identifies novel roles for replication accessory proteins in this process. ..
  40. Laporte D, Courtout F, Tollis S, Sagot I. Quiescent Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms telomere hyperclusters at the nuclear membrane vicinity through a multifaceted mechanism involving Esc1, the Sir complex, and chromatin condensation. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:1875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we establish that telomere hypercluster formation is not necessary for quiescence establishment, maintenance, and exit, raising the question of the physiological raison d'être of this nuclear reorganization. ..
  41. Azad G, Singh V, Baranwal S, Thakare M, Tomar R. The transcription factor Rap1p is required for tolerance to cell-wall perturbing agents and for cell-wall maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed that the N-terminal truncation of Rap1p (Rap1ΔN) leads to hypersensitivity towards elevated temperature and cell-wall perturbing agents...
  42. Layer J, Weil P. Direct TFIIA-TFIID protein contacts drive budding yeast ribosomal protein gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23273-94 pubmed publisher
    ..protein-encoding genes (RPGs) by making direct contact with the transactivator repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1)...
  43. Roy N, Runge K. The ZDS1 and ZDS2 proteins require the Sir3p component of yeast silent chromatin to enhance the stability of short linear centromeric plasmids. Chromosoma. 1999;108:146-61 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that short YACs can be stabilized by trans-acting factors and suggest that the proteins encoded by ZDS1 and ZDS2 alter short YAC stability by interacting with proteins that function at the telomere. ..
  44. Brickner J, Walter P. Gene recruitment of the activated INO1 locus to the nuclear membrane. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e342 pubmed
    ..Gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery, therefore, is a dynamic process and appears to play an important regulatory role. ..
  45. Chymkowitch P, Nguéa A, Aanes H, Koehler C, Thiede B, Lorenz S, et al. Sumoylation of Rap1 mediates the recruitment of TFIID to promote transcription of ribosomal protein genes. Genome Res. 2015;25:897-906 pubmed publisher
    ..that the Sumo consensus motif at RPG promoters is identical to the DNA binding motif of the transcription factor Rap1. We demonstrate that Rap1 is a molecular target of Sumo and that sumoylation of Rap1 is important for cell ..
  46. Wotton D, Freeman K, Shore D. Multimerization of Hsp42p, a novel heat shock protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is dependent on a conserved carboxyl-terminal sequence. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2717-23 pubmed
    ..Fractionation of yeast protein extracts by size demonstrates that all of the Hsp42p in these extracts is present in complexes with a molecular mass of greater than 200 kDa, suggesting that Hsp42p exists in high molecular mass complexes. ..
  47. Proft M, Struhl K. MAP kinase-mediated stress relief that precedes and regulates the timing of transcriptional induction. Cell. 2004;118:351-61 pubmed
  48. Matot B, Le Bihan Y, Lescasse R, Perez J, Miron S, David G, et al. The orientation of the C-terminal domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rap1 protein is determined by its binding to DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3197-207 pubmed publisher
    b>Rap1 is an essential DNA-binding factor from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in transcription and telomere maintenance...
  49. Laman H, Balderes D, Shore D. Disturbance of normal cell cycle progression enhances the establishment of transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3608-17 pubmed
    Previous studies have indicated that mutation of RAP1 (rap1s) or of the HMR-E silencer ARS consensus element leads to metastable repression of HMR...
  50. Platt J, Ryvkin P, Wanat J, Donahue G, Ricketts M, Barrett S, et al. Rap1 relocalization contributes to the chromatin-mediated gene expression profile and pace of cell senescence. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1406-20 pubmed publisher
    ..tlc1?) to model senescence, we found that with critical telomere shortening, the telomere-binding protein Rap1 (repressor activator protein 1) relocalizes to the upstream promoter regions of hundreds of new target genes...
  51. Li P, Shao Y, Jin H, Yu H. Ndj1, a telomere-associated protein, regulates centrosome separation in budding yeast meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2015;209:247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the underlying mechanism that coordinates yeast centrosome dynamics with meiotic telomere movement and cell cycle progression. ..
  52. Feldmann E, Galletto R. The DNA-binding domain of yeast Rap1 interacts with double-stranded DNA in multiple binding modes. Biochemistry. 2014;53:7471-83 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae repressor-activator protein 1 (Rap1) is an essential protein involved in multiple steps of DNA regulation, as an activator in transcription, as a repressor at silencer elements, and as a major component of the ..
  53. Joo Y, Kim J, Baek J, Seong K, Lee J, Kim J. Determination of the core promoter regions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPS3 gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1789:741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results further the current understanding of the promoter architecture and trans-elements of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPS3 gene. ..
  54. De Sanctis V, La Terra S, Bianchi A, Shore D, Burderi L, Di Mauro E, et al. In vivo topography of Rap1p-DNA complex at Saccharomyces cerevisiae TEF2 UAS(RPG) during transcriptional regulation. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:333-49 pubmed
    We have analyzed in detail the structure of RAP1-UAS(RPG) complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using multi-hit KMnO(4), UV and micrococcal nuclease high-resolution footprinting...
  55. Tomar R, Zheng S, Brunke Reese D, Wolcott H, Reese J. Yeast Rap1 contributes to genomic integrity by activating DNA damage repair genes. EMBO J. 2008;27:1575-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Rap1 (repressor-activator protein 1) is a multifunctional protein that controls telomere function, silencing and the activation of glycolytic and ribosomal protein genes...
  56. Liu C, Mao X, Lustig A. Mutational analysis defines a C-terminal tail domain of RAP1 essential for Telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1994;138:1025-40 pubmed
    Alleles specifically defective in telomeric silencing were generated by in vitro mutagenesis of the yeast RAP1 gene. The most severe phenotypes occur with three mutations in the C-terminal 28 amino acids...
  57. Shi T, Bunker R, Mattarocci S, Ribeyre C, Faty M, Gut H, et al. Rif1 and Rif2 shape telomere function and architecture through multivalent Rap1 interactions. Cell. 2013;153:1340-53 pubmed publisher
    Yeast telomeres comprise irregular TG??? DNA repeats bound by the general transcription factor Rap1. Rif1 and Rif2, along with Rap1, form the telosome, a protective cap that inhibits telomerase, counteracts SIR-mediated transcriptional ..
  58. Le Bihan Y, Matot B, Piétrement O, Giraud Panis M, Gasparini S, Le Cam E, et al. Effect of Rap1 binding on DNA distortion and potassium permanganate hypersensitivity. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:409-19 pubmed publisher
    Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is an essential factor involved in transcription and telomere stability in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  59. Harari Y, Kupiec M. Mec1ATR is needed for extensive telomere elongation in response to ethanol in yeast. Curr Genet. 2018;64:223-234 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, exposure to ethanol induces an extensive telomere elongation response due to a reduction in RAP1 mRNA and protein levels...
  60. Bendjennat M, Weil P. The transcriptional repressor activator protein Rap1p is a direct regulator of TATA-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8699-710 pubmed publisher
    ..TBP-Rap1p complex formation inhibits TBP binding to TATA promoter DNA. Alterations in either Rap1p or TBP levels modulate mRNA gene transcription in vivo. We propose that Rap1p represents a heretofore unrecognized regulator of TBP. ..
  61. Yu Q, Qiu R, Foland T, Griesen D, Galloway C, Chiu Y, et al. Rap1p and other transcriptional regulators can function in defining distinct domains of gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:1224-33 pubmed
    ..Moreover, targeting the activation domain of Adr1p or Gcn4p also establishes a barrier to silencing. These results support the notion that transcriptional regulators could also participate in delimiting functional domains in the genome. ..
  62. Lopez M, Smerage J, Baker H. Multiple domains of repressor activator protein 1 contribute to facilitated binding of glycolysis regulatory protein 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14112-7 pubmed
    ..DNA.Gcr1p complexes was inhibited by all but the DNA-binding domain of Rap1p itself; however, the ability of each individual protein to bind the DNA probe was unaffected. ..
  63. Mallick J, Whiteway M. The evolutionary rewiring of the ribosomal protein transcription pathway modifies the interaction of transcription factor heteromer Ifh1-Fhl1 (interacts with forkhead 1-forkhead-like 1) with the DNA-binding specificity element. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17508-19 pubmed publisher
    ..evolved circuit in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), the generalist repressor-activator protein Rap1 now directs the Ifh1-Fhl1 module to the ribosomal protein genes...
  64. Bregman A, Avraham Kelbert M, Barkai O, Duek L, Guterman A, Choder M. Promoter elements regulate cytoplasmic mRNA decay. Cell. 2011;147:1473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, promoters can play key roles in determining mRNA levels and have the capacity to coordinate rates of mRNA synthesis and decay. ..
  65. Layer J, Miller S, Weil P. Direct transactivator-transcription factor IID (TFIID) contacts drive yeast ribosomal protein gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:15489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription of yeast ribosomal protein genes requires TFIID and the DNA-binding transactivator Rap1. We have previously shown that Rap1 directly binds to the TFIID complex through interaction with its TATA-binding ..
  66. Rudra D, Mallick J, Zhao Y, Warner J. Potential interface between ribosomal protein production and pre-rRNA processing. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4815-24 pubmed
    ..of the total transcription by RNA polymerase II, is controlled by the interaction of three transcription factors, Rap1, Fhl1, and Ifh1. Of these, only Rap1 binds directly to DNA and only Ifh1 is absent when transcription is repressed...
  67. Hecht A, Strahl Bolsinger S, Grunstein M. Spreading of transcriptional repressor SIR3 from telomeric heterochromatin. Nature. 1996;383:92-6 pubmed
    ..The trans-acting factors RAP1, SIR3 and SIR4 are required for telomeric and HM silencing, and are thought to be chromosomal, but how they ..
  68. Moazed D, Kistler A, Axelrod A, Rine J, Johnson A. Silent information regulator protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a SIR2/SIR4 complex and evidence for a regulatory domain in SIR4 that inhibits its interaction with SIR3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2186-91 pubmed
    ..We observed direct interactions between SIR4 and SIR2, SIR4 and SIR3, SIR2 and SIR3, SIR2 and SIR2, and SIR4 and SIR4, indicating that the associations observed in yeast extracts were direct. ..
  69. Cockell M, Palladino F, Laroche T, Kyrion G, Liu C, Lustig A, et al. The carboxy termini of Sir4 and Rap1 affect Sir3 localization: evidence for a multicomponent complex required for yeast telomeric silencing. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:909-24 pubmed
    The Silent Information Regulatory proteins, Sir3 and Sir4, and the telomeric repeat-binding protein RAP1 are required for the chromatin-mediated gene repression observed at yeast telomeric regions...
  70. Fujiwara D, Kobayashi O, Yoshimoto H, Harashima S, Tamai Y. Molecular mechanism of the multiple regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATF1 gene encoding alcohol acetyltransferase. Yeast. 1999;15:1183-97 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a study of ATF1 expression in a sch9 null mutant suggested that the Sch9p protein kinase is involved in ATF1 trancriptional activation. ..
  71. Bonetti D, Clerici M, Anbalagan S, Martina M, Lucchini G, Longhese M. Shelterin-like proteins and Yku inhibit nucleolytic processing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000966 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae shelterin-like proteins Rif1, Rif2, and Rap1 inhibit nucleolytic processing at both de novo and native telomeres during G1 and G2 cell cycle phases, with Rif2 ..